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95 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
protein shell that encloses a viral genome
capsid
membrane that cloaks the capsid that in turn encloses a viral genome
viral envelope
virus that infects bacteria
phage
limited range of host cells that each type of virus can infect and parasitize
host range
type of viral replication cycle resulting in the release of new phages by death or lysis of the host cell
lytic cycle
virus that reproduces only by a lytic cycle
virulent phage
phage that is capable of using either the lytic or lysogenic cycles
temperate phage
phage genome that has been inserted into a specific site on the bacterial chromosome
prophage
viral genome becomes incorporated into the bacterial host chromosome as a prophage and does not kill the host
lysogenic cycke
viral DNA that inserts into a host genome
provirus
RNA virus that reproduces by transcribing its RNA into DNA and then inserting the DNA into a cellular chromosome
retrovirus
enzyme that uses RNA as a template for DNA synthesis
reverse transcriptase
harmless variant or derivative of a pathogen that stimulates a host’s immune system to mount defenses against the pathogen
vaccine
code for proteins that affect he cell cycle (ex: growth factors)
proto-oncogene
directly involved in triggering cancerous characteristics in cells
oncogene
plant infected from external source of virus
horizontal transmission
plant inherits viral infection from parent
vertical transmission
tiny molecules of naked circular RNA that infect plants
viroids
infectious form of protein that may increase in number by converting related proteins to more ____s
prion
dense region of DNA in a bacteria not bounded by membrane
nucleoid
alteration of a bacterial cell’s genome by uptake of naked foreign DNA
transformation
phages carry bacterial genes from one host cell to another
transduction
random transfer of bacterial genes from one bacterium to another
generalized transduction
transfers only certain genes near prophage site on bacterial chromosome
specialized transduction
direct transfer of genetic material between two bacterial cells that are temporarily joined
conjugation
DNA segment that confers the ability to form pili for conjugation and associated functions required for the transfer of DNA from donor to recipient
F factor
small, circular self replicating DNA molecule separate from the bacterial chromosome
plasmid
genetic element that can exist either as a plasmid or as part of the bacterial chromosome
episome
the F factor and its plasmid that has genes of which most are required for production of sex pili
F plasmid
bacterial plasmid carrying genes that confer resistance to certain antibiotics
R plasmid
piece of DNA that can move from one location to another in a cell’s genome
transposon
simplest bacterial transposons that consist of only the DNA necessary for the act of transposition
insertion sequences
noncoding sequences about 20 to 40 nucleotides long
inverted repeats
flank a transposon in its new site
direct repeats
transposons more complex than insertion sequences that include extra genes
composite transposon
sequence of nucleotides near the start of an operon to which an active repressor can attach
operator
unit of genetic function common in bacteria and phages, consisting of coordinately regulated clusters of genes with related functions
operon
protein that binds to the operator and blocks attachment of RNA polymerase to the promoter; prevents transcription of genes
repressor
gene that codes fro a protein that controls the transcription of another gene or group of genes
regulatory gene
small molecule that cooperates with a repressor protein to switch an operon off
corepressor
inactivates repressor
inducer
molecule made from ATP that is a common intracellular signaling molecule in eukaryotes
cAMP
regulatory protein that directly stimulates gene expression
cAMP receptor protein
recognized and cut up foreign DNA, including certain phage DNA
restriction nuclease
protein subunits capsid is built from
capsomeres
What kind of organisms are bacteria?
prokaryotic
Who found that the substance causing tobacco mosaic disease was an unusually small bacteria or perhaps a toxin?
Mayer and Ivanovsky
Who found that the substance causing tobacco mosaic disease could reproduce but only in the plant?
Beigerinck
Who finally isolated the substance causing tobacco mosaic disease by crystallizing it?
Stanley
What are invectious particles consisting of nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat?
viruses
What are obligate intracellular parasites? critters that cannot ____
reproduce without host
What is a viral envelope made of?
host's membrane
What begins when the genome of the virus enters the host cell?
viral infection
What on the envelope bind to specific receptors on the host's membrane?
glycoproteins
What remains latent within the nucleus until triggered by physical or emotional stress to leave the genome and initiate active viral production?
provirus
Who is the viral DNA molecule incorporated during the lysogenic cycle into a specific site on the host cell's chromosome?
genetic recombination
What three things can the genome of RNA viruses serve as?
mRNA
template for mRAN
template for DNA
What results from the host's immune response to viruses?
temporary symptoms
What kind of viruses transform cells by integrating into the host DNA?
tumor
The emergence of new wiral diseases is dur to three processes:
mutation
spread of existing viruses from one species to another
dissemination of viral disease from small isolated population
Whose genome is ds, circular DNA?
bacteria
How do bacteria divide?
binary fission
Give another name for some transposons.
jumping genes
The transposon replicates at its origin site and a copy insets elsewhere during:
replicative transposition
The two types of transposons are:
insertion sequences
compositie transposons
Who is the viral DNA molecule incorporated during the lysogenic cycle into a specific site on the host cell's chromosome?
genetic recombination
What three things can the genome of RNA viruses serve as?
mRNA
template for mRAN
template for DNA
What results from the host's immune response to viruses?
temporary symptoms
What kind of viruses transform cells by integrating into the host DNA?
tumor
The emergence of new wiral diseases is dur to three processes:
mutation
spread of existing viruses from one species to another
dissemination of viral disease from small isolated population
Whose genome is ds, circular DNA?
bacteria
How do bacteria divide?
binary fission
Give another name for some transposons.
jumping genes
The transposon replicates at its origin site and a copy insets elsewhere during:
replicative transposition
The two types of transposons are:
insertion sequences
compositie transposons
What causes mutations when they happen to land within the coding sequence of a gene or within a DNA region that regulates gene expression?
insertion sequences
What recognizes the inverted reeats as the edges of the transposon?
transposase
What cuts the transposon from its initial site and insets it into the target site?
transposase
What fills in the gaps in the DNA strands?
DNA polymerase
What seals the old and new material after DNA polymerase filsl in the gaps in the DNA strangs?
DNA ligase
What type of transposons may help bacteria adapt to new environemtns?
composite transposons
Who inversitgated cahnges in the color of corn kernels?
McClintock
Control of gene expression in bacteria is an example of _____.
negative feedback
How can you respond to changes other than recombining with another bacteria?
change concentration of enzyme
adjust activity of enzymes
Who proposed the operon model for the control of gene expression in bacteria?
Jacob and Monod
region where RNA polymerase first bings
promoter
Which type of operon is by default on?
repressible operon
The number of active repressor molecules available determines the on and off mode of the ___.
operator
What is stimulated when a specific small molecule interacts with a regulatory protein?
inducible operon
Repressible exnzymes generally function in which type of pathway, synthesizing end products?
anabolic
Inducible enzymes usually function in which type of pathway, digesting nutrients to simpler molecules?
catabolic
Both repressibel and inducible operons demonstrate ____ control.
negative
What occurs when an activator molecule interacts directly with the genome to switch transcription on?
positive gene control
The cellular metabolism is biases toward the utilization of ____.
glucose
Overall energy levels in the cell determine the level of _____ through crp.
transcription