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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Describe body of typical vertebra
-short cylinder, SUPPORTS WEIGHT, separated and also bound together by INTERVERTEBRAL DISCS, forming the CARTILAGINOUS JOINTS
Describe vertebral arch
-consists of paired PEDICLES laterally and paired LAMINAE posteriorly
-forms vertebral foramen with vertebral body and protects spinal cord and associated structures
Describe processes associated with vertebral arch
SPINOUS PROCESS - projects posteriorly from junction of two laminae, bifid in cervical, spine like in thoracic and oblong in lumbar region
TRANSVERSE PROCESS- project laterally from junction of pedicle and lamina
ARTICULAR PROCESSES - projections from junction of pedicles and lamina, project superiorly and inferiorly, articulate with other articular processes
Vertebral foramina
-formed by vertebral bodies and vertebral arches
-form VERTEBRAL CANAL and transmit SPINAL CORD and meninges
Intervertebral foramina
-located between superior and inferior surfaces of pedicles of adjacent vertebra
-transmit SPINAL NERVES
Transverse foramina
-present in transverse processes of cervical vertebrae
-transmit vertebral ARTERY, veins and autonomic nerves
Which regions have triangular spinal canal?
Cervical and lumbar
Which regions have round spinal canals?
Thoracic
Which vertebrae have spinous processes that project inferiorly?
Thoracic
Which vertebrae have bifid spinous processes
Cervical
Which vertebrae have costal facets
Thoracic
Which verebrae have transverse foramina? What goes there?
Cervical, vertebral artery
Identify structures that pass through various sacral foramina?
Anterior sacral foramina transmit ventral primary rami of first four sacral nerves
Posterior sacral foramina transmit dorsal rami.
Describe articulation between vertebral bodies? ID joint
Joints of vertebral bodies are SYMPHYSES designed for weight bearing and strength. Articulating surfaces connected by IV discs
Is there an IV disc between every body of a vertebra
NO, there is NO IV disc between C1 and C2
Most inferior one is between L5 and S1
Describe articulation between vertebral arches? ID joint
Joints of vertebral arches are ZYGAPOPHYSIAL joints.
They are SYNOVIAL PLANE joints, permit GLIDING movements
Limit rotation in LUMBAR region
Oriented in CORONAL plane in cervical column
Describe ANTERIOR LONGITUDINAL ligament
ANTERIOR LONGITUDINAL - runs from occipital bone to sacrum on anterior surface of vertebral bodies and IV discs, narrowest at the upper end but WIDENS AS DESCENDS, maintaining stability
LIMITS EXTENSION of vertebral column, SUPPORTS ANNULUS FIBROSUS anteriorly and resists gravitational pull
Describe POSTERIOR LONGITUDINAL ligament
-interconnects vertebral bodies and IV discs posteriorly and NARROWS as it descends
-SUPPORTS posterior aspect of VERTEBRAL BODIES and ANNULUS FIBROSUS
LIMITS FLEXION of vertebral column and resists gravitaional pull
Describe LIGAMENTUM FLAVUM
-Connects LAMINAE of two adjacent vertebrae and functions to MAINTAIN UPRIGHT POSTURE
-can be pierced during LUMBAR PUNCTURE
Describe NUCHAL LIGAMENT
Its a TRIANGULAR SHAPED MEDIAN FIBROUS SEPTUM between muscles on two sides of posterior neck.
Formed by THICKENED SUPRASPINOUS LIGAMENTS that extend from C7 to external occipital protuberance, also attached to posterior tubercle of atlas and spinous processes of other vertebrae
Which ligament limits hyperextension of the vertebral column
Posterior longitudinal ligament
Describe medial atlantoaxial joint
There are two LATERAL atlantoaxial joints between lateral masses of C1 and superior facets of C2
There is ONE median atlantoaxial joint between dens of C2 and anterior arch and transverse ligament of atlas.
Its a PIVOT joint, while lateral are gliding SYNOVIAL joints
Movement of all three joints permits to do "no" motion of the head
Describe arterial supply of vertebral column
Vertebrae are supplied by PERIOSTEAL and EQUATORIAL branches of major cervical and segmental arterie and their spinal branches
Identify components and describe drainage of Batsons vertebral venous plexus
Its a thin walled VALVELESS venous plexus. Provides pathway for tumor cells to spread from pelvic, abdominal and thoracic viscera to vertbrae, spinal cord and brain. Cancer of prostate, lung or breast can metastasize to brain via verterbral venoud plexus. Also provides pathway for spreading infection
Describe superficial back muscles, origin, insertion, action
SUPERFICIAL EXTRINSIC BACK MUSCLES are trapezius, lat dorsi, rhomboids and levator scapulae - they connect upper limbs to trunk, they are innervated by anterior rami of cervical nerves and act on upper limb. Trapezius gets innervated by CNXI
Intermediate extrinsic back muscles are serratus posterior superior and inferior, those are thin muscles, commonly called respiratory muscles
DEEP back muscles extend from cranium to pelvis
Describe superficial layer of deep back muscles
SPLENIUS MUSCLES are thick and flat, and lie on posterior and lateral aspects of neck. They arise at midline and extend superolaterally to cervical vertebrae (CERVICIS) and cranium (CAPITIS).
They cover and hold deep neck muscles in position
Describe erector spinae muscles
They lie in a groove on each side of vertebral column between spinous processes and angles of ribs. Common origin- POSTERIOR PART OF ILIAC CREST, POSTERIOR SACRUM, SACROILIAC LIGAMENTS, INFERIOR LUMBAR PROCESSES
Desribe and name transversospinal muscles
Semispinalis, multifidus, rotatores. Originate from transverse processes of vertebrae and pass to SPINOUS PROCESSES of superior vertebrae
highest concentration of proprioceptive fibers which provide feedback that maintains proper spinal allignment
Name intersegmental muscles
INTERSPINALES, LEVATORES COSTARUM, INTERTRANSVERSARII
Identify boundaries of suboccipital triangle
Bound medially by rectus capitis posterior major, laterally by obliquis capitis superior and inferiorly by obliquis capitis inferior, roof is formed by semispinalis capitis and longissimus capitis
contains VERTEBRAL ARTERY, SUBOCCIPITAL NERVE and vessels
Which muscle has greatest direct effect on rotation of vertebral column
semispinalis
Which muscle is most developed in lumbar region
multifidus
Vessels supplying body also supply spinal cord - true/false?
True
The eye of the scotty dog on lumbar oblique film is
pedicle
What do all muscles of superficial back have in common
attach scapula to vertebral column