Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/103

Click to flip

103 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 3 main functions of a skeleton?
Support, protection and movement.
Crabs and lobsters have what sort of skeleton?
An exoskeleton.
Animals that have an endoskeleton are called ...?
Vertebrates.
The main parts of a vertebrate skeleton are ...?
Skull, backbone, rib-cage, limbs and limb girdles.
These 33 bones make up the backbone.
Vertebrae.
These occur where two bones meet and usually allow movement.
Joints.
Give two examples of synovial joints.
Hinge joints and ball-and-socket joints.
Bones are held together by these.
Ligaments.
Muscles are connected to bones by these.
Tendons.
What is the function of synovial fluid?
Lubricates the joint making movement easy.
This tissue acts as a shock-absorber and prevents two bones rubbing together.
Cartilage.
What is an antagonistic pair of muscles?
Muscles that work in pairs like the biceps and triceps. When one contracts the other relaxes.
A muscle is made up of hundreds of these structures that shorten when the muscle contracts.
Muscle fibres.
A disease that causes friction at the joints by destroyng cartilage.
Arthritis.
Put these sports injuries in order starting with the least serious: fracture, sprain, dislocation.
Sprain, dislocation, fracture.
Name an organism that has no circulatory system.
Amoeba, flatworm.
In a closed system blood flows in …?
Arteries, veins and capillaries.
A double circulatory system has …?
Two circuits from the heart.
What is the pulse a measure of ?
The heart beat/muscle contraction.
Where can the pulse be readily felt?
Wrist, ear, temple.
Which blood vessel supplies the heart muscle?
Coronary artery.
What group of cells control the heart rate?
Pacemaker cells.
How do these cells control the heart rate?
By producing a small electric current.
Name a technique used to investigate heart action.
ECG, echocardiogram.
Name the scientist who discovered the principles of the human circulatory system.
William Harvey.
The two groups of heart pacemaker cells are called the ..?.. and the ..?..
SAN and AVN.
Which hormone influences the heart rate?
Adrenaline.
A common treatment for an irregular heart rate is …?
An artificial pacemaker.
The two types of chamber in the heart are …?
Atria and ventricles.
Changes in heart rate are closely linked to …?
Exercise.
The liquid part of your blood is called ...?
The plasma.
The red pigment in red cells that carries oxygen.
Haemoglobin.
The two main types of white cell.
Phagocytes and lymphocytes.
The part of the blood responsible for forming a clot.
The platelets.
Name two heart conditions or diseases.
Hole in the heart, weak valves, coronary heart disease, irregular heart beat.
Name the four main human blood groups.
A, B, AB, and O
What are anti-coagulant drugs used for?
To reduce blood clotting inside the body.
What inherited condition causes blood clotting problems?
Haemophilia.
Which vitamin influences blood clotting?
Vitamin K.
Which common non-prescription drug can be used to control clotting?
Aspirin.
Name three lifestyle factors that can affect the circulatory system.
Smoking, alcohol, diet, stress.
Describe the shape of a red blood cell.
A biconcave disc.
How does the shape of a red blood cell help it to carry oxygen?
The cells have a large surface area to volume ratio, for absorption of oxygen.
What chemicals in red blood cells determine blood groups?
Antibodies called agglutinins.
What is the standard treatment for blocked coronary arteries?
Surgery.
These structures are found inside your thorax and are used for breathing.
Lungs.
This happens to air as it passes along our air passages.
It is warmed, moistened and cleaned.
The small air sacs that make up our lungs are called ...?
Alveoli.
Write down the pathway along which air passes from the larynx to the alveoli.
Larynx, trachea (windpipe), bronchus, bronchioles, alveoli.
Which structures protect the lungs?
The ribs and pleural membranes.
The muscles between the ribs are called the ...?
Intercostal muscles.
The sheet of muscle separating the thorax from the rest of the body that is important in breathing ...?
Diaphragm.
What happens to gases in the alveolus?
Oxygen diffuses through the wall of the alveolus into the blood. Carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood in the opposite direction.
What are the symptoms of asthma?
Inability to draw in enough breath.
Name a respiratory disease linked with life style issues.
Lung cancer, emphysema.
How are fish gills adapted to efficient gas exchange?
Rich blood supply, large surface area for gas exchange, capillaries exposed to water.
Why are the lungs prone to infection?
Because ‘the tubes’ are a ‘dead end’.
What is the residual volume in the lungs?
Air that remains in the respiratory system even after maximum expiration.
Name a lung disorder known as an industrial disease.
Asbestosis.
What equipment is used to measure lung capacities?
A spirometer.
Excess amino acids are broken down in the liver to form urea. This is called ...?
Deamination.
Your kidney is made up of thousands of tiny tubes called ...?
Nephrons.
The main excretory products removed from your body by the kidneys.
Urea and waste salts.
A hormone produced by the pituitary gland in your brain that tells your kidneys to reabsorb water.
ADH (antidiuretic hormone).
How does the skin react when it is hot?
Blood vessels at the skin surface dilate (widen) and more blood gets to the surface. Sweating increases.
The name of the structure in a kidney machine that can separate out waste chemicals from the blood ...?
A dialysis membrane.
How does sweating cool the body down?
Through evaporation of water from the skin.
Which part of the body detects increasing carbon dioxide levels?
The brain.
What is the response of the body to increasing carbon dioxide levels?
Increased rate and depth of breathing.
How does filtration occur in the kidney?
Under high pressure.
What factors affect the amount of urine?
Water intake, heat and exercise.
The two main components of the kidney filtration unit are …?
The glomerulus and Bowman’s capsule.
What type of mechanism controls ADH production?
Negative feedback.
Reabsorption in the kidney is described as …?
Selective.
As well as removing urea what else does dialysis aim to do?
Maintain sodium and glucose levels in the plasma.
Fertilisation refers to the fusion of …?
A sperm and an egg.
What occurs during the first few days of the menstrual cycle?
The lining of the uterus breaks down and a small amount of blood and cells pass out of the vagina. This is called menstruation (a period).
During the week or so following menstruation, what happens to the uterine wall?
It thickens.
Why is a thick uterine wall required?
To provide a suitable environment for implantation of the egg.
What is in vitro fertilisation?
Fertilisation outside the woman’s body in a laboratory.
Under what circumstances is surrogacy used in fertility treatment?
Where a woman is unable to carry a developing fetus.
What technique can be used to detect abnormalities in a fetus?
Amniocentesis.
What chromosomal abnormality is often detected by amniocentesis?
Down’s syndrome.
What gland in the brain instructs the testes and ovaries to produce the sex hormones?
The pituitary gland.
What is ovulation?
The release of an egg from the ovary.
Name three body parts that can be replaced by mechanical parts.
Hip joint, knee joint, kidney, heart, eye lens.
Name three body parts that can be replaced by transplant.
Heart, lungs, kidney, bone marrow, blood, cornea.
What problems are associated with organ donation/transplants?
Limited supply and rejection.
Why are immunosupressant drugs used in conjunction with transplants?
To reduce the chances of rejection.
Name two problems with mechanical replacement parts.
Power supply, size, materials and body reactions.
New cells for growth result from …?
Mitosis.
Animal growth occurs early in life but plants grow …?
Continuously.
Plant growth is from special areas called …?
Meristems.
In what two ways can we measure growth?
Increase in mass or height.
Name three factors that can affect final height and mass in humans.
Genes, diet/exercise, hormones, health/disease.
What is the key feature of cells produced by mitosis?
They are all identical.
What factors can cause height extremes in humans?
Genes and/or hormone imbalance.
Apart from height and mass what else is routinely measured in babies?
Head size.
Growth problems in children can be identified using an …?
Average growth chart.
Where is growth hormone produced?
Pituitary gland.
What structures are particularly affected by growth hormone?
Long bones.
What is the longest phase in human growth?
Adulthood.
Name two factors contributing to increased life expectancy in man.
Less industrial disease, healthier diet and lifestyle, better medical care, better housing.