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64 Cards in this Set

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A bacterial or fungal organism that causes decay
Decomposer
A chemical used to control fungal pests
Fungicide
A chemical used to control insect pests
Insecticide
A chemical used to control weeds - can be selective or non-selective
Herbicide
A general term used to describe a chemical used to control animal pests
Pesticide
A membrane that allows the free diffusion of some small solute molecules but not others
Partially permeable
A mineral made up of carbon and oxygen found in the shells of marine organisms and making up sedmentary rocks
Carbonate
A problem in plant growth caused by lack of a particular mineral
Deficiency
A renewable fuel of biological origin that can be used as a convenient source of energy
Biofuel
A term used to describe intensive agriculture when applied to rearing of animals
Battery farming
A way of displaying the relationship between organisms in a food chain by displaying the number of organisms at each trophic level
Pyramid of numbers
A way of displaying the transfer of energy in food chains starting with producers and working through the trophic levels to the top consumer
Pyramid of biomass
AN organism that speeds up decay by eating dead plant and animal material and increasing its surface area
Detritivore
An additive used to enrich soil in essential plant minerals
Fertiliser
An organic form of nitrogen that is excreted by organisms and can be formed by decay, Readily converted into ammonia in the soil
Urea
An organism such as a plant that can produce its own food from simple substance - usually by photosynthesis
Producer
An organism that derives its energy and nutrients from eating plants or other animals
Consumer
An organism that secretes enzymes to digest its food externally before absorbing the digestion products
Saprophyte
Any method that seeks to increase the eficiency of farming through the use of mechanisation, chemicals, artificial control of conditions or selective breeding
Intensive farming
Any process that leads to the reuse of materials
Recycling
Bacteria that can convert atmospheric nitrogen into amino acids
Nitrogen-fixing bacteria
Commonly used artificial fertiliser used to add nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium to the soil for plant growth
NPK
Dead and decaying plant and animal material
Detritus
Decomposed organic material that can be used as an organic fertiliser and soil conditioner
Compost
Describes the ability of a membrane to allow the free diffusion of a particular substance
Permeable
Farming without soil using tight control of conditions and nutrient supply in synthetic media
Hydroponics
Feeding by secretion of digestive enzymes and absorbing the digestion products
Saprophytic nutrition
Intensive agriculture applied to fish
Fish farm
Layer of cells one cell thick making up underside of leaf
Lower epidermis
Layer of cells that allows gases to permeate freely through leaf
Spongy mesophyll
Layer of columnar cells in leaf where most photosynthesis takes place
Palisade mesophyll
Light absorbing pigment found in chloroplasts
Chlorophyll
Openings in undrerside of leaf that allow transpiration to take place
Stomata
Pairs of cells in lower epidermis that regulate stomatal opening, water loss and gas exchange
Guard cell
Plants that have two seed leaves (not grasses)
Dicotyledonous
Preventing or slowing the decay of food by decomposers through artificial means
Food preservation
Simple substances such as salts that carry elements that are needed by plants in addition to carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
Minerals
Soil bacteria that convert ammonia into nitrate which plants can absorb through their roots
Nitrifying bacteria
Soil bacteria that remove nitrogen from the main nitrogen cycle by breaking down nitrates into nitrogen gas
Denitrifying bacteria
Term that describes a plant cell that has lost water by osmosis
Flaccid
Term used to describe agriculture that avoids the use of chemicals and other intensive methods
Organic farming
Term used to describe the wrinkly appearance of an animal cell that has lost water due to osmosis
Crenation
The bursting of a cell due to rupture of the cell membrane
Lysis
The collected waste products of a population made up of faeces and urine
Sewage
The elimination of undigested food in the form of faeces
Egestion
The form taken by the vascular tissue of a plant in a leaf - provides support as well as allowing transport of water, minerals, sugars and other substances
Vein
The hollow centre of a tissue such as the xylem
Lumen
The layer of cells that make up the upper surface of a leaf
Upper epidermis
The loss of water vapour from the leaves of a plant that contributes to the flow of water from the roots
Transpiration
The name given to each layer in a food chain - usually no more than five
Trophic level
The net movement of water from a region of high to low water potential across a partially permeable membrane
Osmosis
The plant tissue that comprises the phloem and xylem
Vascular bundle
The process by which sugars are transported through the plant from the sources in the leaves to the sink organs such as roots and flowers
Translocation
The process whereby bacteria and fungi break down complex organic molecules into simpler substances that they can absorb
Decay
The result of a plant cell absorbing water by osmosis causing the cell contents to expand and press against the cell wall. Maintains plant stem rigidity.
Turgid
The result of a plant cell losing too much water by osmosis. The cell contents may separate from the cell wall
Plasmolysis
The situation when the concentration of a particular substance is higher on one side of the cell membrane than the other
Concentration gradient
The total mass of organic material - usually measured when dry to correct for different amounts of water
Biomass
The use of one species - usually introduced - to control another
Biological control
The vascular tissue in a plant that carries sugars, amino acids and other important nutrients from the leaves
Phloem
The vascular tissue in a plant that carries water and minerals from the roots to the leaves
Xylem
Uptake of substances into a cell against a concentration gradient. Requires energy
Active transport
Waxy layer on upper epidermis of leaf
Cuticle
What happens to a plant when its cells lose turgor pressure due to a lack of water
Wilt