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215 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the planet we know most about is
the most obvious features on earth is
the vast amounts of liquid water on its surface and its ability to sustain intelligent life
this is used to reflect the underlying topography of the oceans and continents
radar altimetry
an example of young mountains on earth
rocky mountain range in the yukon territory
the grand canyon was created by
the erosional activity of the Colorado River
one of the permanent space platforms
Mir space station
average density of the earth
5.5 gm/cc
the earths crust is mostly made of
since the mean density of earth is larger than the granite the core must be made of
something more denser than granite- Iron or Nickel
this uses the propagation of seismic waves from earthquakes to study the earth's interior
two types of seismic waves
pressure or p waves and shear or s waves
shear waves cannot propagate in liquids or gases because
there are no lateral restoring forces
P waves can travel through
liquids or solids
changes in refraction of seismic waves are due to sharp changes in the
density = discontinuities due to chemical composition
the interior of the earth has 4 components
1)thin crust made of basalt
2)a semi-solid mantle of iron oxides
3)liquid outer core of molten iron
4) solid inner core of iron and nickel
density of earths crust
density of earths mantle
density of earths outer core
9 to 11
density of earths inner core
temperature of inner core
6200 kelvin
radioactive dating using radioactive elements known half-life's
crustal dating
the oldest rocks on earth are how many years old
3.8 x 10^9
surface of the crust is ____% water and ___% land
71 water 29 land
the crust is ____ under oceans and _____ under mountain
thin, thick
we know continents are moving because of
fossil records
dry land is composed primarily of
1)igneous rock-from molten material (basalt and granite)
2)sedimentary- minerals cemented by pressure (sandstone,limestone)
3)metamorphic rock- igneous of sedimentary that has been subjected to high temps and pressure (marble)
the earths crust is shaped by 3 things
1) impact cratering in early solar system
2) erosion (winder, water, slumping)
3)thermal-tectonic activity- outflow of heat from core transferred to convective motion in mantle
there are ___ plates all floating on earths mantle moving a few cm every ____ year
12, 100
4 types of boundaries between plates
1) mid-ocean ridge
2)sliding plates
3)ocean tranch
young mountain systems are ______ and ______, old mountain systems are _____ and ______
sharp and irregular/ low and rounded
What was known about Mars before the 1800's?
It was known that it had some large surface features and seasons becaue the size of the polar caps changed.
When wsa the first probe sent to Mars?
The Valles Marineris canyon system on mars is more than _____ kilometers long and up to _ kilometers deep.
3,000 kilometers long and up to 8 kilometers deep
Mars has many geographical features such as ...
The basin called Acidalia Planitia and the three Tharsis volcanoes.
What process has changed the layout of Valles Marineris?
Erosion has created what on Mars?
water being released under great pressure from beneath a confining layer of frozen ground is known as what?
An outflow
The South polar cap of Mars consists of ... ?
It consists mainly of frozen carbon dioxide
How many moons does Mard have and what are the names?
Phobos and Deimos
Why are they unlike regular moons?
They are irregular-shaped objects, which probably means that they are captured asteroids.
Name 6 surface feathures Mars has.
Craters, featurless and chaotic terrain, polar caps, volcanoes, and canyons.
What evidence is there that there was once water on mars?
Many water flow features such as Basins, islands, and pebbles that are rounded.
A secondary Atmosphere is ... ?
An atmosphere that developed after primordial gases had been lost or had failed to accumulate
Because Mars is an example of a secondary atmosphere we know that it must have had an early epoch of ____ ____ ?
tectonic activity
We know that Mars atmosphere is ... ?
Very thin, about 1% the mass of Earth's atmosphere
as early as the 1920a scientists noted that earthquakes are
concentrated in very specific narrow zones
in 1954, french seismologist __________ published a map showing the concentration of earthquakes showing the edges of the plates
JP Roth
the federal aviation administration has regulated that when pilots fly about _____ they need supplemental O2 for them and passengers
3000m (10,000 ft)
at _____ meters (______ feet) one half of the mass of the atmosphere is belows this altitudce
5309 m, 18,000ft
at _______ meters the pressure of CO2 and water vapor in the lungs is equal to atmosphere outside so one must be in pressurized cabin or suit
at ___ km the bodily fluids begin to literally boil
20km, 12 miles
at ____ km an aircrafts pressurization no longer functions and the air is poisonous to humans
24km, 15 miles
at ____ km, turbojets can no longer function
32 km, 20 miles
at ___km the US department of defense says space begins because any pilot who fly about this altitude are given astronaut wings
81km, 50 miles
in 1980 the united nations determined that outer space is
international territory
seven stages of earth's atmosphere
1) proto-atmosphere
2) early atmosphere
3) secondary atmosphere
4) cooling phase
5) photodisintegration
6) carbonate rock formation
7) life
the original atmosphere of the earth was very similar to the composition of
the original atmosphere was lost into outerspace because
1) earth is close to sun and the atoms were heated
2) the gravity of the Earth is weak
the secondary atmosphere (rich in h2o co2 n2 and so2) was built up by
outgassing from volcanos
during the cooling phase of earths atmosphere
h2o rains out and becomes oceans
______ activity is the main source for the o2 content of todays atmosphere
the earths atmosphere is 78% ___, 21% ____
nitrogen, oxygen
co2 is responsible for the
greenhouse effect
the atmosphere plays an important role in protecting the surface from
UV and cosmic rays and space debris
the earth is surrounded by a magnetic field generated in
the core of our planet
the earths magnetic field is distorted, ________ on the side facing the _____ and _______on the other side
compressed, Sun/ extended
high energy particles directed to the pole regions interact with the atmosphere you get
the origin of the earths magnetic field comes from ____ ______ ______ in the core which cause _____ _____
free flowing electrons/ electric current
the major surface features of the moon are
craters, highlands and maria
in the 17th century, galileo made telescopic observations of the earths moon noting
endless overlapping of craters
the moon is about _______km( ______ miles) from earth
385,000 km/ 240,000 miles
the rotation of the moon and its revolution takes
27 days 7 hours 43 minutes
3 "faces" seen on the moon
the man on the moon, the lady on the moon, the bunny on the moon
plum crater on earths moon is __ meters in diameter
30 m
the ratio of earth to lunar diameter
3.6 to 1
moon to earth mass ration
average density of the moon
the lunar surface is greytan with a low albedo of
the moon's gravity is ____ that of the earths
the minor features of the moon are
wrinkle ridges, scarps, domes, rilles
erosion on the moon is caused by
1) slumping
2) other impacts
3) temp changes
4) moonquakes
the oldest rocks on the moon are in the
smooth plains of basaltic lava are
all the maria on the moon are on the nearside because the crust is thinner due to
tidal interaction with the earth
the moon was formed from ____ materials than the earth
the effort to put men on the Moon was modivated by a reaction to the
USSR launch of Sputnik in 1957
the three NASA missions that were the process to Lunar exploration
Mercury program, Gemini program, apollo program
mercury program was designed to determine if
(1 astronaut)
sucessful earth orbit could be achieved (lasted 2 yrs- 7 flights)
the gemini program was to test
(2 astronauts)
the endurance of astronauts in space (longest mission=14 days) (lasted 1.5 years-10 flights)
the apollo program had the aim of
(3 astronauts)
lunar orbit and then landing
lunar landing was achieved on what date and with what space craft
July 19, 1969 with Apollo 11
all the maria on the moon are on the nearside because the crust is thinner due to
tidal interaction with the earth
the moon was formed from ____ materials than the earth
the effort to put men on the Moon was modivated by a reaction to the
USSR launch of Sputnik in 1957
the three NASA missions that were the process to Lunar exploration
Mercury program, Gemini program, apollo program
mercury program was designed to determine if
(1 astronaut)
sucessful earth orbit could be achieved (lasted 2 yrs- 7 flights)
the gemini program was to test
(2 astronauts)
the endurance of astronauts in space (longest mission=14 days) (lasted 1.5 years-10 flights)
the apollo program had the aim of
(3 astronauts)
lunar orbit and then landing
lunar landing was achieved on what date and with what space craft
July 19, 1969 with Apollo 11
Io's warmest daytime temperatures are around __ degrees F, but the nighttime temperatures plunge to ___ degrees F.
50, -170
Our first views of the Martian surface came from the ___ and ___
Viking Lander 1 and Viking Lander 2
The Noachian Era
first billion years of Mars' existence, quite active with periods of warm and wet environment, erupting volcanoes and some degree of tectonic activity. May have had a thicker atmosphere to support running water, and it may have rained and snowed.
Hesperian Era
Geologic activity was slowing down, Plunging temperatures probably caused water pooled underground to erupt when heated by impacts
Amazonian Era
current era - The planet is now a dry and water can exist only as a solid or a gas, not as a liquid.
Mars Pathfinder
(December 1996 - March 1998) - Landecd on Mars with a rover and far exceeded it origional expectations.
Mars Global Surveyor
(November 1996 - 2007) - mapping mission, evidence of possibly recent liquid water at the martian surface
Mars Odyssey
(April 2001 - present) - mapping mission
the moon solidified and cooled ____ billion years ago
most likely, the moon formed from
debris ejected from earth after large impact
mercury is the _______ of all the planets
the mean density of mercury
5.4 (dense like iron)
daytime temps of mercury are around and nighttime temps are around
700 degrees kelvin (melt lead)- 100 Kelvin
mercurys large basin created by an impact of a projectile with asteroid dimensions
Caloris basin
in general, the surface of mercury is similar to the
since the maria of mercury are few and small, it must have
cooled faster
cratering is less heavy on mercury between craters because it has a
higher surface gravity
long scarps or wrinkles are found on mercury because its crust ______ ____
solidified first
mercury has a strong _____ ____ which gives it a weak ______
magnetic field/ atmosphere
Galilean Satellites have 4 characteristics
1) all orbit Jupiter
2) they all are tidally locked to Jupiter
3) they all have radii larger than our Moon
4) the inner moons have densities higher than outer moons
Io is the ... ?
innermost world, closest to Jupiter
The surface of Io is .. ?
mottled yellow, reds and blackish-browns = sulfur compounds
The mean temperature on Io's surface is about ... ?
-143 C (-230 F)
Hot spots associated with volcanic features on Io measure about
17 C (60 F)
planet known as the morning star and evening star due to its low elongation
Venus is often called earths twin because (4)
1) similar radius/size
2) similar in mass
3) similar density
4) has an atmosphere
venus's ground temperature is over _____ degrees farenheit and its atmosphere is made of _____ and _______
800 degrees/ carbon dioxide and sulfuric acid
this prevents the optical observation of the surface of Venus
heavy atmosphere with thick cloud cover
a day in venus is ____ earth days and is longer than its year which is ____ dayss
243, 225
because venus rotates from ____ to _____ the sun would rise in the _____ and set in the ____
east to west/ sun rises in west and sets in east
atmosphere of venus is composed mostly of
CO2 and N2
if you increase the pressure of a gas the ________ goes ____ and the ______ goes ______
temperature up/ density down
if you lower the density of a gas the ______ goes ____ and the _______ goes _______
pressure down/ temperature up
the planet with the hottest average temp is
two types of greenhouse effects
normal and enhanced
greenhouse rates are controlled by (2)
1) distance from Sun (surface temp)
2) amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere
enhanced greenhouse effects is when normal greenhouse gases are added by
human activity
the results of an enhanced greenhouse effect are (5)
1) global warming
2) increased cloud cover
3) increased hurricane strengths
4) rise in sea level by 1 or 2 meters over next 50 yrs
5) increased growing season at northern latitudes
the 4 main surface features of venus
3)fault lines
____ percent of Venus's surface is covered with volcanic rock
missions that made soft landings on venus but ceased transmitting data b/c of the extreme heat and pressure
venera 5 & 6 (1969)
missions that sent back the first closeup photos of venus' surface
venera 9 & 10 (1975)
certain parts of venus are covered with _____ ____ _____ and others with ____ ____ ____
sharp edge rock and fine-grain dust
rocks in venus are ______ in nature and ______ from erosion
igneous/ smooth
Io has ____ ____, not volcanoes because there is no mantle.
active plumes
Jupiter's gravitational field is much stronger than the Moon's on the Earth so ____ and ____ are created.
friction and heat
World with the youngest surface in the Solar System and less than a million years old.
Next world out from Io.
Why is Europa have such a high probobility of life?
It is due to its large ocean under its icy crust.
Ganymede is much less _____ than Europa or Io
What are some o the charecteristice of Ganymedes diverse surface?
dark regions, valleys, mountains, evidence of past tectonic activity
Ganymedes low mean density implies a very deep ice mantle, about _____ km thick
Outermost of the 4 primary satellites fo Jupiter
Callisto has a similar surface to Ganymede but with __ times more cratering
As you move outward in the sequence of Jupiters moons what happens?
The planets become more icy, less dense, and geological activity decreases.
Largest satellite of Saturn, unique in its methane atmosphere.
Titan has an atmosphere __ times the Earths.
Titans atmosphere is composed mostly of ...
Nitrogen and CH4
Titans surface temperature averages around ______
-178C (-289F)
the evolution of planetary surface is dominated by these processes (3) (also the order in which they occur on the planet)
1)impact cratering
2) tectonic activity
3) erosion
all planets receive the same amount of ______ but the amount of ______ ______ and _____ varies from planet to planet
impacts/ tectonic activity and erosion
after planets cooled, impacts would either
1) create craters or 2)burst through the crust to the mantle to release lava to form basins
as the crust of planets become thinker impacts that form _____ become rarer
planets with ___ surfaces have large amounts of impact cratering and planets with ___ surfaces have little evidence of craters
old/ young
the surface of most airless worlds are covered with a layer of ____ and ____ ____
rubble and fine dust (regolith)
the amount of tectonic activity on a planet is controlled by
the amount of hear stored in the planets interior after formation
the amount of heat stored in a planet's interior comes from 2 sources
1) the energy of formation of the plant
2) heat generate by the decay of radioactive elements
the higher the mass of the planet, the greater the amount of...
energy deposited on it during formation (greater amount of tectonic activity) AND the greater amount of radioactive material (more heat)
tectonic activity displays itself in 4 ways
1) plate motion
2) volcanoes
3) mountain/terrain formation
4) crustal fractures
the more diverse the surface geography of a planet, the more involved is the
tectonic activity
the fact that the volcanoes on MArs are large implies that
Mars was once active
erosion can be caused by 3 processes
# atmospheric erosion (wind, weather)
# tectonic activity (crustal movement/recycling, volcanos)
# gravity (slumping)
______ _____ is only visible on airless worlds with timescales of billions of years
gravity slumping
______ ______ is a measure of age for a planet's surface
impact cratering
the amount of tectonic activity determines the amount of _______
planets with _____ ________ have few features left over from the early eras
thick atmospheres
since we can't examine interiors, we build computer models which contain the following parameters (5)
# density as a function of radius
# rotation rate
# magnetic field
# temperature as function of radius
# chemical composition
we can measure the boundary conditions (6)
# total mass
# mean density
# surface temperature
# strength of magnetic field at surface
# thickness of crust
# seismic activity
we know that the Earth's magnetic field is not due to the presence of a giant permanent magnet, such as iron, deep in the Earth's core because (2)
1) the core temperature is above the Cure temperature and
2) the field is too variable
For the planets it is key to know that a magnetic field indicates that:
1) the planet has a large, liquid core
2) the planet has a core rich in metals (source of free electrons)
3) the planet has a high rotation rate
______ causes heavier elements to sink to the core of a planet, this is called ______ _______
gravity/ chemical fractionation
the thickness of a planet's crust is directly propportional to the rate at which
the planet cooled in the distant past (fast cooling rate = thick crust)
the cooling rate is proportional to the
total mass of the planet
warmer interiors imply more _____ ______
diversified structure (inner core, outer core, semi-solid mantle, etc.)
thicker crust means less
tectonic activity
as one goes deeper into a planet the _____ and _____ go up
temperature and pressures
the primary terrestrial worlds fall into 2 classes
1) high mean density (earth, venus and mars)
2) low density worlds
low density worlds have weaker structure meaning no
strong cores
the two largest worlds have the largest liquid outer cores and the highest amount of
current tectonic activity
magnetic fields are generated by planets with
molten inner and outer cores
the strength of the magnetic field is determined by (2)
1) the size of the core
2) rotation rate
due to the higher concentration of icy materials in the outer solar system, the crusts of the galilean satellites is dominated by
h2o and co2 ice
the distance to jupiter from the galilean moons determines the amount of
tidal friction
the amount of tidal friction on the galilean moons determines the amount of
heat in the moons = the level of geological activity
large amounts of _____ have drained the inner moons __ and ______ of their icy materials making them rich in rocky material
outgassing/ io and europa
the lack of ______ _____ in the outer galilean moons has left them with warm interiors and large liquid mantles
tectonic activity
the temperature and pressures are near the ____ ____ of methane
triple point
Primary atmospheres are very similar in composition to
94.2% H, 5.7% He
If the planet has a large mass then there is a large amount of
tectonic activity -> volcanos.
For the warmer terrestrial worlds, the light, gaseous elements ___ and ___ are lost.
He and H
The composition of outgassing is similar for Venus, Earth and Mars and is composed of
58% H2O, 23% CO2, 13% SO2, 5% N2
What is the key catalyst for the evolution of a secondary atmosphere?
Converting CO2 into O2 mostly comes from the ...
The greenhouse effect currently raises the temperature of the following planets by how much.
Mars, Earth, Venus
+5, +35, +500
Titan has the second thickest atmosphere in the solar system True/False?
The composition of an atmosphere on a terrestrial planet will be determined by what?
1. Distance from the Sun
2. Mass and radius of the planet
3. Chemical reactions
4. Geological Activity
5. Living organisms
which 2 planets do not have moons
mercury and venus
highly irregular moons are most likely
captured asteroids
spherical moons are most likely formed from
molten sphere and later accretion
phobos and deimos are captured asteroids because they have
irregular appearances and low mean densities (deimos is smoother due to partial filling of craters)
the innermost known satellite of jupiter
an example of moon collecting dust from another moon
amalthea collecting Io
satellite of saturn that orbits in retrograde motion
the brightest moon of uranus/ the largest moon of uranus
on of the darkest objects in solar system (a moon of neptune)
the largest moon of neptune and coldest object measured in solar system