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33 Cards in this Set

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experimental phonetics
study of speech soudnd production to analyze physiological mvts and acoustic properties with the help of lab instruments
articulatory phonetics
concentrates on how a speaker of a language produces speech sounds; the vocal tract and related anatomic structures are studied extensively to describe how the physiological systems work to produce speech sounds
acoustic phonetics
study of the properties of the sound waves as they travel from the vocal tract of the speaker to ear of listener
perceptual phonetics
perception of sounds by listener is studied
clinical or applied phonetics
practical application of knowledge derived from all of the above forms of phonetics
phone
generic term for any sound that can be produced by the vocal tract; may or may not be a speech sound
phoneme
family of phones or sounds perceived to belong to the same category by the listener
morpheme
the smallest unit of language carrying semantic interpretation
minimal pairs
morphemes that are similar except for one phoneme
allophone
variant or alternate form of phoneme of a language; member of a phoneme family
phonetic transcription
sounds that are produced by an individual are transcribed and placed in brackets
diacritical markers
special symbols that depict the artic. or perceptual features of a sound
phonemic transcription
variations of actual phoneme production is not depicted
monophthongs
pure vowels
diphthongs
made by quick gliding of two simple vowels so they cannot be easily separated
consonant syllables
a few consonants can take on a syllabic nature, meaning they can form the nucleus of a syllable
coarticulation
refers to influence that sounds have on one another when linked together to make words, phrases, sentences
phonetic adapations or allophones
articulatory mvt variations and changes in the configuration of the vocal tract in the production of a sound according to the sounds that precede or follow it
assimilation
the affected sound may take on some audible characteristics of the sound affecting the change
sound inventory of American English
24 consonants
14 vowels
6 diphthongs
phonotactics or allowable combinations of these sounds
refer to the rules for combining sounds (not equiv across languages)
unstressed syllable deletion
omission of one or more syllables from a polysyllabic word
reduplication
total or partial repetition of a syllable of a target word, resulting in the creation of a multisyllablic word
diminutization
addition of /i/
epenthesis
insertion of unstressed vowel inserted between two adjacent consonants
cluster reduction
deletion or substitution of some or all members of a cluster
cluster substitution
replacement of one or all members by another sound, mostly affects clusters that contain liquids
vocalization
substituion of a vowel for a syllabic liquid
labial assimilation
non-labial consonant becomes a labial because of the influence of another labial sound in the word
velar assimilation
non-velar sound is changed to velar sound because of influence of another velar sound
prevocalic voicing
voiceless sound preceding a vowel becomes voiced
articulation
motor production of sounds that can be seen, heard and produced
phonology
broader term, defined as the system of rules underlying the sound production and combination in words