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275 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The study of human past (main def.)

Part of the science of anthro (study of humanity)

Specifically, the study of material remains to describe and explain human behavior.
Prehistoric archaeology
Study of prehistoric times, from the earliest human beings to the frontier of documented history

ex. Mary Leakey
Classical archaeology
Study of the great classical civilizations of Greece and Rome.

Traditionally, studied mostly art and buildings, but now study economic, settlement, and social issues of interest to prehistoric archaeologists
Egyptologists and Assyriologists
Study Egypt and Mesopotamia
Historical archaeology
Excavate sites from periods in which written language exists.

Medieval castles in England, colonial America, etc.
Underwater archaeology
Sites at the bottom of the sea and lake beds. Ship wrecks, etc.

Texas A&M is center for underwater archaeology.
Biblical archaeology
Study Syria and Palestine
Industrial Archaeology
Study buildings and structures from the Industrial Revolution or later (railroads, cotton plantations, windmills, housing in England, etc.)
Contract Archaeology
CRM: Cultural Resource Management

Conduct surveys and excavations for environmental impact statements and protection of historical sites.
Cultural Resource Management

Conduct surveys and excavations for environmental impact statements and protection of historical sites.

Also "contact archaeology"
Live in contemporary communities, understanding how societies use material culture, like how they make tools and weapons, how they build settlements, etc.
"archaeology" that is crap. Atlantis, Noah's Ark hunters, etc.
Goals of archaeology
1) Conserve and manage sites for the future

2) Studying sites and their contents in a context of time and space to reconstruct and describe long sequences of human culture. This descriptive activity reconstructs cultural history.

3) Reconstruct past lifeways

4) Why do things change? Why do things stay the same?

5) Relate the ancient world to the contemporary one.
Ethics of archaeology
1) Practice and promote stewardship of archaeological record for benefit of all people.

2) Consult effectively with all groups affected and be sensitive to values of other cultures.

3) No treasure hunting, and no enhancing commercial value of objects

4) Educate the public in importance and understanding of findings!

5) Publish yo shit!

6) Preserve things for the future, allow everyone to access findings

7) Don't go digging or researching untrained, without experience!
Bishop Usher
Figured out date everything was created
October 23, 4004 BC. Used bible to date world
The Theogony

lived in 8th century BC

lived during an age of iron (ages of gold and silver previous)

define world in terms of gold age, silver age, etc.

iron age is technical archaeological term

ancient person thinking about ancient things!
Aztects (history of arch)
Thought [toltecs]?

Excavated ruins, found stuff, put stuff in their own ruins (museums)

Teotihuacan - site that ancient peoples fascinated by
Babylonian king (persent day Iraq)

first archaeologist

created museum, excavated!

6th century BC
First modern archaeology
Pompeii, Herculaneum, and Mt. Vesuvius

1710, tunnels dug in Heruculaneum, nobles wanted to decorate their houses. Hit a roman statue room from a roman theatre. BUT, didn't document where found anything!
PPompeii (early archaeology)
year 79, Vesuvius exploded

killed by poisonous gasses

ash hardened into concrete

in 1748, Giuseppe Fiorelli does scientific excavation.

People who didn't get away were buried. Pockets in concrete, put plaster of paris to make casts of bodies, food, furniture, etc! (now we use see-through resin)
Curiosity cabinets
Rich people collecting things from antiquity

Charles Townley, collecting for collecting's sake
Thomas Jefferson
Was part-time archaeologist

Had a mound on his property. Excavated his mount.

Different levels...early remains on bottom, latest on top (stratigraphy)

Found Native American remains!
James Hutton
Very gamous geologist

Theory of the Earth, 1785, geologic time has been indefinitely long, with no vestige of a beginning and no end.

Earth is a self-renewing machine. old mountains eroded away, new ones lifted up, sea goes in and out.

Put together idea of stratigraphy (early shit on bottom, later on top)
Charles Lyell
Father of modern geology.

Expanded on Hutton's approach and proposed uniformitarianism as a counter to catastrphist theories like Cuvier's.
The geological processes that operate today have been the same processes that have been operating since the earth came about
Catastrophist theories
Things like Noah's Arc, that world is built up and catastrophies wipe out everything
Jacques Boucher de Perthes
1788 - 1868

Made case for early species of human. Humans evolving?!!? omglykewhoa.
Charles Darwin
EVOLUTION. Had books by Lyell and Hutton with him on the Beagle!
C.J. Thomsen
1788 - 1865

Three Age System: Stone Age, Bronze Age, Iron Age

Danish archaeologist

Organized collection chronologically

He wasn't sure when they actually happened (this is relative dating)

Used arsenic instead of tin to make bronze originally

System still in use, but updated! (lithic, neolithic, paleolithic)
Jean-Francois Champollion
1790 - 1832

Rosetta Stone!
Austen Henry Layard
1817 - 1894

Period when museums sent people out to get stuff

Brings back Nimrud (?) statue, iron age. Date from 900 - 700 bce.

Put statues on rafts and ships, some of them sak!
Lord Elgin
Stole Greek statues from Parthenon, etc.

Greeks frigging want them back!
Sir Henry Rawlinson

in Ancient Near East (in Iran and Iraq)

Known for deciphering cuniform, used same technique as with rosetta stone

Inscription at Besitun

Text written in Old Persian, Babylonian, Median. Made a rubbing (squeeze) with a boy dangling on a rope!
Rubbing of something engraved on a rock or something
Inscription at Besitun
Made by Darius the Great of Persia

in 519 BC

Used by Sir Henry Rawlinson to decipher cuniform
Heinrich Schliemann
Has title "father of archaeology"

Found city of Troy

Terrible excavation. Threw out what he really wanted to find.

Popularized archaeology!

Was a millionaire by being middle man at Gold Rush

Homer wrote in 750, about 500 years after war

Proved that Trojan war id exist!

Temples on old city called "New Troy"
Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie
1853 - 1943, British

Real "father of archaeology"

Dug in Egypt and Israel

Made archaeology scientific.

First to apply concept of stratigraphy to antiquity

Realized that pottery was EVERYWHERE. In each city, different type of pottery! Goes in and out of fashion like clothing. Seriation!
Pottery Seriation
Dating with pottery. Put pottery into series

ESSENTIAL before 700 bc (invention of coins)
700 BC
Invention of coins

In area of Iraq

Put words and pictures on coins, we can easily date them!
Sir Mortimer Wheeler
Dug in England, India, bit of Mesopotamia

New way of digging!

Series of 5m x 5m squares

In between each square, 1m untouched so you can see the LAYERS

Way to double check if you're doing it right

Catherine Kenyan improved method (Kenyan-Wheeler Method)
Leonard Woolley and Lawrence of Arabia
many archaeologists were spies too!

Wooley and Mallowan dug at Ur

Max Mallowan married to Agatha Christie

Agatha Christie kills Lady Wooley first every time!
Max Uhle
New World archaeologist

1856 - 1944
Alfred Kidder
SW United States

People talk about him all the time
Dorothy Garrod
Woman breaking into field. British!

Trained a lot of future archaeologists.

Excavated Neolithic age in Israel
Harriet Boyd Hawes
Crete, American, Bryn Mawr graduate

1871 - 1945
Gertrude Caton-Thompson
In Zimbabwe. Like Native Americans, people didn't think that they built things. British!
Kathleen Kenyon
Dug at Jericho

Dug with Wheeler

Brought Wheeler method to Israel.

Tweaked a bit.

Kenyon Institute!
Anna O. Shepherd
Ceramics for the Archaeologist (book)
Mary Leakey
Famous family

Laetoli footprints! <3
George Bass
Founded underwater archaeology
Carbon 14 dating!
Lewis Binford
In 1960s, archaeologists starting to be discontent. Description of findings!

People started caring about "how" and "why". Look at it as a process. "Processualism" or "New Archaeology"

Try to reconstruct history, not merely describe it

Archaeology is a science and anthropology!
Traditional Archaeology
Arch used to provide examples of things referred to in historical record and to test the accuracy of record.

Training includes lists of kings and generals, architectural styles, and ceramic typologies.
Processual or "New" Archaeology
-Not only the footprints of the cat on the wet cement (how deep or wide they are)

-It is what made the cat walk on the cement in the first place. Did someone kick her? Did she run after a mouse?

-Looks at the "how" and "why"

-Lewis R. Binford, in the United States

1) Emphasizes evolutionary generalizations, not historical specifics [Agenda is scientific rather than historical. Emphasizes regularities and correlations. Can define theories that condition the progressive evolution of culture, just as natural selection defines mechanism of evolution.]

2) Seeks universal laws

3) Explanation is explicitly scientific. It's a hard science!

4) Tries to remain objective and ethically neutral.
Post-Processual Archaeology
Ian Hodder

Process doesn't answer everything! Asked "Who?" Recreating humans with emotions, likes, dislikes, etc.

1) Rejects cultural generalizations. Everyone has their own story!

2) Rejects processual search for universal laws. Universals of human behavior don't exist.

3) Rejects explicitly scientific methods. Much of early processual literature rigidly adhered to rote rules of evidence and interpretation.

4) Cannot be objective, must be empathetic. Inner experience of humanity is worth study for its own sake and as clue for interpreting the past.
The physical substance that surrounds the find (dirt, water, mud, silt, etc.
The 3-D position of the find in the matrix as recorded by archaeologist. You see this discussed a lot with looted objects. Object MUST have background/context!
The Process of Archaeological Research
1) Background Research and design

2) Design formulation

3) Fundraising

4) Permissions

5) Implementation

6) Field Research/Conservation/initial artifact preserving

7) Data acquisition

8) Lab analysis

9) Interpretation

10) Final Report
Design formulation (process of arch research)
Figure out how you're going to do everything. Find a site.
Fundraising (process of arch research)
How much does it take to excavate for 6 weeks? $60k

Room, board, bussing, flying people, tools, stipends

Who gives money? Museums, National governments, universities, some gov't organizations, private organizations, NEH (national endowment for the humanities), and NSF (nat'l sci foundation)
Permissions (process of arch research)
Need to publish whatever you excavate. Archaeologists kept dying without publishing. Um, and get permission from the country you're digging in.
Implementation (process of arch research)
Get team, tools, where you're gonna live, etc.
Field research/conesrvation/initial artifact processing (process of arch research)
You have to process everything as you go! Record EVERYTHING as you go!
Interpretation (process of arch research)
Reconstruct ancient life! Big thing now, put out all raw data AND interpretation
Yields the most reliable evidence for two main kinds of info:

1) Human activities at a particular period in the past

2) Changes in those activities from period to period

Layers, or strata are laid down, one on top of the other, according to processes that still continue (uniformitarianism!)
Law of superposition
When one layer overlies another, the lower layer was most likely deposited first
Tools of the trade
Brushes (clean dirt)


Measuring tape


Digging in earthquakes
Leave everything in place so you cansee the BIG picture
Agra in Greece
Use open horizontal excavation instead of the Kenyon-Wheeler method (why? earthquake?)
Minimum number of individuals, used for mass graves
Why do people build cities on top of one another?
It's a good location

They get higher and higher

Sometimes it's accidental

Don't see so much in the New World
Looks like a poppy upside down! Residue analysis shows that they contained opium!
Tel or Tell
Mound with cities one on top of the other
Archaeological data
Compromise the material remains of human behavior

Different from facts! One step beyond. This is what's relevant to history. KEY to data: MATERIAL remains. Other things are OBSERVATIONS.
Items that exhibit any physical attributes that can be assumed to be the result of human activity.

Can be a judgement call! At some point, someone used something as a tool. You have to PROVE it. Point to a scratch on the rock or something. Fragments of stone and bone can be v. tricky.

Human bodies not generally, but if you find cutmark on bone, could practice cannibalism, then use leg bone as a weapon or a living room decoration!
Archaeological Record
General name for continuous distribution of artifacts over the earth's surface, in highly variable densities

Can include portable artifacts, features, structures, ecofacts, and human remains.
Portable Artifacts
Artifact modified or made by humans and can be carried.
Artifact and artifact associations that cannot be taken out of the ground, such as postholes, ditch, or laetoli footprints. (call it a feature until you know what it is!)

Sutton Hoo ship? Rivets are portable artifacts, stains in soil are features
Houses, graneries, temples, and other buildings that canb e identified from standing remains, patterns of postholes, and other features in the ground. Postholes can INDICATE a feature, so it can be both!
Sometimes food remains, bones, seeds, and other finds which throw light on human activities. Should be ecological?

Portable artifacts could be ecofacts, but more likely you use portable artifacts to eat ecofacts.
Surroundings (Matrix) + Time + Explanation
Primary context
Original context of the find, undistrubed by any factor, human or natural, since it was deposited by person involved with it
Secondary context
Context of a find whose primary context has been disturbed by later activity. V. frequently burial grounds will find incomplete skeletons whose graves were disturbed by deposition of later bodies or activity.
Relative dating
Establishes chronological relationships between site and cultures. NO NUMBER. "this is older than that"
The Principle of Association
Objects accompanying a human burial are in most cases things in use at the same time. When certain artifact types found together in grave association after grave association, and when more evolved forms of same tools found in association with other burials, then associations provide some basis for dividing the burials into different chronological groups on the basis of association and artifact styles.


The relationship between an artifact and other archaeological finds and a site level, or another artifact, structure, or feature in the site (association)
Archaeological Context
Derived from careful recording of matrix, provenance, and association of finds. Involves assessing how find got to its positino and what happened since original owners abandoned it.
Qanta cuneform tablets
Date: 1400 bce. Example of absolute chronology. Has name of king, you know when king ruled!
Absolute chronology
When you can put a DATE or a DATE range to something.

Types: Tree-ring/dendrochronology, carbon-14, Ka-Ar, Electronic spin resonance, uranuim, fission-track, thermoluminescence, obsidian hydration (fancy stuff mostly for prehistory stuff)
Cornell, Gone back to 2000 bce

count rings to count how many years. But you can only date when tree was cut down!
When you die, you no longer inject C-14. It starts breaking down. Has a half-life. You can count back if you measure how much C-14. Gets less and less accurate the longer it's been dead, and you don't do it for really recent things.
Why survey?
You might want to find the site.

You might want to find sites around the sites.


Previously, only led to excavations, but now people use to draw conclusions (started in 60s and 70s)
Ground reconnaisance
You walk on the ground. Walk in a straight line and count scherds with a counter thinger. Can be difficult to see overgrown ground!
Ariel reconnaisance
You fly in a plane or look at pictures from a space ship
Field walkers
People walking around on the field on a survey.
Difficulties with survey
Someone often owns the land, so you need to get permission. Find out if there are large animals on site.

Sites very easy to miss. Could be in field with mad bull, very overgrown, wet year, etc.
What you can tell from a survey
Proportion of schards is proportional to size of city, both in number and distance spread. Density count highest at center of the city! Record number of schards every 10 feet.
What to look for in a survey
Pottery. If pre-pottery, then stone tools.
Tools of the trade for surveying

-measuring tape

-bags to collect stuff
Do you collect stuff as you survey?
Some people don't pick anytrhing up

Some people tell oyou to go back and pick up diagnostic schards

Intensive pickup: Every 3 or 4 feet picking up everything
Diagnostic schards
schards that tell you type of pottery and date (bases, rims, and handles). Basic body schards with no paint could really be from anywhere!
Etrustan Tomb, frequently has all of the stuff, but air pressure turns everything to dust. Colonoscopy for a tomb! As camera goes into wall of tomb, self-sealing so no air gets in .
Types of sampling
Simple random sample

Stratified random


Stratified unaligned systematic
Simple Random Sample (survey sampling)
Split area into little segments. You drop in totally random areas.

Disadvantage: You can miss HUGE chunks!
Stratified random sample (Survey sampling)
Shows the landscape! Equal number of samples to percentage of different landscape (85% flat and 15% forest, so 85% are on the flat, etc.)

You can still miss big things!
Systematic Sample (Survey sampling)
You put squares every so often feet

You can miss whole cities in between

And if the ancient people were also thinking in terms of north south east west, you could be surveying five feet over from where the city actually is.
Stratified unaligned systematic
In case ancient people are as anal compulsive as me. Some squares off the North/South grid, but still stratified!
Aerial photography (survey)
Not cheap, but very effective!

If you look at site, you frequently see shadows. You take pictures with special glasses, stereotopics

Crop marks!
Crop marks
Usually mark antiquities buried. Affects color, density, and height of crops!
Effect of ancient ditch on crop marks
Higher crops...more access to nutrients!, etc.
Effect of walls on crop marks
Cause crops to grow shorter. Less access to resources!
Space shuttle images
Buy from NASA

You can see things in the forest!

Lost city of Ubar, Oman!
Ubar, Oman
Lost city!

2800 - 200 bc

Purple lines on NASA photo are ancient camel paths!
Ground-penetrating radar
Not going to use for a really big survey (extensive survey). Use for intensive survey. Looking for walls! You can get a sketch of stuff underneath. Hard to predict how far down walls will be. VERY EXPENSIVE.
Extensive survey
Very very big survey over large area
Intensive survey
Find one little area and look intensely at it
Electronic Resistivity
You stick needles in ground and measure how easy to get electricity to pass between the needles. Easy with wet soil (ditch). Harder between a wall. Not at all expensive!
Measures little fluctuations in earth's magnetic field, from iron.

Walls, pottery have iron!
Geographic Information System (GIS)
Like GPS. Has almost replaced compasses!
Total stations theodolite
Very new, expensive. Tellsyou how far away you are, the angle, etc.
Publishing surveyed data!
Oral presentation and in journal
Which survey method should I use?
Depends on research questions!

Looking for more of the palace: electronic resonance

Looking for towns and villages in countryside: only visited sites that other people had previously visited, resurveyed site and found that some areas were larger than people had thought
Things that an excavation director must be
-Competent archaeologist

-Accountant (make up budgets, apply for grants)

-Politician (lots of egoes and personalities, become skilled negotiator, interact with local people and government)

-Facilitator, leader, teacher, learner, crisis manager :P

-Doctor (emergency room at least twice a week!)

-Mechanic (guy's engine crapped out in middle of Sarah. Gotta be able to fix that shit!)

-Personnel manager (duh, lots of people)

People on your multidisciplinary team
-Anthropologist studying group dynamics
-Pottery expert
-Earthquake specialist
-Lab staff
-CRM staff
Total excavation
Excavate the ENTIRE site
When is total excavation useful?
-know that something's there but don't know where
-If something's gonna ruin it (man or nature)
-If so small not worth doing just part

Salvage and CRM excavation
Selective excavation
-select where at the site you excavate. What part? how much? Where?

-INTUITION big part.

Vertical or horizontal excavation!
Vertical excavation
Excavation undertaken to establish a chronological sequence, normally covering a limited area. Deep probe!

Step trenches, Kenyon-Wheeler Method, etc.
Step trench
Dig first three metres, further out dig another three metres, etc., until you have what looks like a stairwell.

Vertical excavation
Test pits
Vertical excavation

Also called sondages, or telephone booths.

About 1m x 1m

Can test to see if electric magnometer or other high tech things...worked? Are needed?
Horizontal excavation
More exposure!

Expose on one level as much as you can. Go 5 or 10 feet deep.

You'd rather do this when you have one city and want to see as much of it as possible.

Examples: Canada, Colonial Williamsburgh, Mount Vernon distillery

Equipment necessary: Backhoe (Saved more than 2 weeks of work in Kabri with 10 ft. of earth from avacado trees!)
Processes of Archaeological Excavation
Excavation by visible layers

Excavation by arbitrary layers
Excavation by Visible Layers
Dig according to layers that you can see!

Layers build up over time, natural stratigraphy.

This method involves removing every visible layer in the site separately.

Often used in cave sites, with complex stratigraphy, and on open sites such as bison kills on the Planes.
Excavation by Arbitrary Levels
Soil removed in standard-sized arbitrary levels, which vary in size depending on nature of site (3 - 12 inches is normal).

Used when there is little discernible stratigraphy or variation in layers, each layer is screened carefully to recover artifacts and stuff.

Can be good if your levels are really deep. BUT, this leads to going through a lot of floors. 99% of people do visible. Time is money!
Can you sit on the site?
DON'T throw dirt out!

Not all the time, but if someone finds necklace with 4k beeds, if in are awith coins, if picking up a whole vase and don't want to miss pieces, finding skeletons, dead people you find on the floor. Dirt on the floor in general!
Floating meshes of dirt to find seeds
Black/brown buckets hold:
Colored buckets hold:
Bone, scherds, etc.!
People who are sideways/upside down in pottery are:
Lower Egypt/Upper Egypt
Lower is at the top because the Nile flows backwards!
3300 - 3000 bc

Given credit for uniting upper and lower Egypt

On pot, shown taking a prisoner and smiting it. Falcon in the corner is pharoh in bird form, uniting Egypt
Back side of the pot with Menes on ir
War scene!

Intertwining necks are a theme. From Mesopotamia, aka trade connections!

Theme of conquering.
Egyptian writing

The Rosetta Stone!

Royal names in cartouches

Picture could stand either for object OR first letter of word

Can write left to right, right to left, up, down, etc.
Rosetta Stone
Made heiroglyphs, Egyptian cursive, and GREEK

Found in VIllage of Rosetta in 1799 by Naopleon's soldiers

Soldier digging a foxhole

Even though people knew Greek, it took a while to decode.

Finally decoded by Champollion!

Text from not very important battle. Put up by Ptolemy 5th, Very repetitive. Repeats names of fathers and fathers, etc.

Royal names in cartouches!
Scribes in ancient Egypt
Only 1% of the population can read/write

So, scribes exhaulted!

Always sitting with legs crossed

Kings write messages to one another...messages between scribes in ink!
Mash up wet reeds to make Papyrus

Wrote on with pen-like sticks. Two different colors of ink!
Red ink in Egyptian writing
Breaks up the text. First word of next sentence! Acts as punctuation
The Book of the Dead
Guide to the afterlife. How to get past obstacles, etc.

Pop quiz at the end! This is an ancient cheat sheet.

wealthy people carve words into tomb, others have written down.
The Book Of Going Forth By Day
Weighing of the Heart Ceremony (balance heart with feather, if heart weighs more, you're fucked)

jackel-headed god takes your breath

If your body falls apart, you're out of the afterlife!
All about staying in the afterlife

Early mummies, if you put body in sands of Egypt, naturally mummify! But sandstorms were becomming a problem.

Then used mastabas to keep body down.
Tomb put over body so body stays under sand
How to mummify something
Take body, slice downside.

Drain out most innards, put in jars

Put nice-smelling stuff in and sew it back up

Brain - thought intelligence was in heart, so took it out. Rich people brain hooked out through nose, poor people had brain melted by acid.

Heart stays in.

Put in natron for seven days.

Then wrap up mummy. Accidents happen, neck can snap! Repair with stick, nobody knows difference!
Type of salt that basically removes all water.
Canopic Jars
Jars in which various organs are held.

Duamutef, Qebehseneuf, Hapy, and Imsety.
Jackal-headed Duamutef
Falcon-headed Qebehseneuf
Baboon-headed Hapy
Guards the LUNGS.
Human-headed Imsety
Guards the LIVER.
Step Pyramid
of Djoser (Zoser)

c. 2686 bce

First pyramid EVER

Imhotep - revered as god of medicine, was really an architect!

Stacked a bunch of mastabas, basically.

Third dynasty...old kingdom!

Pyramids always in complexes.
Pyramid complexes
Buildings (shrines, empty spaces to honor memory, etc.

Pyramids at Giza
4th Dynasty

Pyramid age, 4500 years ago

Father, son, grandson

2 smaller pyramids - the queens

Originally covered in mostly stolen!

Mycerinus, Chephren (big one!), Cheops
Who chopped off the nose of the sphynx?
A muslim who said it was pagan!
Inside the pyramid
made from HUGE blocks of limestone (up to 6ft tall)

original burial space down in the sand

Herodemos says it takes 100k men working in 4 hour shifts for 20 years. How many people per shifts?

Pharoah didn't die quick enough, so 2 chambers built

Air shafts so workers could breathe

Water vapor rots stone from inside. Put 2 Kenmore air conditioners in backwards
Who built the pyramids?
Not slaves!

People to pay off debts and earning second income

Built by farmers and peasants

Public works project!

Not Hebrew slaves...didn't even exist
At entranceway to middle pyramid

Face modeled after guy who built the thing

In middle of a quarry

King uncovered sphynx from sand and became king!
Old Kingdom (time period)
2700 - 2000 bce
New Kingdom (time period)
1500 -1100 bce
New Kingdom
Bit of a rough time beforehand, invaders during intermediate periods

18th - 20th dynasties

Abandoned building pyramids since they kept getting looted

Kings buried in guarded valleys (Valley of the Kings)
Valley of the Kings/King Tutankhamen
-King Tut and Others
-only one queen (others in Valley of Queens)
-Carter hired by Earl of Carnavan to find King Tutankhamen
-The one place he hadn't looked was where he pitched his tent
-Story of mummy's curse made up by bored reporter waiting for Carnavan
-Carter had noticed different mud and seal than other tombs, had it been broken into?
-Put tar under body so wouldn't [turn one?]
-Pulled out with a crowbar
-3 tomb (fourth tomb not his!)
-Latest theory: broke his leg and died from an infection
Laetoli footprints
-Volcano erupted, 3 people walked across, ash covers frozen, can still see the raindrops!

-2 small adults (4'8"), one considerably smaller

-One set of footprints inside another.

20 ft. long, 70 footprints


3.6 million years ago!!!!!!!
Found about 40% of her

About 2.9 million years ago

between 4' and 4'8", died at age 20

Donald Johansen
18,000 years ago, humans in Australia!

About 3 feet tall, with heads the size of grapefruits
Excavation of Catalhöyük

Background stuff about Catalhöyük
Excavated by James Mellaart in 50s and 60s

6500 - 5600 bce

Pre-Pottery Neolithic B - PrePottery Neolithic A

Used Kenyan-Wheeler method, but abandoned because houses were connected to each other
Neolithic era
10,000 BCE, domesticated animals and farming

split into prepottery (split into A and B) and pottery
Re-excavation of Catalhöyük by Ian Hoddard
Was sponsored by banks and evreything like that!

Mellaart left site exposed to the elements.

Change from 50 years ago: make sure to preserve as well
Houses in Catalhöyük
All hosues have common walls

No streets, no alleyways, and no doors or windows

Climbing into houses on ladders through holes

Roofs made out of mud and sticks

Climbed through the roofs (defense against HUGE WILD ANIMALS coming into your home)
Horned things in Catalhöyük
There were huge horns hanging on door and walls in Catalhöyük. Most real! HUGE bull-time animals. Bull's head made of mud, pictures on the walls too.
Purpose of pictures of flying things on walls in Catalhöyük?
Possibly put bodies on roofs and waited for vultures to eat flesh
Wall painting in Catalhöyük
Melted in the rain (Fuckin Mellaart)

Hunt! Men throwing spears, horses

Either huge boar or huge bull (or just big because most important object is bigger)

Collective, group hunting!

MOST walls were painted (residential? could it be religious?

3-d sculpture? Were REALLY big on hunting.
Map in Catalhöyük!
Bottom of Catalhöyük, volcano in the distance. Whole area scattered with obsidien
Catalhöyük burials
Articulated! Still semi-attached.

Disarticulated bones out of order

Bones beneath the house

Paint on bones?

Grave goods (obsidian blade, ring wood things)
Catalhöyük figurines (animals + people)
Cow, sheep, goat

All domesticated by 7,000

Religious? Toys?

People figurines, woman. Giving birth? Fertility symbol? Mother goddess? Queen sitting on throne and fat? Paws of animal skin on shoulders?
Reasons why you settle somewhere
1. Water
2. Food
3. Defense
Jericho (backgroundish sort of stuff?)
Has an all-year water source! On the west bank

Garstand first excavator (said from 1400 bce, proof of bible?)
Kathleen Kenyon at Jericho
Found Neolithic Jericho from 7500 bce (prepottery neolithic a)

Found 30 foot tower and big wall
The Tower of Jericho
First defensive tower EVER.

Two purposes: hole at bottom, you can go up top. Found wheat, barley in dirt in tower. Was also a siloh! You could harvest whole town's worth of grain for a year in one week.

Community effort!
Tombs at Jericho
Had tombs as well as underneath homes

Lots of disarticulated bodies

Put body in, someone else dies, they shove first guy aside

Attached to skulls!
Skulls of Jericho
Body goes into tomb without head

Has shells where eyes are, plastered with mud

Put heads in corner of living room

Probably ancestor worship

Not only place! Some from Catalhöyük, 8 other ancient near east sites

Could have been enemies?
Ur (background)
year 2500 or 2600 bce

Frequently associated with Abraham

Present-day Iraq

The Sumerian Period - when Sumerians ruled ANE (Saddam Hussein reconstructed Ziggurat at Ur)

Royal Death Pit

Royal Standard
Royal Death Pit of Ur
Found about 2500 graves

About 16 or 17 were royal. Only a couple were very wealthy.

Servants go into tomb, drink poison to serve kind in afterlife

2 layers of servants for one king!

-King in white dome
-Queen Pu-Abi
-Ram in a Thicket
-Royal Harp
King in white dome (royal death pit of ur)
Items missing from tomb!

When found queen's tomb, dug tunnel to king's tomb and robbed it
Queen Pu-Abi (royal death pit of Ur)
Buried in her finery

Skull crushed servant girl from weight of the earth

Whole necklace made out of lapis lazuli
Ram in a Thicket from Ur
REALLY delicate.

Two of them found, one at UPenn, one in British museum
Royal Harp of Ur
used same technique as in Pomepii to reconstruct. Then redecorated (it was made of wood!)

mythological scenes on it

There WAS writing. Wrote stories on harp that made it into epic of Gilgamesh!
Other items found at royal death pit of Ur
Golden dagger

Golden helmet
Royal Standard of Ur
A box on a pole to be carried into battle?

Royal Box of uir

Probably a battle depicted on the box. Chariot battle?

Prisoners loot, booty on second layer

Bring things to king, who were eating and drinking out of cups

All bald, wore dreses, no shirts.

One guy with hair, lpaying the harp! That's how they reconstructed the harp that they found.

4500 years old! Ho'shit!
Tollund Man
2 guys cutting peat on bog in 1950, found body and called cops.

From 4th century BC (2400 years old!)

Peat is a preserving agent, flesh preserved! Even stomach contents are preserved (ate grains)

Acid in the peat eats away at the bones, makes them spongy

Found in tollund Phen

Beard kept growing post-mortem. Hanged! (executed? sacrificed?)

Some bog people probably criminals, but some women and children?
Lindow Man
50 - 100 ad

Discovered om 1989. Hit twice, strangled.

Mugged? Murdered? Executed?

Again, stomach contents had porridge in it.
Sutton Hoo
Found in 1939. Saxon ship datets from 620 - 650 ad. Royal burial or cenotaph?

Almost NOTHING preserved. Shop itself completely gone. Ghost image, negative impression reconstructed based on stains in the soil. Soil so acidic that it ate the wood! No bodies either...did acid eat away?

Nails in ship found!

Lots of stuff found in ship:
-shoulder clasp for cake/cloak, enamel inlayed
-solid gold buckle, leather gone
***wealthy person!***
-satchel lid - hinges in back, clasp in front
-helmet, functional for battle
-drinking horns, for mead or beer
Empty tomb!
Stuff found in Sutton Hoo ship
-shoulder clasp for cape/cloak, enamel inlayed

-solid gold buckle, leather gone

***wealthy person!***

-satchel lid - hinges in back, clasp in front

-helmet, functional for battle

-drinking horns, for mead or beer
Dead Sea Scrolls
On leather/parchment. Totally torn up from Israeli climate. Found in caves in Qumran.

Scrolls were library of settlement (hid library in caves when Romans invaded? If not, could be from temple in Jerusalem)

Mostly biblical stuff. All Old testament (except...Ruth? Ester?)

Found inkwells at site...same ink on scrolls?
8th century bce, reinhabited between 3rd cent. bc and 1st cent. bc, ending in 68 ad (romans destroyed it)

Not 100% that scrolls tied to Qumran communities

Cemetery first threw archaeologists off. Thought that it was a monastery, but found women and children!
Qumran site plan
Some baths, dining room

Father Duveau was first excavator, thought monks in Qumran wrote scripts.
Reconstructed scroll room of Qumran
Father Duveau didn't reconstruct correctly! Actually a dining room?
Finding of the Dead sea Scrolls
Guy following herd at Ras Fashka

Threw stone into cave, heard pottery shattering, thought "Gold!"

Found 10 scroll jars, one totally shattered

In one jar, found scrolls.

Sold scrolls in Bethlehem. Sold to Kando - leatherworker and antiquities dealer. Sold scrolls to Eliezer Sukenik
Eliezer Sukenik
Was sold the first Dead Sea scrolls
Languages on scrolls?
Some Hebrew, some Greek, some Aramaic
Three scrolls found in cave one
-Thanksgiving scrolls
-War scrolls
-Isaiah scroll
Thanksgiving scrolls
From cave one

The prayers and hymns of thanks that community used
War scroll
Waiting for doomsday (really outrageous scroll? sons of light versus sons of darkness!) [possibly written by the Escenes?]

From cave one
Isaiah scroll
Cave one

Copy from bible

next oldest copy is from 900 AD

Only about 13 minor transcription differences!
Archbishop Samuel
Had Sukenik authenticate, put on market for $5 million

Yigael Yadin (son of Sukenik) purchased! Ad in Wall Street Journal. Bought for $250,000, re-imbursed Israeli government
What did Yigael Yadin purchase?
1) Copy of Isaiah

2) Manual of Discipline (v. strict)

3) Commentary of Habakkuk

4) Genesis Apocryphon (different versions Genesis! some didn't get in.)
The Cave of Horrors
Found skeletons of people who starved from 1st and 2nd Jewish revolts. :-(
Commentary of Habakkuk
An uncommon interpretation of a biblical Book serving to condemn the "Wicked Priest" for persecuting the "Teacher of Righteousness"

Bought by Yigael Yadin.
Cave 3
Only one scroll, broken into two pieces

Made of copper and engraved

Took to Manchester tech and cut open. Treasure map!!!

Lists 64 treasures and gives directions on how to find. Not one has been found.
Cave 4
Scrolls not kept in jars, so not preserved

Holes ony big enough to hold pegs to hold shelves

Scrolls fell to the floor and disintegrated into 15,000 pieces

Didn't publish until 1990s, which ked to accusations of suppression!!
Cave 11
Psalms scroll!

Infra-red photos can see what has been erased!!
Book of Samuel
Late 3rd century BCE

Deutoronoy 32:8, "sons of God"

Passage left out of modern bible, in translation, scribe wrote first paragraph, got distracted, thought he had written second paragraph because starts out the same way.

The Temple Scroll
Not on the market until 1967. Offered for sale by Kando.

Intermediary Clergyman X from Virginia

Was a blueprint for reconstructing the temple!
Messianic Version
David-style messiah ruling both heaven and earth?
Qumran babtismal pools
People think that John the Baptist was at Qumran!
Who controls the scrolls?
Père de vaux put a white, male Christian group together to examine scrolls

In the 90s, demographics of interpretation changed, and then a lot of other otstuff changed

-J.T. Milik (smoking near scrolls)
-Strugnell (fired for anti-semetic statements)
Hunting Library in California
new director in 90s

noticed air conditioned, opened bank vault

Elizabeth Bektell had photographs of every fragment if Israel was destroyed

New director made it public access.

Now EVERYTHING is published.
1325 (most prominent) - 1519


Under Mexico city. Difficult to excavate!

Can excavate when stuff is under construction.

Last of the great cities...Cortés came in in 1519 and brought smallpox and guns and horses

City planned in quadrants!

Calendar stone, found in 1970
Population of Tenochtitlan
About 100k in city proper

Lots of people to feed! Floating gardens
Templo Mayor
Twin temples, dedicated to dieties

In Tenochtitlan

Lots of bloodletting, heart-ripping-out, etc. Very violent!

New graves found recently..possible sacrifices around temple?

Skull rack!
Blew up in 1450 bc because of huge volcano

Ash fell on crete, allowing them to get invaded?

One of largest explosions EVER
100 - 750 ce, era of prominence

pre-Aztec. Didn't know what language they spoke!

Pyramid shapes only for temples in New World
Sun Pyramid and Moon Pyramid
At Teotihuacán

Astronomical or astrological?

Sun, built in six stages (levels). Looks a lot like step pyramid!
Temple of the Feathered Serpent
Used to be called Temple of Quetzquotl, but now we're not sure if it WAS Quetzquotl!

Not too much left of day-to-day life
Chichen Iza

ad 600 - 1000 (prominence)

Near Cancún, buried in jungle

Lots of stuff about temples. Stuff on side of temples...part of religious presinct? Part of daily life?

Temple of Kukulan, Temple of the Warriors (warrrior-like stuff found there), Ball Court, Cenotes
Temple of Kukulkan
El Castillo

At Chichen Iza, Mayan
Ball Court of Chichen Iza
Fire hockey and hop ball game. If you lose, you get decapitated.

Most major sites have these ball courts.

Another skull rack! :-)
Sink holes, natural place w/ water Mostly used in antiquity for sacrifice.
Moche city

100 - 700 ce (prominence)

On the coast. Only about last 20 years that public knows stuff.

Very wealthy tomb!

Lord of Sipán tomb
Lord of Sipán tomb
-dates about a thousand years

-mud brick pyramids that have melted

royalty buried inside big pyramid structures

LOTS of illegal excavations/holes by looters
Discovery of Lord of Sipán tomb
In 1987, looters fighting over gold in tomb, called police. Cops called Walter Alva.

Looted stuff was found OUT OF CONTEXT.

Alva went back and found a lot of tomb

3 - 5 feet down from looter shaft, found a guy with no feet (guard, wouldn't run away?)
The Lord of Sipán
About 40 years old at death

Few women and men around him, probably servants
Jewelry in Lord of Sipán tomb
HUGE earrings, inlayed with turquoise and gold

New World equivalent to King Tut
Pottery vessels at Sipán
Animals in shape of who people are
Minoan Crete
7 or 8 palaces
2000 - 1200 bce

One of which is...Knossos!
Three phrases of Minoan Crete
200 - 1700

1700 - 1450

1450 - 1200
The Grand Daddy Palace

Sir Arthur Evans excavated

Used paid local workers. Brought the land, was looking for capital city. New about King Minos (myth of Theseus, Ariadne, Minotaur)

Evans reconstructed two stories (found stairs.)

BUT, he ruined the context. How does he know what it looked like? Completely and forever alters the site.

Stuff at knossos:

-bull horn things
-8-shields figure
-dolphin fresco
-snake goddess
-l parisienne
-procession fresco
-captain of the blacks
-The Priest King fresco
-Ivory flipping statuette
-Bull head vases
-Trading with Egypt
-Corridors for storage
Observations of Knossos
No fortified walls! No protection!

V. organized, massive multilevel structures.

Community outside of palace, marketplace, etc. Not just a palace!

Tiered off levels for shribs

Multiple palaces...either unified, consolidated, run by members of the same family, etc.

Redistribution center! Storing give food, get chips, come back in winter, get clothes, food, etc.
Why no fortifications at Knossos?
An Island...need a navy to attack!

Maybe 7 or 8 palaces were friendly...or family!
End of first phase of palace at Knossos
In 1700, earthquake? Palace rebuilt in same spot, same pottery, same culture
End of second phrase of palace at Knossos
Crete invaded!

Painting more war-like, warriors buried, started using Linear B (first and second phrases: linear A)
Bull-horn-like things on ceiling in courtyard of Knossos/throne rooms

Courtyards - have throne rooms off to side. No label on throne...whose thrown?

Originally only found one griffin, Evans reconstructed two!
Bathroom at Knossos
Waterproof tub

Drainage system!
8 shields figure at Knossos
Evidence of third phase...painting...war-like instead of nature-like
Dolphin frescoes
Evans reconstructed. Found this on the floor! Found evidence for two dolphins. Reconstructed five or six.

More likely floor paintings than wall paintings...found some other evidence of Minoan floor paintings

At Knossos!
Snake goddess of Knossos
Evans hired reconstruction artist to recreate two. Made nine orten...sold fakes
La Parisienne (Knossos)
Wearing make-up, elegant hairdo, uppoer-class

Dyed red white and blue (outfit). VERY hard to make!
Procession Fresco of Knossos
You can tell age by hairstyle...shave locks of hair every year until twelve!
Captain of the Blacks (Knossos)
Mercenaries from Africa?

You don't even know IF he's leading anything!
The Priest King Fresco
Most famous one. Really, really...wrong.

Actual fresco:

Top: Headdress is real, connected to WHITE forehead (women painted white/yellow, men brown/red)

Middle: Position of arm, middle, MAN (reddish-brown) boxing! Going to the RIGHT!

Leg: Male going same way as woman's head.

Put together three different frescoes?! Found in THREE DIFFERENT ROOMS!
Ivory flipping statue (Knossos)
Way feet are, could not stand on its own. Part of bull-flipping sculpture?
Trading with Egypt? (Minoan Crete/Knossos)
Painting with bull/maze!
Corridors for storage in Knossos
Six-foot tall storage jars!

One level kept in ground for temperature control, and space!
City from Santorini. Pompeii of the Agean!

At least 10 years of warning, so not many bodies or small things.

Guy who started the site was buried on the site. Fell off the baulk and broke his neck...was he pushed?!

Lots of nature stuff...paintings. Minoan colony?

Wall paintings preserved!

Boxing children, nylotic fresco
Nylotic fresco
River, papyrus. Evidence of trade with Egypt?

Blue monkeys REAL
Activity area
A pattern of artifacts in a site indicating that a specific activity, such as stone tool making, took place
Activity set
A set of artifacts that reveals the activities of an individual
Someone interested in the past who collects and digs up antiquities unscientifically, in contrast to the scientific archaeologist
Archaeological culture
A group of assemblages at several sites representing the surviving remains of an extinct culture
Archaeological unit
An arbitrary unit of classification set up by archaeologists to separate conveniently one grouping of artifacts in time and space from another
Archaeomagnetic dating
Chronometric dating using magnetic alignments from buried features, such as pottery kilns, which can be compared with known fluctuations in the earth's magnetic field to produce a date in years.
The relationship between an artifact and other archaeological finds and a site level, or another artifact, structure, or feature in the site.
A well-defined feature of an artifact that cannot be further subdivided. Archaeologists identify types of attributes, including form, style, and technology, in order to contribute and interpret artifacts
Technique for detecting buried features by thumping the ground and sensing the differences between compacted and undisturbed earth
A viscid substance under the bark of trees in which the annual growth of wood and bark takes place.
An association of all the artifacts from one occupation level at a site