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Absolute Dating
the determination of age with reference to a specific time scale, such as a fixed calendrical system; also referred to as chronometric dating. Examples of this form are Dendrochronology --First compiled by AE Douglas, astronomer, attempting to see how sunspots affect the earth's climate. Douglas first compiled a dendrochronologic record for living trees in the American southwest which took him back 500 years. He then compiled a sequence of archaeological wood structures, comprising several centuries, which could be used to date sites relative to each other. Dendrochronology works by counting rings of trees. It works best on conifers of temperate and arctic areas which show well defined concentric growth rings. This also has potential for providing climatic data. Through time a lengthy sample has been generated and can be used to check and calibrate radiocarbon dates.
ACHEULIAN
-- extension of Olduwan technology … hard and soft hammers
-- shapes are refined over one 1my across Old World
-- at the end, evidence for other material technologies
-- seems continuous with Olduwan in E. Africa
-- increased flow of information … clear increase of communication behaviors, but no language yet
-- lack of regional style
-- no evidence of division of labor or specialized resource exploitation
-- BUT, different kinds of sites, organization of living spaces
ALEXANDER MARSHAK
-- published “Roots of Civilization” (1972)
-- introduced use of microscopy to analyze engraved marks on Paleolithic artifacts
-- claimed that by employing microscope one could infer that many engraved objects had not simply been tallies, but complex notational representations of lunar cycles
-- inference rested on repeated sets marks … possible Paleolithic calendar sticks
Alfred L. Kroeber
1876-1960, American anthropologist. In 1901 he received the first Ph.D. in anthropology awarded from Columbia University. He then moved immediately to UCBerkely where he eventually worked with Robert Lowie. Kroeber contributed significantly to all four sub-fields of anthropology. His fieldwork focused on Native Americans, specifically the Arapaho, Zuni, and California tribes. He was an innovator in historical approach and statistical methods. In linguistics he made contributions to glottochronology and lexicostatistics. In archaeology he developed a seriation of Zuni potsherds. In physical he was among the first to recognize the potential importance of blood-group typing. He also developed general theories in cultural anthropology, including the superorganic. Works The Archaeology of California 1909; Zuni Potsherds 1916; "The Superorganic," in American Anthropologist 1917; Handbook of the Indians of California 1925; The Nature of Culture 1952.
Alfred V. Kidder
1886-1963, American archaeologist. Received the 6th American Ph.D. specializing in archaeology from Stanford, 1914. Conducted controlled, scientific excavations at Pecos Pueblo for 10 seasons. Big on stratigraphy and ceramics. Tested Nelson's stratigraphic method and was able to establish chronological framework, still used. Director of Division of Historical Research, Carnegie Institution. In this capacity, worked for 20 years on Mayan sites, establishing an interdisciplinary approach to research. Coordinated Pecos Conference which was an attempt to synthesize the bulk of archaeological data and methodology for the southwest at that time.
Amino Acid Dating
AAR, a method used in the dating of both human and animal bone. Its special significance is that with a small sample (10g) it can be applied to material up to 100,000 years old, i.e., beyond the time range of radiocarbon dating. Amino acids, which make up proteins, are present in all living things, and can exist in two mirror-image forms (enantiomers). Living organisms possess L-enantiomers, after death, these change at a steady rate (racemes) to D-enantiomers. This rate is effected by temperature, but can be calibrated for particular sites. This method was popular in the 60’s and yeilded extremely old dates and is not used very much today.
AMS Dating
Accelerator mass spectronomy. Used in radiocarbon dating, it reduces the amount of sample needed for testing (only a few milligrams are needed). Perhaps the most famous example of this technique was used to date the "Shroud of Turin," dated to between 1,260 and 1,390 (see absolute dating, above). Used for direct analysis of C14, non-destructive.
Animal Domestication
Evidence can be seen, archaeologically, through decrease in size from wild to domesticate; occurrence of morphological changes (eg., horn cores on wild goats evolve w/ domestication, shout length on pigs shifts which shifts dentition). Edward Hahn (19th century) thought domestication developed for religious reasons. Fritz Graeber felt plant domestication was by women and animal domestication by men.
ANTHROSOLS
-- sediment that is culturally-deposited or modified, making it an artifact (Schiffer)
-- one can understand the formation processes through analysis
Arbitrary Levels
the basic vertical subdivision of an excavation square; used only when easily recognizable "natural" stratification is lacking.
ARISTOTLE’S ‘NOTION of CAUSALITY’
-- thought of causes as “becauses” … outlined 4 different answers to the ‘because’ question
-- informal “what is its form?
-- material what comprises it?
-- efficient modification of something led to its ‘being’
-- ultimate ‘because that’s what the Creator determined it to be’
Aspartic Acid
has the fastest racemization rate of the stable amino acids and is the acid usually chosen for dating bone samples.
AURIGNACIAN
-- Upper Paleolithic culture … appears in Near East at 45 kya
-- spreads throughout by 35 kya as a material cultural pattern
-- beginning of prismatic blades and bone points … first evidence for ritual activities (ie, burials)
-- beginning of site-specific specialization and possible cultural specialization in particular faunas
-- regular exploitation of aquatic resources
-- Upper Paleolithic culture …
appears in Near East at 45 kya
-- spreads throughout by 35 kya as a material cultural pattern
-- beginning of prismatic blades and bone points … first evidence for ritual activities (ie, burials)
-- beginning of site-specific specialization and possible cultural specialization in particular faunas
-- regular exploitation of aquatic resources
Boucher de Perthes, Jaques
one of the first to use excavation as a primary field method at Somme site at Abbeville, France, 1859. de Perthes was one of the first to set standards for Old World archaeology in Europe.
1930-40's
" Looking for a better way to interpret archaeological information, ethnologist Clyde Kluckhohn (1940) and archaeologists Walter Taylor (1948) and Gordon Willey and Phillip Phillips (1958) shifted toward neoevolutionism (a more scientific method), which saw human behavior as highly patterned and largely governed by materialistic constrains. Leslie White saw technological change as the principal factor shaping the social organization and ideologies of cultures. Julian Steward (prodigy of Carl Sauer) advocated an ecological approach to understanding human behavior. Steward, with Seltzer argued that the main variables that accounted for cultural change could be studied by archaeologists if they shifted their attention from typology to subsistence and settlement patterns. All of these attempts to shift the discipline met strong opposition. For example, W.D. Strong suggested that archaeologists continue to focus on collecting essential data and leaving the interpretation and generalizing for a future, more leisure time. "
1960-70's
" The New Archaeology came about through several reasons, the opposition and mistrust of the traditional, race and gender relations, plus the fact that many anthropology departments were splitting from sociology and new universities were being built throughout the country created a larger job market for upcoming, idealistic anthropologists. Regarded as a response to the longstanding lack of a unified body of interpretative theory in archaeology that had been noted by various critics beginning in the 1940's (ala Taylor), New Archaeology added White's materialist/evolutionary perspective with Spaulding's quantitative methodological rigor, as well as the philosophical nomothetic deductive positivism of Hempel. Joseph Caldwell (1958, 1959) and Binford (1960-70's) were the primary proponents of this ""New"" or processual archaeology. "
3 Interpretive Models
" 1) Constructs, most basic, ID archaeological record (artifact's function); 2) Middle Range Theory, attempt to tie theories between human behavior and material remains, includes post-depositional processes (taphonomy, ethnoarchaeology); 3) General Theory, theories to explain cultural evolution."
Absolute Dating
" the determination of age with reference to a specific time scale, such as a fixed calendrical system; also referred to as chronometric dating. Examples of this form are Dendrochronology --First compiled by AE Douglas, astronomer, attempting to see how sunspots affect the earth's climate. Douglas first compiled a dendrochronologic record for living trees in the American southwest which took him back 500 years. He then compiled a sequence of archaeological wood structures, comprising several centuries, which could be used to date sites relative to each other. Dendrochronology works by counting rings of trees. It works best on conifers of temperate and arctic areas which show well defined concentric growth rings. This also has potential for providing climatic data. Through time a lengthy sample has been generated and can be used to check and calibrate radiocarbon dates."
ACHEULIAN
"-- extension of Olduwan technology … hard and soft hammers---- shapes are refined over one 1my across Old World---- at the end, evidence for other material technologies---- seems continuous with Olduwan in E. Africa------- increased flow of information … "
ALEXANDER MARSHAK
"-- published “Roots of Civilization” (1972)---- introduced use of microscopy to analyze engraved marks on Paleolithic artifacts---- claimed that by employing microscope one could infer that many engraved objects had not simply been tallies, but complex -"
Alfred L. Kroeber
"1876-1960, American anthropologist. In 1901 he received the first Ph.D. in anthropology awarded from Columbia University. He then moved immediately to UCBerkely where he eventually worked with Robert Lowie. Kroeber contributed significantly to all four sub-fields of anthropology. His fieldwork focused on Native Americans, specifically the Arapaho, Zuni, and California tribes. He was an innovator in historical approach and statistical methods. In linguistics he made contributions to glottochronology and lexicostatistics. In archaeology he developed a seriation of Zuni potsherds. In physical he was among the first to recognize the potential importance of blood-group typing. He also developed general theories in cultural anthropology, including the superorganic. Works The Archaeology of California 1909; Zuni Potsherds 1916; ""The Superorganic,"" in American Anthropologist 1917; Handbook of the Indians of California 1925; The Nature of Culture 1952."
Alfred V. Kidder
" 1886-1963, American archaeologist. Received the 6th American Ph.D. specializing in archaeology from Stanford, 1914. Conducted controlled, scientific excavations at Pecos Pueblo for 10 seasons. Big on stratigraphy and ceramics. Tested Nelson's stratigraphic method and was able to establish chronological framework, still used. Director of Division of Historical Research, Carnegie Institution. In this capacity, worked for 20 years on Mayan sites, establishing an interdisciplinary approach to research. Coordinated Pecos Conference which was an attempt to synthesize the bulk of archaeological data and methodology for the southwest at that time. "
Amino Acid Dating
" (racemization 84, 81) AAR, a method used in the dating of both human and animal bone. Its special significance is that with a small sample (10g) it can be applied to material up to 100,000 years old, i.e., beyond the time range of radiocarbon dating. Amino acids, which make up proteins, are present in all living things, and can exist in two mirror-image forms (enantiomers). Living organisms possess L-enantiomers, after death, these change at a steady rate (racemes) to D-enantiomers. This rate is effected by temperature, but can be calibrated for particular sites. This method was popular in the 60’s and yeilded extremely old dates and is not used very much today."
AMS Dating
" (90, 88, 88, 87) Accelerator mass spectronomy. Used in radiocarbon dating, it reduces the amount of sample needed for testing (only a few milligrams are needed). Perhaps the most famous example of this technique was used to date the ""Shroud of Turin,"" dated to between 1,260 and 1,390 (see absolute dating, above). Used for direct analysis of C14, non-destructive. "
Animal Domestication
" Evidence can be seen, archaeologically, through decrease in size from wild to domesticate; occurrence of morphological changes (eg., horn cores on wild goats evolve w/ domestication, shout length on pigs shifts which shifts dentition). Edward Hahn (19th century) thought domestication developed for religious reasons. Fritz Graeber felt plant domestication was by women and animal domestication by men. "
ANTHROSOLS
"-- sediment that is culturally-deposited or modified, making it an artifact (Schiffer)---- one can understand the formation processes through analysis--"
Arbitrary Levels
" the basic vertical subdivision of an excavation square; used only when easily recognizable ""natural"" stratification is lacking."
ARISTOTLE’S ‘NOTION of CAUSALITY’
-- thought of causes as “becauses” … outlined 4 different answers to the ‘because’ question---->-- informal---“what is its form?---->-- material-->what comprises it?---->-- efficient-->modification of something led to its ‘being’---->-- ultimate--> ‘becau
Aspartic Acid
has the fastest racemization rate of the stable amino acids and is the acid usually chosen for dating bone samples.
AURIGNACIAN
"-- Upper Paleolithic culture … appears in Near East at 45 kya---- spreads throughout by 35 kya as a material cultural pattern---- beginning of prismatic blades and bone points … first evidence for ritual activities (ie, burials)---- beginning of site-spec"
BINFORD vs. BORDES
-- debate over Mousterian tool types is argument over “styles vs. function”------ Bordes: differences in artifact type indicate differences in cultures among Neanderthals------ Binford: not different cultures but different tool types---- woodworking tools
"Boucher de Perthes, Jaques"
" one of the first to use excavation as a primary field method at Somme site at Abbeville, France, 1859. de Perthes was one of the first to set standards for Old World archaeology in Europe."
BOURDIEU
-- known for Theory of Practice … does not like idea of evolution---- concerned with human actions which result in habits or traditions---- by carrying out these behaviors they make these things become real--
BROAD SPECTRUM REVOLUTION
"-- Flannery (1969) - idea that during the Mesolithic, a ‘revolution’ occurred in dietary breadth---- whereas previously, people specialized in certain types of game, when specialization ends people eat everything!-- -->-- in part due to extinction of mega"
"CACTUS HILL, Southern Virgina"
"-- Clovis occupation BUT earlier occupation BELOW that---- possibly dating to 15,000 years … date comes from dispersed charcoal, which may not be accurate---- recovered bladelets and cores--"
Cahokia
" (85) Mississippian urban/ceremonial center, located at present day St. Louis. The site contained more than 100 mounds w/ an estimated pop. @ 30-35,000. Monk's Mound is located at the city center and is 33m tall, covers 16 acres, and was erected in at least 4 stages between the 9th and 11th centuries ad. On the summit of the mound was a thatched temple. The area of Cahokia covered 200 acres, fortified with a log fence, gates, and watchtowers. Several mounds were located outside this area with burial mounds, plazas, and residential areas expanding for over 2,000 acres. At the southern end of the Mississippian culture area was Moundville, located in Alabama. It is believed that these centers served as markets and focal points for great chiefdoms. Dozens of smaller centers/towns were existed between Cahokia and Moundville. The Mississippian people grew maize, squash, beans, and relied heavily on seasonal crops of nuts, fruits, etc.... The culture existed from around ad 800 until being decimated by disease in the early 16th century. It is believed that Mississippian society was ruled as a series of powerful chiefdoms, by an elite group of priests and rulers who were separated from the rest of the population. There are signs of possible Mexican influence in the layout of the plazas/mounds, and in the emphasis of public ceremony. "
"CAHOKIA, IL"
"-- Mississippian center located just outside St. Louis---- more than 100 mounds … Monk’s Mound in city center -- 33m tall, covers 16 acres, erected bw 900-1100 AD--"
"CAHOKIA, Illinois"
"-- largest Pre-Columbian town in US---- Early Mississippian site ~1000 AD - ~1250 AD---- chiefdom society with mounds to indicate differential social status---- Monk’s Mound - ~100 ft, 17 acres, 4 terraces. -- probably occupied by 1000s in separate residential mounds---- most residential structures were rectangular with sunken floors and walls made of thatch-covered poles---- defensive palisade erected in 12th century---- depopulation occurred, until city abandoned---- peaks in 1150 AD--"
Calusa
(88) This cultural region is located in the southwest coast and adjacent inland area of southern Florida.
CARNIERO’S CIRCUMSCRIPTION MODEL
-- argues that state formation occurs because of the managerial ranks established to keep things going and in order--
CARNIVORE GUILD MODEL
"-- Turner’s explanation for no ‘erectus’ in Europe---- no colonization until mega-carnivores go away … essentially, filling niche of carnivores--"
CENTRAL PLACE THEORY
"-- borrowed by archaeologists from “locational geography”---- predicts that human settlements will be located at roughly equal interviews across a landscape, according to patterns of ---resource availability, trade routes, communication---- will be distri"
Chavin
" Chavin de Huantar, a site high in the Andes, flourished from 850-200bc, and is the name of a major art style of ancient South America. The art is dominated by animal motifs. The site is considered a ceremonial center, the focus of a religious cult. "
Clifford Geertz
" symbolic anthropology is linked with him. He defines culture as ""an ordered system of meaning and of symbols, in terms of which social interaction takes place."" This approach is emic."
CRUMLEY’S HETERARCHY
-- concept of social complexity that emphasizes groups of people in charge---- societies can have many people in power … more like a typical tribe---- decentralization of decision making--EX: SW Pueblo - where political organization is based on 2 moieties
Crystal River
" The site (8CI1) was a ceremonial center which served a large area. The center had trade connections, either ceremonial or commercial, with Indians living at substantial distances from Florida. For 1600 years (200 BC to 1400 ad) the site was one of the most imposing prehistoric ceremonial centers on Florida's west coast, one of the longest, continuous occupation sites in Florida. The site consists of several mounds and two stone stelae. The mounds were comprised of temple mounds and burial mounds. The earliest occupants of the Crystal River site belonged to the Deptford culture (500bc to ca 300ad). The Deptford culture was followed by the Weedon Island culture (300ad to 900ad). The final period (900ad to 1400) was occupied by Safety Harbor culture. Artifacts recovered from the site suggest contact with the Ohio Valley Hopewell, theories have also been advanced which suggest diffusion from Mesoamerica. "
Cultural ecology
" The study of the processes by which a society adapts to its environment (Steward). CE considers such related subjects as the spatial structure of settlements and marketing arrangements, the origin and development of agriculture, the relationship between population density and other aspects of human life, and vernacular landscapes."
Cultural materialism
" emphasizes technology, economy, environment, and demography. As employed in archaeology, the general concept that all aspects of human culture are explicable in terms of the economic or productive system, which is considered to be the primary determinant of a human society's social structure and of its ideological system, or superstructure. Specifically, the method of cultural analysis and its rationale developed by Marvin Harris (1979), based upon the principle of economic determinism attributed to Karl Marx. An overall weakness of the cultural materialist position, like that of the ecological materialist paradigm as a whole, is that it is supremely reductionistic in attempting to account for all cultural phenomena in economic and subsistence terms, while ignoring the causal potential of emic superstructural categories, such as ideology, for determining specific qualities and characteristics of cultures past or present."
Cultural Relativism
the idea that on some deep level all cultures are fundamentally equal. Associated with Franz Boas and his students. CR sees interpretation of archaeological sites as being influenced by the culture and beliefs of the archaeologist who does the interpretations.
Cultural Resource Management
" The application of management skills, such as planning, organizing, directing, controlling, and evaluating, to the achievement of legally defined goals for preserving cultural remains of the past, including archaeological sites. In the US, legally mandated preservation efforts include both historic sties and buildings, and prehistoric archaeological remains, including shipwrecks. The Reservoir Salvage Act of 1960 produced some large-scale rescue archaeology similar to efforts authorized by the feds in the 1930's. The Historic Preservation Act of 1966 was one of the first really effective laws aimed at preserving sites rather than merely recording them prior to their destruction . Under its terms, the federal government was required to set up a nationwide system of identifying and protecting ""historic places,"" and the National Register was established. The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 went even further, outlining a broad policy of government planning for land use and resource management. With the passage of the Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979, removing archaeological material from federal lands without a permit became a federal offense."
Culture area
" a geographical region with a uniform culture. Clark Wissler was perhaps the most self-conscious writer on this concept, although much English-speaking anthropology is dependent on this notion (Boas and co). The culture area concept as it is currently conceived and applied is usually attributed to Kroeber. Kroeber defined 19 culture areas for Mexico and Central America (Mesoamerica), as well as the areas for North America. He took linguistic affiliations, material culture, subsistence, and ceremonially practices into consideration in characterizing these ethnogeographic units. One disadvantage of the culture area classification is the dependence upon lists of ""traits"" for their definition. Culture areas based on traits were used to define the HRAF."
Determinism
" The idea that many or most elements of human life can be explained by one set of factors, eg., economic, geographical, or cultural (usually prefixed with one of these). An environmental determinist would argue that physical environment explains much of human life. "
DOLNI VESTINICE
"-- Upper Paleolithic site, full of ceramic figurines (especially VENUS … may be a production center)---- burial pits include triple burials (side by side, with red ochre) inside and outside of houses---- burials are standardized … include differences betw"
Domestication
" (83) occurred separately in many parts of the world. The achievement of domestication meant that expanded populations could survive, and others could expand, and this in turn eventually necessitated higher levels of social organization. Animal domestication may have begun in several ways; keeping offspring of a killed parent animal, capturing animals and keeping them alive for future food supply, herd following may have developed into herd management. There are 3 ways to determine animal domestication. 1) changes in bone, changes in age pattern of animal population, and representations painted or carved by people. Zooarchaeologist Isabella Drew has been conducting microstructure analysis of animal bones to determine if it is possible to differentiate between domesticated and wild animals. It appears as though domestic animals show weaker bone structure, which could be caused by stress through lack of exercise, poor nutrition, genetic deteriorations, etc. Plant domestication began just after the end of the Ice Age, (ca., 10,000 ybp). Earliest attempts can be seen in Near East, around this time with wheat and barley farming present by 8,000 ybp. It's present in Europe by 6,500 ybp, and documented evidence exists of farming at this time in South Asia at Mehrgarh in Baluchistan. Plant domestication may have begun in Peru around this time also. Primary early crops are cereals and legumes in Middle East, rice, cereals and root crops in Far East, and peppers, squashes, beans and maize in New World. "
Early 1900's
" Historical Particularism, big on migrationism and diffusion. Boas, anti-evolutionist, stressed the unpredictability of culture change which he attributed to diffusion. Through acceptance of his methodology American archaeologists and ethnologists began the ideology of cultural relativism -this denied that any culture could be evaluated by a standard external to itself (eg., cultural evolution). Boas also supported historical Particularism which rejected claims that there were inevitable trends in cultural development. These formed the culture-historical approach which defined chronological sequences and cultural areas, interpreting major innovations in North American (eg., domestication, mounds, metallurgy) as diffusion (a biggy here) from Mesoamerica or Siberia. This approach marked a definitive advance by comparison with the preceding paradigm because it allowed archaeologists to take account of temporal as well as spatial variations in the archaeological record. "
Electron spin resonance --
"relatively new, a non-destructive technique which requires a smaller sample to date. It works by placing the sample within a strong magnetic field. The energy absorbed by the object as the strength of the field is varied provides a spectrum from which the trapped electron population can be measured. Enables trapped electrons within bone and shell to be measured without the heating that Thermoluminescence requires. As with TL, the number of trapped electrons indicates the age of the specimen It can date items from 5,000-1million years old."
Elizabeth Brumfield
" American archaeologist, MA UCLA 1969, Ph.D. Univ. Michigan 1976. Much work on Aztec sites. Areas of work –--cultural ecology/specialization, exchange; Aztec ethnohistory. She felt the reason for the formation of the state was to facilitate distribution-- 1) intensification of conflict led to alliance of three primary kingdoms, 2) centralization of power, 3) consolidation of power, 4) development of bureaucracy. works--""Ecological Theories of the Origin of the State A Critique and a Possible Alternative."" Paper given at AAA, 1976; Specialization, Exchange, and Complex Societies, edited w/ Tim Earle, 1987;"
EMIL HAURY
"-- first used term “Mogollon” in 1936 … for New Mexico culture---- said ~200-1000 AD … with pit houses, brown pottery---- multifamily villages and pre-agriculture--"
Fiber-tempered Ceramics
" (87, 85) temper refers to inclusions in pottery clay which act as a filler to give the clay added strength and workability and to c counteract any cracking or shrinkage during firing. Fiber-temper is used as a ceramic horizon in Florida because it is easily recognizable. Earliest ceramics in Florida were tempered with palmetto or Spanish Moss. It has been dated at 2,000 to 1,000 BC. The late Archaic Orange culture of East Florida, actually fiber tempered pottery is characteristic of Orange culture from 2,000 to 500bc. Pottery is the most common artifact found of this culture. Bullen has established changes in the pottery through time, which is useful for establishing subperiods within the Orange period (Orange 1 through 5). Fiber-tempered pottery in northwest FL has been assigned to Norwood series. It's not clear if the Orange and Norwood are separate ceramic series. Millanich treats these two as variants of the same ware. Tampa Bay area also shows presence of fiber-tempered pottery, but this culture has not been named. Late Archaic sites of the area possess both Orange and Norwood styles. Deptford pottery is easily distinguishable from fiber-tempered. The use of fiber as a tempering agent died out gradually. Information from the Georgia coast indicates that fiber tempering was still used occasionally as late as ad 1; on the Gulf coast, fiber-tempered pottery is relatively common in early Deptford components."
Fission-track dating --
"used to date geologic formations associated with sites. It is most useful for early Paleolithic sites, particularly where potassium-argon can't be used. Fission track dating begins about 100,000 years back and continues to well over 5 million."
"FRANCHTHI CAVE, Greece"
-- Mesolithic … deep stratigraphical sequence indicates rising sea level and economic change---- suggests that incipient cultivation may have been undertaken with certain plants … maybe legumes---- shows evidence for domestication of animals … seen in cha
Functionalism
" (or Structural-functionalism) relates meaning to ideology. An approach set forth by AR Radcliffe-Brown and B. Malinowski, starting in the 1920's. (functionalism is Malinowski's term) Distrusting the conjectural history of much ethnographic work, functionalists argued that ethnographic study should concentrate on the present and should strive to understand societies by analyzing the function of culture elements and their structural relationship to each other. Structural-functionalism dominated British anthropology until the 1960's and had a profound effect on North American anthropology as well."
Gender in Archaeology
" This can take several meanings. gender as it relates to archaeological work; gender as it refers to the archaeological record; etc. A field that has been long dominated by men is now opening to more women (e.g., Deagan, Watson, etc.). Often artifacts are characterized as either male or female. Flannery and Winter, for example characterize grinding stones, pottery charcoal braziers, pots, and other items as female. This can be problematic, for instance, the first Navajo rug weavers were men, yet about 100 years ago, women began weaving. A woman found buried with a grinding stone is assumed to have used it in life, a man buried with a similar stone is thought to have manufactured the stone. By gendering the archaeological record, it can often lead to the problem of the ""invisible woman."" When physical anthropologists identify skeletons as to gender, they are working from biology. But in examining the material dimensions of gender, archaeologists are approaching culturally conditioned and culturally variable behavior."
George Cowgill
" (93) worked with Millon at Teotihuacan (1974). He has been critical of New Archaeology's emphasis on formal/mathematical methods, and stresses rather than further elaboration of quantitative methods, archaeology needs a theory on all 3 interpretive levels."
Gordon R. Willey
" (90, 86, 84, 84) American archaeologist, 1913-? BA and MA at University of Arizona, Ph.D. at Columbia University (1942). Anthro instructor at Columbia (1942-43), Senior Anthropologist at the Bureau of American Ethnology (1943-1950), Professor at Harvard until retiring in 1983. Significant works in North, Middle, and South America. ***Archaeology of the Florida Gulf Coast (1949) established the basic space-time structure of this region of the US. Primitive Settlement Patterns in the Belize Valley (?) marked the beginning of settlement-pattern investigation in the Maya Lowlands. Prehistoric Settlement patterns in the Viru Valley, Peru (1953) was the first major settlement pattern survey in New World archaeology and has formed the basis for many later studies. He has been influential in the study of ancient settlement patterns. Other major works Method and Theory in American Archaeology (1958); An Introduction to American Archaeology (1966-1971)."
HAYDEN’S SOCIAL PRESTIGE MODEL
"-- agent-based model for origins of agriculture---- says feasting and social structure go together … bigger parties may have led to origins of agriculture---- people actively tried to domesticate, in order to increase yields--"
HOPEWELL
"** mound builders!---- ~200 BC - AD 400 … Middle Woodland---- extensive trade networks … Great Lakes to Gulf Coast, Rockies, Appalachia---- ~12 regional variants---- OHIO HOPEWELL: dispersed sedentary households, hamlets clustered around a ceremonial center that contained ---earthworks in a variety of shapes, which might possibly match celestial cycles---- regions linked, in part, to burial practice of interring individuals with valued goods---- tribal society … residentially stable horticulturalists---- raptorial bird motif prominent in art---- collapse unknown--"
Ian Hodder
" British archaeologist, proponent of the contextual approach (and cognitive model of culture), seen as a rival to the processual approach. Hodder claims that material culture is not merely a reflection of ecological adaptations or sociopolitical organization but an active element in human relation and that it can be used to disguise as well as reflect social relations. This view runs counter to Binford's position that the relative amount of wealth consumed in burial rituals in a particular society reflects the degree of social differentiation within that society. For contextualism, it is necessary to examine all possible aspects of an archaeological culture in order to understand the significance of each part. Currently at Cambridge University. Works ""Postprocessual Archaeology."" 1-26, 1985; The Archaeology of Contextual Meanings, 1987; Theory and Practice in Archaeology, 1992. Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory 8"
IAN HODDER
"-- his ‘contextual’ archaeology was seen as a rival paradigm to processual archaeology---- basic idea is that material culture is not merely a reflection of ecological adaptation or sociopolitical organization, but also ---an active element in group relat"
Indian Knoll
" (89) Green River culture (late archaic) 3000-2000BC, large shell midden, site is located in southwestern Kentucky, best known excavated by William Webb as WPA project. Site contained 1000 burials. Green River sites show a late archaic riverine adaptation with evidence of small scale horticulture and egalitarian environment."
Ivor Noel Hume
" worked Martin's 100, originally thought to be a standard plantation site, found it to be the site of a 17th century pilgrim massacre."
J. Sabloff
Ph.D. Harvard. Presently at University of Pittsburg. Sabloff has worked in Central America (Mayan sites) and worked on the fall of Classic Maya Civilization. Works: A History of American Archaeology 1993 and The Cities of Ancient Mexico 1989.
James A. Ford
"Ford/Spaulding Debate, 81) 1911-1968, American archaeologist. One of first to look at American southeast. MA at Univ. of Michigan 1938, Ph.D. at Columbia 1949, became assistant curator of North American Archaeology at Museum of Natural History upon Nelson's retirement; curator of archaeology at FL State Museum 1964-8; also taught at Univ. of FL. Did much work through WPA projects. Worked Poverty Point (which CB Moore has worked 40 years prior). Began series of stratigraphic excavations there to determine the prehistoric sequence. Developed seriation to deal with sequential ordering of various stages of ceramics recovered from the site. Through this he established the baseline prehistoric chronology for the southeast. In addition to southeastern work, Ford also worked in Alaska and Latin America. In his later years he began comparing formative periods of Latin America with those of the southeast. Working with James Griffin, he organized the first Southeastern Archaeological Conference in 1938; he was president of SAA from 1963-4. Works ""A Chronological Method Applicable to the Southeast,"" American Antiquity 1938; ""Early Formative Cultures in Georgia and Florida,"" American Antiquity 1966."
John Griffin
" (89, 86) big in southeast, worked for National Park Service."
JOMON
"Japanese culture---- earliest ceramics at 10,700 BC … early Holocene Japan---- technology based on stone, wood, and other plant materials … ceramics, but NO metal---- population lived in hamlets, villages, pit houses---- foraging economy based on hunting, fishing, collecting---- ceramics are finger-punctated or cord marked---- 5 STAGES: Initial, Early, Middle, Late, and Final … also, regional phases: Incipient and Epi-Jomon---- ends ~3000 BP"
Kathleen A. Deagan
" (1948- American, archaeologist. Specializing in Spanish colonial sites, currently at Univ. of Florida. Worked extensively at St. Augustine, instructed under Fairbanks. Her work has focused on the processes and results of Spanish-Indian intermarriage and descent (which can only be found through the archaeological recorded in Florida); demographic collapse and biological imbalance resulting from Old World/New World interchange; and the processes behind the disintegration of traditional cultural patterns. She also worked in the Caribbean on similar sites. "
Kent Flannery
" (86, 84) takes systems theory approach, non-admitting New Archaeologist. Conducted work on origins of maize farming and looked for the beginnings of agriculture in Oaxaca and other parts of Mexico, wrote ""The Golden Marshaltown."""
KOSTENKI
"-- site on Don River (??)---- occupied between 22,000-21,000 BC … Upper Paleolithic---- site contains a number of hollows filled with bones and other debris … but plan is so irregular its hard to tell if they’re ---structures or storage pits---- also, con"
La Venta
" Olmec site at La Venta, Mexico (located on the Gulf coast, in Tabasco), 1st millennium BC. The site has several stone stelae, of which the largest is over 50 tons. In 1955 an experiment was conducted to see how these stones were transported into position. La Venta is believed to have flourished from 1200-800bc. "
LA VENTA
"-- Olmec site along Rio Tonala in state of Tobasco … located on a salt dome---- Middle Formation Period (900-400 BC)---- contained perhaps ~20,000 population---- exchange networks over lowland and highland Mesoamerica--** best known for 108 ft tall fluted"
LAPITA
"-- culture found throughout OCEANIA … first found ~1500 BC … ends ~AD 200-300---- elaborately decorated pottery evolving to simpler decorations over time---- extensive aquatic and arboreal exploitation … domesticated chicken, pig and dog … HUGE trade netw"
Lehner Ranch
" Arizona, Clovis site, combined with Murray Springs site, gave 21 dates yielded 11,000 =/- 200 years, also included 13 mammoth carcasses."
Leone
" ""...archaeology in some environments is used to serve political ends and by the growing controversy over the ownership and control of remains and interpretations of the past."" --""Toward a Critical Archaeology,"" Current Anthropology (1987), Leone, Potter, Shackel."
Louis Binford
" (1930-) New Archaeology-Processual Archaeology. American archaeologist, Univ. of Michigan. Binford has emphasized evolutionary changes, especially the impact of new technologies and population pressure on the development of hunter-gatherer cultures, and processes leading to the development of food-production and complex societies. He proposed that artifacts be examined in terms of their cultural contexts. Influenced by WW Taylor and student of Leslie White. He felt that archaeologists must formulate hypotheses, test them, and incorporate random sampling into their investigations. He designed several projects to incorporate statistical techniques and prove their worth. At Hatchery West he questioned survey and testing techniques as reliable indications of subsurface features and discovered that not always a 1 to 1 correlation to surface finds and what you would like to find underneath. Also worked on the Middle Range Theory. Works Archaeology as Anthropology 1962 and Smudge Pits and Hide Smoking and The Use of Analogy in Archaeological Reasoning (1962)."
Manasota Key Site
" Manasota culture, beginning about 500 BC, and extending to the late Weeden Island period, about 700 ad. It is characterized by sites which yield evidence of an economy based on fishing, hunting, and shellfish-gathering. The sites yield evidence of burial practices involving primary, flexed burials...Ceramic manufacturing was limited to sand-tempered, undecorated pottery such as flattened-globular bowls and pots with a converged orifice. Many shell tools were used including fighting conch shell hammers, left-handed whelk shell ""spokeshaves,"" columellae, and hammers. There was little use of stone tools. Bone tools include barbs and simple points made from long bones."
Mark Leone
" 1946- American archaeologist, MA @ Univ. of AZ 1965, Ph.D. 1968. Associate Professor of Anthropology at Princeton University since 1977. Research in North American prehistory, historical archaeology, Mormon religion, and outdoor history museums. Written extensively on some of the ideological aspects of archaeology, a proponent of Critical Theory (Marxist). The ideas which have been advanced by Leone have been presented to address the need for archaeologists to be more cognizant of the motivations which drive their work. Works. Roots of Modern Mormonism 1980; Symbolic, Structural, and Critical Archaeology... 1986; The Recovery of Meaning (edited w/ Parker Potter) 1988."
Marxist theory
" a theoretical perspective which emphasizes the primary significance of the relations of production to the dynamics of social change. Symbolic, structural, and critical archaeology have all been influenced by Marxist thought. Primarily, they have taken the Marxist thought that conflicts that develop within societies concerning the ability of different social groups to controls the production and allocation of goods and services is a major internal stimulus to change. American use of Marxist concepts in archaeology reacts to the deficiencies of the New Archaeology. The Marxist approach emphasizes the impact of economics on industrial society, especially as manifested in the division of labor and mode of production. In less stratified, non-Western societies, this perspective often focuses on how cultural definitions of sex and age limit dominance in social and political hierarchies."
Maya Hieroglyphic Writing
" dated as early as 250 BC. Maya glyphs represent sounds, not concepts. "
MCKERN and the MIDWESTERN TAXONOMIC SYSTEM (1954)
"-- explains formal similarities between cultures based on shared cultural expressions---- THE LEVELS: ------- FOCUS - similar sites, with similar trait complexes---------- manifestation of the focus at the site------- ASPECT - similar foci (ie, decoration"
"MEADOWCROFT ROCK SHELTER, Pennsylvania"
"-- excavated by Adavasio---- radiocarbon dates suggest occupation of ~12,000 years---- lowermost subunit yielded 7 dates from ~19,600-13,230 radiocarbon years---- Vance Haynes questioned the dates, argued that coal particles skewed the dates---- recovered"
Meadowcroft Rockshelter
" (88, 84, 83, 81) site # 36WH297, Washington County, western PA. A Paleolithic rockshelter which has provided the oldest dated (12.8 to 19.6) projectile point south of the glacial ice in the Americas. The site contains Clovis points as well as points, below the Clovis level, which don't have the characteristic flute. The site was dated through radiocarbon methods. This site was worked by James Advasio"
Mean Ceramic Date
" (89) developed by Stanely South as a way to more accurately date pottery associated with historic sites. Since there is typically a difference from the time of manufacture of pottery to its time use, the mean ceramic date shifts the emphasis away from beginning and end dates (terminus ante and post quem) for ceramics, emphasizing instead the mid-range, median date. The MCD pools information across a feature to determine the median date of manufacture for each sherd then averages the dates to arrive at the mean occupation date implied by the entire collection. South has found this method to rarely deviate from a range of +/- 4 years from the known median historic data of a site. The MCD relies on two assumptions 1) that ceramic types are roughly contemporary at all sites at which they occur; and 2) that the mid-range date of manufacture approximates the modal date of popularity."
Megafauna
"(84) Large fauna that once inhabited the New and Old World during the last ice age but then became extinct around 9,000 BP. "
MESOLITHIC
"~8000 - 3500 BC---- cultural change at end of Pleistocene---- defined originally by ceramics, aquatic exploitation---- The Norm: sedentary villages, burials, Broad Spectrum Revolution in Europe"
MIDDLE PALEOLITHIC TRANSITION
"-- ~250-45 KBC---- from core-based tradition in Acheulian … to flake-based in Mousterian , prepared core in Levallois--** beginning of regional variability in tool types!---- no evidence for marine exploitation … still Upper Pleistocene fauna---- characte"
Middle Range Research
designed to address behavior which provided material record.
Middle Range Theory
" regarding site formation, attempts to draw the archaeological and historical records closer together in order to recover as much meaning as possible from the two sources. In other words, a distinct body of ideas to bridge the gap between raw archaeological evidence and the general observations and conclusions to be derived from it."
MIDDLE RANGE THEORY
-- Binford’s backbone of New Archaeology---- concerned with inferring human behavior from archaeological data---- embraces acts of identification … finding patterns of human behaviors---- Two Major Difficulties:------- ethnobiarchaeological studies are “t
Minimum Number of Individuals
a method of assessing species abundance in faunal assemblages based on a calculation of the smallest number of animals necessary to account for all the identified bones. Usually calculated from the most abundant bone or tooth from either the left or right side of the animal.
Minoans
" Scientists have been trying to determine if an eruption of a volcano on Thera (Santorini) ca. 3,500 ybp was the cause for the destruction of Minoan palaces on Crete (69 miles away). Debate still exists, but evidence from Greenland ice cores, and tree ring analysis suggest this could be. Minoan IA pottery exists on Thera, but not Minoan IB, which was present at Crete, suggesting the volcano couldn't be responsible."
Monk's Mound
" see Cahokia, below."
MONTE ALBAN
"-- capital of Oaxaca Valley---- founded at end of Middle Formative Period ~500 BC … abandoned ~AD 700---- attain maximum population size and architectural elaboration during the Late Classic (AD 500-700)------- population of ~25,000 … located on 2000 terr"
Monte Verde
" a Paleolithic site in Chile, several radiocarbon dates place the site in the range 13,000-12,000 BP. Excavated by Dr. T. Dillehay (Univ. of Kentucky). Artifacts recovered include (from peat bog) few stone tools, waterlogged wooden materials, worked mastodon tusks, architectural structures. Oldest evidence anywhere for presence for wild potato, shows settlement of paleo Indians, rather than mobile ways."
"MONTE VERDE, Chile"
-- excavated by Dillehay---- peat bog with wooden and lithic materials---- may push settlement of New World back because of 12K-13K date … and possibly later---- some (Feidel) are critical of stratigraphy---- wooden foundations of 12 domesticate structure
NAA Analysis
" Neutron activation analysis, a method used in the analysis of artifact composition which depends on the excitation of the nuclei of the atoms of a sample's various elements, when these are bombarded with slow neutrons. The method is accurate to about +/- 5%. This technique is not well suited for lead. NAA came into widespread use in the 1970's and has been widely used for obsidian, pottery, metals and other materials. It is particularly useful for coins and other small objects, because it is entirely non-destructive. An example of this use, can be seen in Pires-Ferreira's study of the early and middle formative period (1450-500 BC) in Oaxaca. By analyzing these materials, she was able to determine exchange networks in the area. NAA can also be used to source raw materials found at sites."
NAGPRA
" Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, proposed in November, 1990 (HR 5237). Required agencies with control of Native American human remains and associated funery objects to inventory all items and identify the geographical and cultural affiliation of each item. The inventory was to be completed 5 years after enactment of the Act. Makes it illegal to traffic Native American human remains and cultural items. Provides provisions for intentional and inadvertent excavation of objects. Defines ownership of these items. "
NATUFIAN
"-- Epi-Paleolithic culture in Levant --** beginning of sedentism---- starting to get skulls under houses and groups of burials (early cemeteries? ~12,500-10,500 BP---- took from Kebaran hunter-gatherers---- exploited wild emmer wheat and barley, nuts---- "
Nels Nelson
" 1875-1964, Dutch, American trained archaeologist. MA in archaeology at UC Berkeley after receiving BA in philosophy at Stanford. Thesis was on shell mounds around San Francisco Bay area, recorded 425 mounds. Also worked in New Mexico, northern Florida, Europe, and Asia. Best remembered for his contributions to stratigraphic technique. "
NEOLITHIC
"-- emerged ~10,000 BP in Levant---- cultural period characterized by AGRICULTURE and SEDENTISM--"
New Archaeology
" advocates the use of scientific method, statistical procedures, and interpretative principles derived from cultural anthropology to develop general explanatory principles for phenomena observed from the archaeological record. New archaeologists advocated a problem-oriented program of archaeological research that included the formulation of falsifiable hypotheses that could be tested through evaluation and analysis of specific kinds of empirical data collected in the course of field studies. Because of the emphasis placed upon ""process,"" the dynamic behavioral aspect of past cultures and in particular upon those processes contributing to the formation of the archaeological record, the new archaeology has also been called ""processual archaeology. The opposing views of the structuralist-oriented European school that arose at the end of the 1970's as a reaction against the materialist bias of the new archaeology have been called postprocessualism. New archaeology relies heavily on statistical methods and the application of general systems theory. "
NEW ARCHAEOLOGY
-- Binford’s call to arms in the 1960s------- to understand the processes and the cultural evolutionary changes------- strong bent on cultural ecology … study of processes by which a culture adapts to its environment------- move away from trait list towar
Nok Culture
" Negerian, ca. 1,500 BC. Thermoluminescene dating has been used on terracotta heads from Jemaa, Nigeria, providing the first reliable date for this and other terracottas from the Nok region."
Obsidian Exchange Networks
" Obsidian is good for characterization and distribution studies because there are relatively few sources in world. Its chemical constitution is different from each source, allowing for source analysis. Since the material can be sourced, studies can be done based on the relative abundance of the material at sites. For example, sites relatively close to the source (e.g., Catal Huyuk, Tell Shemsharah) contain 80% obsidian of total chipped stone tools (these are located within the supply zone). Sites farther from the source will show an exponential fall-off of obsidian (the contact zone). By looking at these abundances, information can be obtained regarding the spatial distribution of materials. NAA can be used to source obsidian."
OLDUWAN
"-- ~2 - 1.4 mya---- Lower Pleistocene industry … though type artifact is core chopper, the big tool was the flake---- most likely produced by GRACILES---- evidence indicates that hominins were scavengers---- site patterns indicate incipient social organiz"
OPTIMAL FORAGING THEORY
-- “prey choice” (Diet Breadth Model)---- designed to predict the food items the forager will attempt to exploit and those it will ignore in favor of continued search ---for more preferred foods---- assumes that prey vary in net returns from type to type-
Ozette
" a site in the Pacific Northwest, Washington. It was a coastal whaling village when it was covered by a mudslide in 1750. Oral tradition kept the location of the site known, until wave action began to erode and uncover the site, making it available for looting. The site was excavated by Richard Daugherty and was found to be extremely well preserved. Over 50,000 artifacts were recovered including several cedarwood long houses and a large cedar block carved into a whale fin and elaborately decorated."
Paleodemography
" population patterns of past peoples, used to estimate population density and impact on environment/resource utilization. "
Paleoethnobotany
" (archaeobotany) the recovery and identification of plant remains from archaeological contexts, important in the reconstruction of past environments and economies. One study, done by Fed Wendorf at Wadi Kubbaniya, looked at food plant remains from four sites dating to between 19,000 and 17,000 ybp."
Palynology
(91) the analysis of fossil pollen as an aid to the reconstruction of past vegetation and climates. It can be used for examining prehistoric ecological adaptations. One of the more important applications of palynology is the reconstruction of past environments.
PALYNOLOGY
"-- study of fossil or living plant spores or pollens ---- EX: on Easter Island, proved that island experienced massive deforestation from ~1,200 years ago, until 1722 (when no ---trees were left)--"
PARADIGMS
-- early 1900s ---- Historical Particularism / Culture History------- migration and diffusion------- Boas stressed the unpredictability of culture change------- methodology leads to development of cultural relativism and the cultural-historical approach-
Particularist
" when an historic site is examined with a particular agenda in mind. The site is studied and interpreted around a particular interest, regardless of any greater data which may be uncovered."
Patty Jo Watson
" (91) 1932- MA, Univ. of Chicago, 1956; Ph.D. 1959. Student of Braidwood, a second generation ""new archaeologist."" Worked the Mammoth Cave site. Co-authored Explanation in Archaeology (1971) with Steven LeBlanc, and Charles Redman. Works: Research and Theory in Current Archaeology (with Willey), 1973; Archaeological Explanation, 1985; Associate Editor of American Anthropologist 1973-76; editor of American Antiquity 1984-87."
Paul Martin
" (1899-1974) American archaeologist, Ph.D. Univ of Chicago 1929. Director of Archaeological Research for National Science Foundation. Works Archaeology of North American (1933)."
PIERCE’S 3 KIND of SIGNS
"-- INDEX - something directly influenced by whatever it is representing (ie, stock exchange)------- natural response to the environment---- ICON - something that bears resemblance to what it represents---- SYMBOL - completely arbitrary … socially agreed u"
Plant Domestication
" ca. 10,000 ybp shift began toward cultivation. Middle East (Fertile Crescent) emergence about 10,000-8,500ybp. Braidwood ran the Jarmo project in an attempt to determine the shift to domestication. Millet is cultivated in SE Asia by 6,000ybp. Domestication in the Western Hemisphere began about 3,500-4,000 years after Middle East (ca. 5,000bp). Technological advances which have assisted in study of domestication include water flotation, SEM (scanning electron microscopy), and AMS (accelerated mass spectronomy). Contributors to this study include MacNeish, Flanner, Watson. Earliest known rice domestication at Non Nok Tha (5,000ybp). Early Chinese agricultural societies were centered along the Huangho and Yangtze rivers. First domestication of plant foods in Asia is seen at Spirit Cave (9,000ybp). Lung-shan, Chinese culture associated with spread of rice cultivation, is seen after 4,400ybp. Earliest known maize domestication at Tehuacan Valley. "
PLEISTOCENE
"-- ~ 1.8 mya - 10 kya---- 3 Stages: Upper (130K-10 kya), Middle (730-130 kya), Lower (2.4-1.8 mya - 730 kya)---- associated with continental glaciations in Northern latitudes---- emergence of Homo line, moderns ---- ends at Holocene--"
Post-processual
" recent theoretical development (ca last 15 years), based on a combination of historical, cognitive-structuralist, and linguistic methods. It is the opposing view to Binford's ""New archaeology."" A structuralist-oriented European school that arose at the end of the 1970's as a reaction against the materialist bias of the ""new"" archaeology. Also referred to as neo-Marxist, critical, and post-structuralist. Post-processual archaeologists have argued that archaeology is an interpretive science, that symbols, ideologies and structures of meaning are not merely reflections of how humans cope with the vagaries of external environments. Hodder sees the SAA as emphasizing middle-range theory, site formation processes, hunter-gatherer strategies, and regional studies."
Potassium-argon dating --
"used to date volcanic rocks hundreds to thousands of years old. It measures the rate of decay in volcanic rock from potassium-40 to argon-40. This method has been used to date early hominid sites. It can date specimens from 50,000 to over 5 million years old."
Poverty Point
" a late archaic culture (ca 2000 to 600 BC) centered in the lower Mississippi River valley, and found in adjacent portions of LA and MI. In northwest Florida, evidence of a localized expression of this culture is present at Elliott's Point complex sites. C Webb (1977) has reviewed radiocarbon and thermoluminescence dates of Poverty Point culture and suggests it began ca. 1800 BC, was fully developed by 1200-1000bc, and lasted until about 500bc. Associated artifacts from this culture have been found at the Tick Island site on St. Johns River and the Canton St. site in the Tampa Bay area. The Poverty Point site, located in LA, was originally worked by CB Moore in the late 19th century. James Ford conducted investigations of the site as part of the WPA projects of the 1930's. Ford began a series of stratigraphic excavations here to determine the prehistoric sequence. To deal with the various stages of ceramics recovered from the site, Ford developed a method of sequential ordering (seriation). Through this work he established the baseline prehistoric chronology for the southeast. The principal feature of the Poverty Point site was a huge semicircular enclosure delimited by six artificial embankments that formed concentric arcs. Each is made up of 8 earthen ridges more than 2 meters high. The outermost octagon is more than 1290 meters wide. West of this ridge lies a great mound, 20 meters high and more than 200 meters long, where the vernal and autumnal equinox can be observed. It is believed that the site has possible Mesoamerican connections (Webb 1968). The Poverty Point culture went into decline in approximately 700bc, just as mound building reached new heights in the Ohio Valley through the culture of the Adena. "
"POVERTY POINT, Louisiana"
"-- Mid to Late Archaic site … 2200-700 BC … built between 1000-700 BC---- mound complex and culture consisting of 6 mounds and 6 concentric semi-circular rings on banks of Bayou Macon---- excavated by Webb, Ford, Gibson among others---- most likely repres"
PRIMITIVE CULTIVATION
"-- Minnis’s (?) term for referring to situations in which the human control and manipulation of a species is sufficient to cause phenotypic changes for the 1st time---- 3 Major Complexes: Near East, Mesoamerica, and North China------- but may be able to "
Pueblo Bonito
" a major southwestern site in Chaco Canyon, dendrochronologically dated in 1930. Among information recovered was the presence of pots (recovered in graves) with fly pupae and fragments of a beetle whose larvae attack stored cereals; thus the insects revealed the vanished contents of the vessels. "
Radiocarbon dating
"for dating organics, discovered by physical chemist Willard F. Libby in 1949, it has a technical range of 400-75,000 years. Living organisms ingest atmospheric carbon, once dead, the carbon begins to decay at a constant rate. By measuring the beta emissions from the dead organism, it is possible to compute approx. how long ago that organism died. A sample of 10-20g wood or 100-200g bone is required, problems occur in contamination of the sample. "
Radiometric Dating Techniques
1) chronometric method; 2) needs to be calibrated against second method.
Red Bay
" Site of an extensive Basque Whaling underwater excavation. The wreck of San Juan was located in 10m of water in 1978. The vessel was eventually raised, recorded, and reburied. Additional vessels were recovered in subsequent seasons. The site dates to 1565. A wide variety of materials were recovered, and preservation at the site was excellent."
Relative Dating
" The determination of chronological sequence without recourse to a fixed time scale; e.g., the arrangement of artifacts in a typological sequence (seriation). "
Rene Millon
directed the Teotihuacan mapping project which mapped the pre-Columbian city of Teotihuacan. The project was initiated in 1962 by the University or Rochester.
Richard “Scotty” Mac Neish-
"(1918-) participated in Chicago Field School. Has worked on subsistence-settlement pattern hypothesis of Tehuacan Valley of Mexico (1970-1976). Worked on the origins of agriculture (Zea Mays) and semi-sedentary seasonal encampments (wetseason/dry season) move to permanent villages ca. 1550 BC. Could be predicted by availability of resources (water, flood avoidance, game crossings, etc.) In the field he checked his settlement pattern hypothesis and found over 700 sites, 1500 occupations covering 10,000-20,000 year period. Placed importance on non-artifactual data (charcoal, floral and faunal remains) in determination of subsistence strategies. Stressed interdisciplinary studies (botany, geology, physics, zoology) archaeologists must specify their own interest in the materials, their goals, have specialists come out to the site and allow them to publish their results."
RINDOS (?) 3 KINDS OF DOMESTICATION
-- INCIDENTAL -- occurs when humans remove a species from its native habitat (perhaps unintentionally) to protect and ---exploit it in a new setting---- SPECIALIZED -- involves conscious human behavior to propagate a species and depend on it---- AGRICULTU
Robert Braidwood-
(1907-?) Realized that non-artifactual materials received no attention and sites were primarily selected for their historically known names. He was one of the first archaeologists to use Radiocarbon dating. He influenced Childe. Braidwood worked at the Jarmo Site (1947-late 50’s) in Iraq falls into the gap between the latest Pleistocene site and the earliest farming villages (7000-5000 BC). Hill Flanks Theory (proinquity theory) is a reaction to Childe’s Oasis Theory. The theory is that food production was a revolution that occurred in an area that is a natural habitat for the first domesticated plants and animals- a limited zone for domesticates (fertile crescent) and the climate and ecology here was known to have remained constant. There was no adaptation to changing environment as Chile suggested. Culture development is a natural phenomenon and agriculture is a logical outcome of specialization-humans continually seek to improve their technology and subsistence. –Sedentism—Adaptation of Agriculture—Increase in Population as opposed to population increase—agriculture of Childe. Braidwood stressed the importance of education of public about archaeology.
Robert M. Adams
" (86) 1926- American archaeologist. Studied at the University of Chicago. Research interest is primarily in the Middle East (Iran/Iraq), but has also included Mexico. Adams is interested in ecological land use patterns, settlement, and urbanization in prehistory. He sees trade as the major influence in economic structure. Works ""Some hypothesis on the development of early civilizations"" 1956; The Evolution of Urban Society 1966."
Sampling Strategies
" since it's usually not feasible to excavate an entire site, sampling must be done. It can be split into two types- probabilistic (using statistical methods of probability theory), and non-probabilistic (non-statistical). Probabilistic Sampling includes: simple random samples, stratified random sample, systematic sampling, and stratified systematic sampling. Random sampling consists of first defining the sample universe (site boundary), then sampling units (size of samples), then a sample fraction (%age to be tested). Sample units can be placed based on randomly generated numbers. Stratified random sampling means the region is divided into its natural zones (strata) such as cultivated land, forest, etc. Sample units are then chosen based on randomly generated numbers, except each zone has the number of squares proportional to its area. Systematic sampling entails the selection of a grid of equally spaced locations (e.g., choosing every other square). Stratified systematic sampling combines the main elements of each of the above three."
SASSAMAN
"-- Mesoamericanist … argues that slow spread of ceramics from SE US was the result of gender resistance------- MEN resisted technology because it would reduce the need for their exchange networks, which handled steatite ---------cooking slabs and bowls---"
SCOTTY MACNEISH
"-- proves sedentism came BEFORE agriculture in New World---- worked in Mesoamerica … best known for Tehuacan Valley, Mexico---- investigated the botanical origins of maize--** first comprehensive regional archaeological study with an ecological focus--"
SECONDARY PRODUCTS REVOLUTION
---- refers to usage of domesticated animals for functions other than only meat---- coined by Sheratt in 1981 … refers to period in European Holocene (~4000 BC)--
Settlement Patterns
" (85) The distribution of sites with a particular geographical area, which reflects the relationship of the inhabitants with their environment, and the relationship of groups with each other within that environment. Factors influencing settlement in any area may include the subsistence strategy, political structure, social structure, population density, and therefore, carrying capacity. Subsistence patterns are used to determine overall societal level behavior (social and political territories around centers for example). Central Place Theory is one of the primary methods for determining settlement patterns. Developed by Walter Christaller in 1930's, he argued that in a uniform landscape, without mountains, rivers, etc., the spatial patterning of settlements would be perfectly regular. The basic feature is that each major center will be some distance from its neighbors and will be surrounded by a ring of smaller settlements in a hierarchically nested pattern. Richard Lee, for instance, found that water was the single most important resource in determining the settlement pattern and human demography of the !Kung. "
Sir (William Mathew) Flinders Petrie-
" (1853-1942), British archaeologist and Egytologist, born in Charlton, Kent, and educated privately. He was professor of Egyptology at the University of London from 1892 to 1933. From 1875 to 1880 he excavated sites in Great Britain, including the prehistoric monument Stonehenge. His archaeological research in Egypt began in 1881 with excavations at the pyramids of Giza. He conducted diggings at the Great Temple in Tanis (1884), at the Greek city of Naucratis (1885), both in the Nile Delta, and in the Fayyum region (1888-1890). From 1927 to 1938 he conducted excavations in Palestine, notably at the ancient city of Lachish (now Tell ed Duweir, Isreal). His early excavations revealed that ancient Greek colonies had existed in Egypt. Petrie suggested a chronology scheme, based on a type sequence of pottery, through which the evolution of a culture could be traced. Although subsequent scholars have developed more effective chronologies, he was the first to devise such a method. In 1894 he founded what became the British School of Archaeology in Egypt. Works Seventy Years in Archaeology (1931)."
Site Formational Processes
" affected by human and natural activities. Human influences include original human behavior/activity (acquisition of raw material, manufacture, use, disposal/discard) and post depositional activity (plowing, looting). Natural influences include climate, soil, etc."
Site Hierarchies
" (85, 81) similar to settlement patterns, sites have a tendency to exist with a major center surrounded by smaller towns, villages, and hamlets."
SOCIAL CONSTRAINTS MODEL
"-- Gamble’s theory about H. erectus … based on general evolutionary principles---- sees migration as something that explains Europe and Asia---- when erectus moves, they do it “all in”---- so we are probably dealing with more general changes that allow fo"
SOUTHEASTERN CULTURAL COMPLEXES
"-- Paleo ------13,000-8,000 BC------fluted projectile, paleofauna---- Archaic---8,000-1,000 BC------triangular stem, notched points, introduction of pottery---- Woodland---1000 BC - AD 1000---bow & arrow, more elaborate technology---- Mississippian---AD 1"
Southeastern Cultural Complexes-
"Paleoindian -13,000-8,000BC, characterized by fluted projectile points, paleofauna, etc.; Archaic Period-8,000-1,000BC, characterized by triangular stem/notched points and introduction of pottery, Woodland Period-1,000BC-AD1,000, characterized by bow and arrow, more elaborate technology, Mississippian Period-AD1,00-1,500, dominated by Southeastern Cult."
Stonehenge
" completed around 2,100 BC (Neolithic), Stonehenge represents a major architectural feat which probably took 30 million man hours to construct, probably utilizing the population of nearby Wessex. Formerly considered to be the work of Greek craftsmen who traveled to the British Isles in 1,500 BC, it clearly predates even the Mycenaean civilization. "
STONEHENGE
-- completed ~2100 BC … represents a major architectural feat--
Structuralism
" views culture as the shared symbolic structures that are cumulative creations of the mind. The objective of structural analysis is to discover the basic principles of the human mind as reflected in major cultural domains -myth, art, kinship, and language. Structuralism supposes that there are patterns (or structures) underlying and quite different from surface reality and which aims to get at them. Structuralism is particularly associated with de Saussure's work in linguistics and Levi-Strauss' work in anthropology."
Subsistence Studies
" used for analysis of the way in which societies exploit their environments to procure the means of survival. Basically, there are only two broad types of subsistence - exploitation of wild or domesticated plants and animals."
Symbolic/Structural analysis
attempts to look at the point of view of the culture under study to relate meaning.
Taphonomy
" (90, 88, 87) The study of processes which have affected organic materials, such as bone, after death; it also involves the microscopic analysis of tooth-marks or cut marks to assess the effects of butchery or scavenging activities. This has been significant in Africa. "
Tatiana Proskouriakoff
" Artist, in 1950 did Puuc sites Toltec themes and motifs, discovered the emblem glyph for Toltecs. Showed exchange patterns or a settlement of Toltecs in new area. Known for drawings and reconstructions of Maya glyphs and architecture and sculpture, helped study 35 monuments at Piedras Negras"
"TELL ABU HUREYRA, Syria"
"-- excavated by Moore in 1970s---- multi-period site with 2 major occupations-----Abu Hureyra I -- ~9500 BC … group of foragers who lived in pit dwellings-----Abu Hureyra II -- cluster of mud brick houses, with people buried under house floors---- over ti"
Teotihuacan
" (93, 89, 85, 81) a huge urban site in the Valley of Mexico which flourished in the 1st millennium ad. Located 40 km northeast of Mexico City, it was significant from 200-650 ad (reached its height from 5th -7th centuries). A large scale mapping project of the city was initiated in 1962 by Rene Millon (looking at ideological factors of development). Residents of the city were segmented in barrios based on trade specialties. The city also possessed an elaborate system of irrigation canals, and sun/moon temples. "
Terminus Post Quem
" (88, 86, 84, 82) ""Time after which"" Latin-defines a relative chronological date given by dated material earlier than the deposit which needs to be dated. Terminus Ante Quem is the early date."
Thermoluminescence
" (85) A dating technique that relies indirectly on radioactive decay, overlapping with radiocarbon in the time period for which it is useful, but also has the potential for dating earlier periods. It has much in common with electron spin resonance (see absolute dating, above)."
Thermoluminescence dating --
"for dating inorganics, (e.g., pottery or burnt flint). It works by measuring rate of decay of radioactive material trapped in crystalline structures. For pottery, when it is initially fired, the TL clock is reset. By measuring the amount of TL emitted when the sample is heated to 500C it is possible to calculate the age of the sample since it was fired. It is possible to date samples back 500,000 years. TL has a +/-10% rate of error."
Tikal
" (91,90,86) one of the four major Mayan sites of the 1st millennium ad (the others being Copan, Palenque, and Calakmul). Each of these centers controlled a large area. One of the characteristic features of these ruins is the large stelae with calendrical inscriptions which can be used to date the buildings with which they are associated, and in turn date the artifacts associated with the buildings (e.g., with pottery typology, can give it a date if found in context). The University of Pennsylvania has conducted extensive work on this site. "
Tim Earle
" (89, 88) Concentrated on chiefdoms of Hawaii, and multilinear evolutionist theories based on cultural materialism as driving force in population growth."
"TORRALBA, Spain"
"-- elephant kill site from Lower Paleolithic---- excavated in 1960s by Freeman … thought to be evidence of human hunting---- Binford disagreed … said bone was not modified by hominids but by natural agents---- further, game drives could not account for th"
Trace Element Analysis
" the use of chemical techniques, such as neutron activation analysis, or X-ray florescence spectrometry, for determining the incidence of trace elements in rocks. These methods are widely used in the identification of raw material sources for the production of stone tools."
TYPES of DATING
"-- Dendrochronology ------- tree ring dating------- first compiled by AE Douglas, and astronomer researching sunspots------- by identifying tree rings in wooden objects and matching them with Douglas’s chronology, one can date sites ---------relative to e"
Type-variety Systems
" main method of stylistic analysis --traditional approach developed by J. Ford, hierarchical classification system based on descriptive attributes."
UPPER PALEOLITHIC
"-- beginning of purely symbolic structure … Venus figurines, cave art---- HUGE increase in exchange of raw materials over long distances … becoming cultural- and group-specific---- culturally-specific subsistence behavior … suggesting complex division of "
UPPER PALEOLITHIC DATES
"Gravettian (~35 kya), --Solutrean (~21 kya), --Magdalenian (~17-10 kya)--"
Uranium-series dating –
"2nd best method to be used to date rocks rich in calcium carbonate, can provide dates from 500,000 to 50,000 years. This method is best used at cave sites that have travertine or stalactites or stalagmites. "
V. Gordon Childe
" the only Western archaeologist of his generation who seriously assessed the work of Soviet archaeologists. Chile also used Marxian principles to explain the development of past human societies (1951). He took a materialist approach to analysis subsistence patterns and developed the ""Oasis Theory"" which sees nomadic cultures as forced to congregate near water in times of draught which therefore led to agriculture. Based on agricultural subsistence, cultures developed from settlements to cities."
Vincas Steponaitis
" at UNC, Ph.D. from Michigan, 1980. Has worked in southeastern US. Big on political/economic systems studies of natives AD 600-contact, also some New York experimented with quantitative models of chiefdom economies."
W.W. Taylor
" (93,85,84,83) 1913- American archaeologist, studied at Yale and Harvard. Received Ph.D. in 1942, rewrote and published his dissertation in 1948, A Study of Archaeology, which blasted older archaeologists like Kidder. Taylor blasted all who claimed to do anthropological archaeology, showing it to not be the case, and called for a conjunctive approach (emphasizing the connection between artifacts and their cultural contexts, rather than a comparison of features between sites). Taylor called for archaeologists to quantify their results; test hypotheses; excavate intensively, not extensively; and write detailed site reports. Works ""A Study of Archaeology,"" American Anthropological Association, 1948. ""Archaeology and Language in Western North America,"" American Antiquity, 1961."
Wenatchie Cache
" Paleo (Clovis) site found by Vance Haynes in Washington state, a cache of big and pristine points identified as ceremonial, never published."
WILLARD LIBBY
-- discovered radiocarbon dating (1949)---- originally interested in cosmic radiation and its effects of earth’s environments--
William Rathje
" (84) 1945- BA from Univ. of AZ 1967, Ph.D. at Harvard 1971. Associate Professor of Anthropology at Univ. of AZ since 1971. Director of the Garbage Project. His work has focused in three areas, Classic Maya, modern household refuse, and archaeological method and theory. His most well known work is the Garbage project, the study of our culture's modern material remains. He has shown that, just as middens are a source of knowledge about ancient societies, their modern counterparts also serve as an indicator of what is important in and to modern cultures. Works: ""The Garbage Project, 1975; Historic Tradeoffs"", in Social Archaeology 1978; ""The Archaeology of Contemporary Landfills,"" in American Antiquity 1992."
Windover
" site 8BR246, an 8,000 year old Early Archaic period site near Titusville, FL. Located in 1984, the site revealed a great number of human remains, including brain material which allowed for genetic testing. If the genes can be cloned, it may become possible to discover whether there are any survivors from this particular Indian group."