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26 Cards in this Set

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main facts about Greek arch.
- proud of their architecture, both sacred and public
- agricultural economy was based on small farms individually owned, and both economy and rugged landscape prevented consolidation of the city-states into a centralized nation.
- period between 479 bc- 338 bc
- unique greek character: love of action, and perfect human intellectual and physical power
geography about Greeks
 Geography- peninsula in the Balkans, a number of islands in the Aegean Sea (Peloponnese), landscape- very rocky and mountainous with limestone and marble deposits, bad farming so they had to colonize and trade
All Greeks shared a common language and religion; considered balanced if you worshiped all of the gods
Ocean is a big part of Greek culture (made them an adventurous people), learned from everyone that they traded with including the tradition of honoring many gods, fishing was a major industry, thought themselves unique by considering all other languages barbarian.. quest for truth: philosophy…logic: reason and natural order, balance, symmetry as the ideal.
thought that all people (male citizens over 18) should have a part in running the government; valued freedom, but kept slaves. Most important political contribution was democracy in Athens.
 Entire community met monthly in an open-air assembly
Arete’= excellence in all things
- intense study of proportion, what they thought to be most beautiful; everything was built to portray a sense of equilibrium (quality of excellence that results from refinement and testing all human endeavors- poetry, music, pottery, government, sculpture, and architecture.) Obtained through contests: men learn their limits and capacities. “all ecompassing physical, moral, and intellectural excellence, requiring balance in life achieved through disciple. A person of arête did all things well: worked farm outside of town and participated in town assembly. Immortality through arête. (accomplishments be recorded through arête forever instead of an afterlife.)
straightforward offering to the gods
Polis- (city-state);
); “polis” is the urban type; one city in every polis;
-Polis included rural section (for farming/livestock) and urban section (city) that had the agora and the sacred precinct
-“community of families- belong to the polis not nove into it. Aliens in other cities..only familiar with their own city/polis.
-Preferred to live in city in close quarters and walk out to the farms instead of living in isolated farm villas.
-“encompassed the whole communal life of the people, political, cultural, moral, and economic.”
-To say a polis was a city suggests a size that is too large.
-Ideal size is 5,000 citizens. However large cities such as Athens had over 20,000.
-Focused on the acropolis (high city or large outcropping) . i.e. Athens.
places sacred to various gods. Temples built as well.
-Buildings were to be the symbol of the victory of Athens and of Greeks over barbarism.
-Focal point of the Panathenaia festival
-Procession through agora and up onto the acropolis.
-300 feet above the city
- “agora” is the urban type; defined by the public buildings (private shops) and houses around it; communal heart of the city: includes trade, education, and politics. Open space set aside. Also defined by stoa, bouleterion, and tholos
Example: Stoa of Attalos, Athens (build 150 bc)
-Form/ structural system: trabeated, double row of columns; the back wall is a bearing wall
-Long rectangular building opened by colonnades along one side that provided shelter for artisans selling wares.
-Row of internal columns down the middle to support the roof or upper floor. And small chambers in a row along the back for offices/shops.
-Function: banquet/meeting rooms, offices, public/private shops. One of the most important in impact and function.
Example: Bouleuterion at Priene, Asia Minor- 200 bc.
-Form/ structural system: trabeated system with tiered seating and a speaker’s podium
-Covered meeting house. Could accommodate upto 700 people. – tiers of benches
-Function: council chamber and meeting hall – housed the boule (council)
Example: Tholos in Athens
-Form/structural system: ???
-Function: In agora (Athens), used to protect weights and measures to make sure that trading was fair. In sacred precinct (at Delphi), temple to honor the gods/ protect the statues
Example: Stadia at Delphi
-Form/ structural system: open air public building with tiers of seats
-Function: for athletic contests/ foot races
Example: Theatre at Epidauros, Greece 350 BC
-Form/ structural system: open air theatre, molded into the hillside, no back so that you can overlook the polis and the ocean
-Function: convey the moral values of society with plays: contributed to political education, not only for entertainment. Semi circle.
-Stage structure (skene) was low for a reason- so audience could look out to the landscape of their polis and reflect.
-Going to the theater was celebration of community spirit.
-Three basic parts:
-theatron= seeing place- the seating place
• orchestra: floor where actors performed
• skene- low structure forming backdrow behind the orchestra..
Domestic/ residential housing…Insulae
 Villa: Had atrium that collected water into cisterns, used for fresh air and light
Sacred precinct/sacred building types
“sacred precinct” is the urban type; built on an acropolis= “high city” ; religious part of the city. Location where temple is placed. (example is the acropolis in Athens.)
-Framed by bouletarion on south, stoa on the east, and city treasuries to the north.
parthenon, Greece
-Form/ structural system: trabeated system
-Function: protects the statue of the gods, panatenaic procession= huge festival where they brought gifts to give thanks to and honor the god(s)
-Most important Greek building. Served vital public function and was symbol of the polis.
-Large size, eight columns across the end, and double chamber naos: make it unusual.
-Surround columns around the central chamber.
-Only priests and selected individuals actually entered it.
-Plain interior with lavish exterior
-Public rituals celebrated at the altar in front of the temple.
-Monumental sculpture set in the landscape.
-Often aligned on axes leading out to mountain peaks.
: Propylaea in Athens, Greece
-Form/ structural system: trabeated
-Function: gate where you walk through to get to the sacred precinct, can close gates and lock them if the city was under attack; had library; art galleries; symbolic function: gate between secular and religious life
-Situated where everything could be viewed at a 60 degree angle.
1.Explain the use of 'Polar coordinates' in the urban planning system for the sacred precinct
Polar coordinates- used only by the ancient Greeks. From entering the sacred precinct through the propylaea, the buildings are placed in a way so that they are viewed in 3-D from a certain vantage point. (Seem more real when viewed this way.) Not on a grid/axillary
2. Processional & propylaea, what are they and how are they related?
-Processional: the people honored the gods with gifts, walked around the temple to drop off their gifts and view the “stories” that are sculpted in the temple. The people had to pass through the propylaea (after climbing many feet to the acropolis) which symbolized the passage between religious and secular life
Parthenon: what are the pragmatic and symbolic functions?
- rose high on top of the acropolis, greeting those coming into the city
- symbol of clarity and precision of ancient Greek architecture

-Pragmatic function: protect the statue of the gods
-Symbolic function: - illustrates the struggle between logos and chaos- civilization and barbarism. Celebrates victory over Persia.
parthenon:what types of sculpture, color?
- while marble on top was considered a great/special achievement
-Sculpture: marble blocks, squared, and grounded flat.
-Proportions of 4 to 9
-Pediment sculpture: West (face the ocean)- shows the battle between Athena and Poseidon. East- shows the birth of Athena
betterments'(optical corrections) of the parthenon
-Optical corrections:
The end two columns were slightly closer, otherwise they would have appeared more distant (no wall behind them)… being a scheme based on straight lines:
-Curved the base of the temple up so that it would not appear to sink down into the earth
-Architrave is curved up so that it doesn’t look bowed
-Columns have entaisis= used to describe the bulging out of the columns
didactic ornament on parthenon
Didactic ornament: has a carved relief on the wall that separates the outside from the inside <frieze>(depicts the panathenaic procession); bas relief sculptures on the temple were brightly painted; part of the frieze right over the door depicts the sacrifice of a princess
proportions/ order of parthenon
 Temple proportions: proportional system based on the module of the drum. Height, base, length/width of the temple is the ratio based on the drum radius in the drums of the column.
-For the Parthenon of Athena Parthenos, the Greeks used the Doric order because she was the god of war (not a girly-girl) However, roof was supported by more delicate ionic columns.
differences between Rome and Greece
-Greek public buildings were more limited than Roman buildings. The plays in Greece held morals/virtues, which Roman plays were for entertainment only.
-Greek architecture are sculpture set in balanced contrast to the landscape. Roman architecture is arch. Of space, enclosed internal space and outdoor space, on a grand scale. Greeks shaped powerful buildings, but not meant to hold groups of people: life was in the out-doors. Roman architecture was shaped in a deliberate way..i.e. pantheon
-Romans focused on the city at its basic element.
-Romans were pragmatic and realistic while the Greeks were speculative and idealistic.