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19 Cards in this Set

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What is the name of the stress response to ACUTE stress?
the SAM system
Explain the stages of the SAM system
Acute stress arouses the sympathetic branch of the ANS (automic nervous system), adrenaline is released by the adrenal medulla in the adrenal galnds
ANS->adrenal medulla->adrenaline
What is the name of the stress response to chronic stress?
HPA axis
Explain the stages of the HPA Axis
the hypothalalus stimulates the pituitary to secrete the hormone adrenocorticotropic hormone which stimulates the the production of cortisol by the adrenal glands.
think of the name of the resonse HPA
By whom and how was the the GAS model thought up?
Selye did research on rats (and other animals) and found they all react the same way to unpleasant stimuli. Hence it was named the general adaptive syndrome.
What is the first stage of the GAS model?
1)alarm reaction- threat/stressor is recognised and response is made. adrenaline produced (for 'flight or fight', some HPA activation producing cortisol.
stress response
What is the second stage of the GAS model?
2)resistance- as stress continues the body appears to be coping. However, the bodies resourses are being depleted and physiologically speaking things are deteriorating.
apparent coping
what is the 3rd stage of the gas model?
exhaustion- body cannot maintain normal functioning, ANS symptoms reappear, adrenal gland may be damaged due to overactivity,immune system suffers because it is not provided with neccessary protiens, causes stress related illnesses
breakdown
criticism of GAS model-
support from resaerch
explain
it has led to a large quantity of research supporting the view that stress affects the body's systems and may lead to illness.
(positive criticism)
explain the criticism for the Gas Model- is it an appropriate model for explaining human stress responses?
the model was invented through research with non-human animals, which is why the model emphasises physiological factors, as humans have a greater ability to think and therefore have the ability to control how far they are stressed (relaxation techniques)
difference between human and animals
explain the criticism for the GAS model- 'what are stress related illnesses caused by?'
resources do not become depleted but the exhaustion phase is instead linked with increased hormone activity.
What is meant by a cardiovascular disorder?
any disorder of the heart (e.g coronary heart disease) and circulatory system (e.g hypertension- high blood pressure)
to do with the heart
How may stress cause illness indirectly?
stressed individuals are more likely to smoke and drink to excess---> causing illness
examples of how stress directly cause cardiovascular problems
1) stress increases heart rate, wearing away lining of blood vessels
2)stress increases bp, high pressure damages 'pipes'
3) stress increases glucose levels, clumps may block blood passages (atherosclerosis)
Who did a study on the relationship between stress and cardiovascular disorders?
Krantz et al
what is meant by myocardial ischemia?
reduced blood supply to the heart muscle
What was the aim of Krantz's study?
to investigate the extent to which mental stress could be shown to increase myocardial ischemia. Also to see if there were different reactions from participants with coronary artery disease and non suffering participants.
How many participants were used in krantz's study?
39 patients, 12 controls
What 3 mental tasks were used in krantz's study?
an arithmetic task, stroop task (cuasing cognitive conflict), a task were they stimulated public speaking