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786 Cards in this Set

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Compare the social, political and cultural features ofh te Egyptian/Nile River civilizations to the Sumerian Civilization
==Egyptian civ. and Sumerian civ all centralized government, a system of writing, significant advances in technology, and religion.
Briefly describe the major components used to characterize civilization.
==Specialization-specialization of labor technological advancement, peoples occupations are what htey do best
Describe three major shifts emanating from the change from early Neolithic to Agrarian Civilizations.
==Revolution in state formation-People began to more readily come together and form a civilization and form ideologies on how a government should work.
Descrie three major technological developments and their impact during the Agricultutral Revolution.
==Wheel- The wheel allowed for increased transportation of goods, as carts with wheels could be drawn by horses. Also, allows for better farming equipment in the fields.
Describe three differences between agrarian and pastoral nomadic societies.
==Agrarian societies were generally settled, as they relied on farming (which you have to be settled to take part in, for the most part). Pastoral nomadic societies moved from place to place with their agriculture, never settling.
Describe the fundamental differences between bands, tribes, chiefdoms and state-level societies
==Bands- Dozens of members, nomadic, no division of labor, reciprocal exchange
Compare the social, political and culutral features of the Shang/Yellow River Valley Civilization to the Harappan/Indus River Civilization
==The Yellow River civilization had a very complex system of writing that was developed, while the Indus River civilization had a very simplistic form of writing
Describe social, political and cultural features of the Olmec/Meso-American civilization
==Believed to be the first nation in the West to develop a writing system
Iron Metallurgy
-Experimentation began as early as the fourth millennium BCE
Patriarchal Society
-Basis of Mesopotamian and Egyptian societies-- men made decisions regarding division of household chores among family members and arranged marriages
Origins of Writing
-Cuneiform, the earliest known writing, originated in Mesopotamia
Hebrews
-Nomads who originally settled between Mesopotamia and Egypt
Phoenecians
-Lived between eastern Mediterranean Sea and Lebanon, earned a reputation as seafaring traders in the first millennium BCE
Indus River Civilization
-Originated in the Indus River Valley ca. 2500 BCE
Indo-European Languages
-During the 18th and 19th centuries similarities between the languages of Europe, Persia, and India were noticed
Aryans
-Originally pastoral nomads who spoke Indo-European languages
Vedic Age
-A period in Indian history, between 1500 and 500 BCE when the Vedas were recorded; Rig Veda is the most important of these
Caste System
-Developed over time as the Aryans established settlements in India
Vedas
-Vedas: a collection of hymns, songs, prayers, and rituals honoring various Aryan gods
Yellow River Civilization - Xia Dynasty
-Huang He means Yellow River and refers to the light colored loess soil that it picks up and deposits on the riverbank
Shang Dynasty
-Earliest recorded dynasty(1750-027 BCE); rise and success based on technology, especially bronze
Chou Dynasty
-Ruled by proclamation; military forces and allies disseminated laws and justice
Warring States
-Time of disunity for China (403-221 BCE); many independent states adopted Legalist philosophies as the basis for their rule
Olmecs
-Olmecs (means rubber people) are named after trees from the region in which they flourished
Mayan Civilization
-Society located in present-day southern Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, and El Salvador; classical Maya ruled from ca. 300-900 CE
Mayan Culture
-Built 80 large ceremonial centers, which included pyramids, palaces, and temples; large centers included Palenque, Chichen Itza, and Tikal, the latter with a population of approximately 40000 people and the Temple of the Jaguar
Teotihuacan
-City built in Central Mexico because of the abundant supplies of Fish; developed agriculture by 500 BCE, rapid expansion after 200 BCE
Chavin
-Chavin cult began after 1000 BCE, peaked in popularity 900 to 800 BCE, spread through Peru, and vanished approximately 300 BCE
Achaemenid Empire
-Includes the Medes and the Persians, both people of sizable military power and equestrian skills
Achaemenid Adminstration
-Government relied on a balance between central adminstration and locally appointed governors
Persian Wars
-Fought between Greeks and Achaemenids(500-479 BCE)- led to demise of the empire began when Ionian Greek cities revolted against their governors
Society in Classical Persia
-In the cities free classes included priests, priestesses, artisans, craftsmen, merchants, and low-ranking civil servants
Government in Classical Persia
-Sophisticated government led to the development of a new class of educated bureaucrats who played an important role in the daily affairs of the empire
Economics of Classical Persia
-Agriculture was the foundation of the Persian economy - surpluses were necessary to support military forces, government administrators, and residents in the cities
Zoroastrianism
-A religion based on the teachings of Zarathustra, who left his family at the age of twenty in search of wisdom; after 10 years he proclaimed that visions revealed to him the supreme god, whom he called Ahura Mazda ("wise lord"); this supreme being had chosen him to be his prophet and spread his message
Confucius
-Lived in China during the Warring States period and sought to restore order to China
Confucianism
-One of the major philosophies that emerged from the Hundred Schools of Thought
Daoism
Daoist came up with an alternative solution to end the Warring States period -- contrary to Confucian beliefs, Daoists reflected in an effort to understand natural principles that governed the world and to achieve harmony with nature
Legalism
-One of the major philosophies that emerged from the Hundred Schools of Thought during the Warring States period
Qin Dynasty
-Used Legalist philosophy to restore order and stability to China and end the Warring States period
Shi Huangdi
-Self-proclaimed "first emperor" of China- reigned fourteen years; established centralized rule through large scale political organization
Early Han Dynasty
-Claiming the "mandate of heaven" Liu Bang centralized rule using persistence and methodical planning; started the longest lasting Chinese dynasty -- the Han (206BCE-220CE)
Emperor Wudi
-Han emperor who had a problem recruiting qualified people for government posts because there was no uniform system of public education
Later Han Dynasty
-Separated from the former Han as a result of a temporary loss of power from 9 to 23 CE, the later Han lasted from 25 to 220 CE
Fall of the Han Dynasty
-Collapsed- divisions within the ruling elite limited the effectiveness of the government
Mauryan Dynasty
- A classical Indian dynasty that developed out of a political void created by the failed invasions of Persian emperor Darius- then controlled by the kingdom of Magadha for two centuries
Gupta Dynasty
-Chandra Gupta laid the foundations for empire by making alliances with powerful families in the Ganges; he conquered many; others chose to form tributary alliances with the Guptas
Jainism
-Indian belief system popularized by Vardhamana Mahavira ("the great hero"). Disciples referred to Mahavira as Jina("the conqueror") and called themselves the Jains.
Buddhism
-About 534 BCE, Siddharta Gautama, a Hindu of the Brahmin caste, left his family to live like a holy man
Hinduism
-World's oldest organized religion, originated in India
Mycenaeans
-Language combined Greek and Minoan
Polis
-A Greek word meaning city
Sparta
- A city state in classical Greece- conquered neighbors and forced them into servitude
Athens
-A city state in Ancient Greece whose government was based on democratic principles. However, only free adult males could participate in government
Macedonian Empire
-Supplied Greeks with grain timber and natural resources in exchange for olives, wine and finished products
Hellenistic Empire
-The period during the reign of Alexander the Great and the subsequent division into three large states(each led by one of Alexander's generals) is known as the Hellenistic age(after Greece, or Hellas)
Olympics
-Most famous of Pan Hellenistic festivals
Greek Philosophy-Socrates
-Socrates developed a method of questioning aimed at exposing ethics and morality through a series of increasingly difficult questions; his student Plato recorded his thoughts in a series of writings called the dialogues
Greek Philosophy-Aristotle
-Plato believed that everything was based on forms or ideas. Definitions were not absolute because virtue, honesty, courage, truth and beauty all mean different things in different situations;so there is the imperfect reality of the definition in each individual situation and true definitions, which existed in the world of forms and ideas
Hellenistic Philosophies(i)
-Epicureans suggested that individual needs could be met through reflection
Hellenistic Philosophies (II)
-Skeptics doubted the existence of absolute certain knowledge and so did not espouse strong political, social, or moral beliefs. They taught that people should abandon their search for certain answers and find an inner peace
Roman Republic
-Republic- a form of government whose head of state is usually a president
Rome: From Republic to Empire
-87 BCE: invasion and subsequent occupation of Rome led by Marius until his death
Julius Caesar
-Named himself dictator of the Roman Empire (for life, not six months as was the past precedent)
Expansion of Roman Empire
During the republic the empire included Italy, Greece, Syria, Gaul, most of the Iberian penninsula, and outposts in North Africa and Antoloia; Augustus added most of southeastern Europe and most of North Africa and increased control in Anatolia and southwestern Asia; at its height the empire included Britain and all of the land surrounding the northern and southern coast of the Mediterranean from Iberia to Mesopotamia
Roman Roads
-Roman engineers developed an intricate process for building roads -- prepared a deep bed, edged roads with curbs, provided for drainage, topped with large flat paving stones
Roman Law
-Roman law was first recorded in approximately 450 BCE. The Twelve Tables were meant to provide a standard system of law throughout the early empire
Trade in the Mediterranean
Grain from latifundia in North Africa, Egypt, Sicily, supported large cities in the empire and was also used for trade with Greece(for olives and vines) and with Syria and Palestine (for fruits, nuts, and wool fabrics); trade facilitated crop specialization throughout the climatically diverse empire
Jesus
-Major teachings: devotion to God and love for fellow man
Early Christianity
-Christians would not worship false gods of the Roman Empire
Silk Road
Southeastern Asia, China, and India traded: silk and spices west to consumers in central Asia, Iran, Arabia, and the Roman empire
Fall of Roman Empire
Problems;internal opposition, power struggle (26 people claimed the throne), generals struggled for power and died violently, empire was simply too large, epidemics
Germanic Invasions
Ended imperial Roman power in western Europe by 476 CE ; power later shifts to Byzantium in the east
Early Byzantine Empire
-Emperor Constantine accepted Christianity in 313 CE. He then relocated the capital of the Roman Empire to Constantinople in the east because the eastern Mediterranean was wealthier and allowed him to spy on enemies in the East
Justinian's Code
-Justinian(reigned 527-565 CE) was a very important emperor during the early Byzantine empire; his wife, Theodora, advised him on political, religious, and diplomatic issues
Byzantine economy and society
-Lower Danube region was the breadbasket of the empire
Legacy of Classical Greece
Greek replaced Latin as the official language of the Byzantine Empire
Fall of the Byzantine Empire
-Turks invaded the east and conquered Constantinople(later renamed it Istanbul)
Byzantium and Russia
-Russia created several trade centers including Kiev along the Dnieper River
Long-Distance Trade
-Specialized labor and efficient means of transformation encouraged trade between groups such as the Mesopotamians and the Egyptians as early as 3500 BCE
Spread of Epidemic Diseases
-Smallpox and measles were the most pervasive; bubonic plague also broke out
Muhammad
-About 610, Muhammad had a transformational spiritual experience and travelled through the Arabian Peninsula proclaiming that he was the last prophet of Allah
Expansion of Islam
- Rapid expansion in the century after Muhammad's death was the work of early caliphs who spread the word through pilgrimages
Abbasid Dynasty
-In 750 the Umayyad Dynasty ended after a rebellion in Persia led by Abu al-Abbas who founded the Abbasid dynasty, the main source of power in the dar-al-Islam
Trade within the Eastern Hemisphere
-Commercial centers in Nishapur, Bukhura, and Samarkand facilitated the revival of trade over the Silk Road (perpetuated by Muslims)
The Quran and Women
-The Quran helped and hurt women
Influences on the Dar-Al Islam(Persian, Indian, and Greek)
-Arabic term referring to the "house of Islam" and the lands under Islamic rule
Islam in northern India
-Muslim forces reached India by the mid-seventeenth century
Sui Dynasty
-After centuries of turmoil following the Han dynasty, the Sui emerged to restore peace and order
Tang Dynasty
-Restored peace and stability after the fall of the Sui dynasty
Song Dynasty
-Followed the Tang Dynasty; first emperor, Song Taizu, started policy of distrust of military leaders- focused on civil service exams (based on Confucian philosophy), industry, education, and the arts
Technological Development of Tang and Song Dynasties
-Advances were made possible as a result of abundant food supplies
Neo-Confucianism
-Developed in response to the growing popularity of Buddhism
Early Japan
-Earliest inhabitants of Japan, nomadic peoples from northeastern Asia came with their language, culture, and religion
Medieval Japan
-Includes the Kamakura and Muromachi periods
Merchantilism
I. A new economic theory adopted by many European nations with the goal of maintaining a favorable trade balance-whereby a country exports more than it imports.
East African Cultures
I. Bantus migrated to the eastern coast of Africa-bringing agriculture, cattle hearding, and iron metallurgy-and developed complex societies governed buy small, local states.
Frankish Empire
I. Franks built a society based on agriculture in the northern region of Europe (France, Germany, and Low COuntries) and oversaw the development of decentralized political institutions in those areas.
Decline of Carolingian Empire
I. Charlemagne accepted the title of emperor from the pope in 800 but died short thereafter, in 814.
Establishment of Nationstates in Western Europe
I. New strong nations with centralized authority emerged after the feudal period in Italy, Spain, France, and England.
Hanseatic League (Hansa)
I. A trade that developed in the Baltic and North Sea (1400's to 1600's); encompassed the comertial centers of Poland, northern Germany, and Scandinavia; linked to the Mediterranean through the Rhine and Danube Rivers.
Mongol- Christian Deplomacy
I. Large imperial states were connected by expansice trading networks. For transactions between states to go smoothly, it was imperitive that political and diplomatic ties be strong.
Results of the Crusades
I. Increased cultural diffusion- Europe was reintroduced to Greco- Roman culture, which had been preserved by the Byzantine Empire, and, in addition, discovered eastern goods such as silk, rice, glass, and coffee.
Ghana
I. Primary state of West Africa: located between the Senagal and Niger rivers ca. 750-1250.
Toltecs
I. Migrated to central Mexico, settled int Tula during the eight century.
Aztec Religion
I. Adapted indiginous beliefs.
Development in Oceania
I. Aboriginal people of Australia, isolated from other societies, created trade and exchange networks with other hunting and gathering societies as far away as 1,000 miles.
Development of Pacific Islands
I. Owing to the expanse of the Pacific Ocean, trade networks did not easily develop allowing for limited contact with other societies. There was some cultural diffusion, such as the spread of sweet potatoes.
Sufis
I. Sufis focused on personal relationship to Allah rather than a strict interpritation of Islam. They allowed worship of traditional gods, who they believed were manifestations of Allah.
Agricultural Diffusion
I. Muslim travelers introduced new foods (citrus fruits, rice) and commercial crops (cotton, sugarcane) to sub-Sahahran Africa.
Technology of European Exploration
I. Lanteen sails, whuich allowed ships to sail in any direction.
European Exploration of the Pacific
I. Between the 1500's and the 1700's, Europeans explored the Pacific motivated by trade.
Commertial Revolution
I. The changing nature of trade in this period was known as the Commercial Revolution.
Medival Colonization
I. Once regional states emergen in Europe, Vikings looked to colonize elsewhere.
Influence of Christianity in Europe
I. Franks solidified Christianity as a foundation of the empire when Clovis converted; Charlemagne continued the commitment to Rome.
British Economic interests in India
-Beginning in the early 1600s, Mogul emperors granted concessions to allow the British to trade in India
Russian Empire: rise and expansion
-After breaking free of Mongol control in the late 1400s, Muscovite princes began to take control over much of Russia, eliminating the authority of local princes
Ivan the Terrible
-Russian czar(r. 1533-1584) who continued to expand the empire and to consolidate the czar's absolute authority
The Romanovs
Following a period of civil unrest in Russia, Mikhail Romanov's election as czar established the Romanovs as the new royal family
Westernization
-Occurs as societies are influenced by Western culture and assimilate and/or adopt western ideas
Peter the Great
-Russian czar (r. 1682-1725) best known for centralizing his authority and bringing Western ideas to the Russian Empire
St. Petersburg
-Located on the Baltic Sea, was established as the capital of the Russian empire by Peter the Great
Catherine the Great
- A Russian czarina(r. 1763-1796), she continued Peter the Great's policy of modernization while ensuring the absolute authority of the monarch
Serfdom in Russia
-As a result of the unpaid debts, many peasants were forced into serfdom
Origins of the Industrial Revolution
-Technological innovations in the 1700s led to industrialization, the mass production of goods using machine power (rather than hand power)
Industrial Revolution: new machines
-The advent of mechanization revolutionized the production of goods
Effects of Industrial Revolution on Society
-Mass production of goods drove down the price of consumer items, and the resulting increase in demand encouraged the development of quicker and more efficient methods of production. The standard of living rose
Political and Economic Effects of Industrialization
-Governments passed legislation protecting workers (for example, the establishment of a minimum wage)
Factory System: Economic Impact
-Developed as a way to house large and expensive machines in a single location, near a source of power, in order to mass-produce goods
Factory System: Social Impact
-Prior to industrialization, societies were agriculturally based. Although in some places in Europe the domestic system existed, in which individuals worked on one part of production (for example, making cloth from wool), most people still worked on farms
American Revolution:Causes
-The 13 British colonies in North America resented legislation passed by the British Parliament levying taxes and infringing on their rights
American Revolution:Impact
-War began, and with the aid of France, the colonists forced the British to surrender in 1781
French Revolution:causes
-In 1789, King Louis XVI summoned representatives to a meeting of the Estates General to convince them of the necessity of raising taxes
National Assembly
-In June 1789, the Third Estates broke away from the Estates General and declared themselves the National Assembly
French Revolution: convention to Napoleon
-A new constitution gave the convention power to govern; the convention abolished the monarchy
Napoleon Bonaparte
-A general in the French army who gained control of France in a coup d'etat in 1799, seizing control from the Directory, a small group of governing aristocrats
Congress of Vienna
-A meeting held from 1814 to 1815 in Vienna and attended by representatives of the nations that had defeated Napoleon Bonaparte
Latin American independence movements
-The American and French revolutions and the ideals of the Enlightenment inspired independence movements in Latin America
Simon Bolivar
-A creole form South America, he led a successful revolutionary movement against Spanish rule
Haitian Revolution
-The French colony of Saint Domingue was the first colony in Latin America to gain its independence
Touissant-Louverture
-A slave who helped lead a revolt in Haiti against white settlers
Conservatism in Europe
A political philosophy that sought to return things to the way they were prior to the political revolution that spread across Europe in the 19th century and to maintain traditional ways
Liberalism in Europe
-A political ideology asserting that individuals possess certain rights such as liberty and equality and that the purpose of government is to protect these rights
Nationalism
-Feeling of pride in one's nation
Socialism
-Utopian socialists believed that people should work toward the creation of a perfect society in which everyone was equal
Karl Marx
- A 19th century philosopher, he developed a socialist theory with Friedrich Engels in response to the changing nature of the workplace that resulted from the industrial revolution
Unification of Germany
-Independent German-speaking states in Germany united to form a single nation
Otto von Bismarck
-Chancellor of the German state of Prussia, he worked to united the German-speaking states into a single nation
Italian Unification
-Independent states in Italy united to form a single nation
Zionism
- A nationalist movement that emerged in the late 1800s with the stated goal of establishing a Jewish state in Palestine; led in part by Theodore Herzl
Emancipation of Serfs in Russia(1861)
-Following a humiliating defeat by Western powers in the Crimean War, Russian czars sought to reform society
New Imperialism: Causes
-Beginning in the late 1800s, modern industrial nations sought economic control (and sometimes political and social control) over weaker nations
Crimean War (1853-1856)
-In the mid 19th century, war between Russian and an alliance of British, French, and Ottoman troops broke out after Russia had threatened the stability of the Ottoman Empire by seeking to take Ottoman-controlled territory in the Balkans
White Man's Burden
-Poem by Rudyard Kipling, that explained why white Europeans (and Americans) had a moral responsibility to take control of weaker nations
Social Darwinism
-A theory based in part on Charles Darwin's theories of evolution and natural selection
Direct vs. Indirect Control (of colonial possessions)
-As European nations sought to extend their authority over weaker lands, they needed to determine if rule was to be direct or indirect
Sepoy Rebellion
-A revolt led by Indian soldiers against the British Eats India Company (BEIC) in protest of rules that threatened their religious traditions
Indian National Congress (INC): Origins
-A nationalist group formed in British India in 1885 by upper-class Hindus
King Leopold
-King of Belgium who established a colony known as the Congo Free State in Africa
Berlin Conference(1884-1885)
- A meeting of European powers in which the rules for colonizing Africa were established: European powers had to notify one another of their intentions to take control of an area
Opium War:Causes
- A conflict fought between Britain and China (1839-1842) over British sale of opium in China
Opium War: Results
-Britain's superior military led to a decisive victory over the Chinese and the signing of a series of unequal treaties
Taiping Rebellion (1850s and 1860s)
- A rebellion by Chinese peasants that threatened the Qing dynasty
Self-Strengthening Movement
-Following the signing of a series of unequal treaties and a number of internal rebellions in the 19th century, the Qing enacted a series of reforms
Spheres of Influence
-An area of economic influence/control
Boxer Rebellion
An internal rebellion led by a group known as the Boxers, who unsuccessfully sought to rid China of foreign influence
Monroe Doctrine
-Articulated in 1823 as a part of US foreign policy, it sought to limit European interference in the Americas
Spanish American War
-In response to the destruction of a US ship in Havana's harbor and under the guise of protecting American business interests in Cuba, as well as the interest of those Cubans suffering under Spanish rule, the United States declared war on Spain
US Open Door Policy
-US foreign policy that sought equal trading rights for all nations trading in China and commercial advantages for US business
Panama Canal
-A canal built through the Isthmus of Panama connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans
Opening of Japan
-Following over 200 years of self-imposed isolation, Japan was forced to open its doors to the world following the arrival of US Commodore Matthew Perry
Meiji Restoration
-After Japan ended its isolation, rebellion led to the overthrow of the shogun who was replaced by an emperor, who initiated a series of social,economic, and political reforms
Sino-Japanese War
- A war fought between China and Japan for control of Korea
Russo-Japanese War
-Imperial rivalries led to armed conflict between Russia and Japan for control of parts of Korea and Manchuria
Bloody Sunday
-In 1905 a peaceful demonstration at the Russian czar's winter palace in St. Petersburg turned violent when the czar's guards opened fire on the unarmed crowd
Fall of the Qing
-Despite the Qing's enacting of a series of reforms in the second half of the 19th century, the signing of a number of unequal treaties and numerous internal rebellions had left the ruling family weak, and in 1911 revolution broke out in China
Decline of the Ottoman Empire
-In the 19th century, the Ottoman Empire, now small, weak, and in debt, became known as the Sick Man of Europe
Muhammad Ali
-Emerged as the ruler of Egypt following an unsuccessful invasion by Napoleon in 1798
Armenian Genocide
-The massive and deliberate killing of Armenian civilians by the Ottoman Turks
Mexican Revolution: causes
-discontent after decades of limited social reform led Mexicans to demand change
Mexican Revolution:Results
-In 1917 Mexico adopted a new constitution that established land reform and granted rights to workers and women
Background causes of World War I
-By 1900 nationalism was a powerful global force, sometimes urging people to unite for a common purpose and at others acting to break groups up. Ethnic minorities living in the multinational empires of the Ottomans and Austria-Hungary were seeking independence
Immediate causes of World War I
The crisis sometimes referred to as the "spark" that started the war came on June 28, 1914. While on a visit to Sarajevo (in Bosnia) Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, was assassinated in Sarajevo by a Serbian nationalist. Almost immediately, Germany pledged its support to Austria-Hungary, and with Austria-Hungary's declaration of war on Serbia a month later. Russia mobilized forces against Austria-Hungary in support of Serbia. A few days later, Germany declared war on Russia and then on France. Following the German invasion of Belgium, Britain declared war on Germany and world war was well on its way.
Total War
-When all of a nation's resources are dedicated to the war effort and both civilian and military populations mobilize to defeat an enemy
21 demands
-In 1915 Japan, at war with Germany, invaded German-held territory in one of China's provinces
Technology of World War I
-World War I was the world's first truly modern war: new weapons of revolutionist warfare
Results of World War I
-Cities throughout Europe were destroyed and millions were dead, injured, or homeless.
Paris Peace Conbference
The Allied nations met in Paris in 1919 to settle peace terms with the Central Powers. Five treaties in all were negotiated; the most significant was the Treaty of Versailles, between the Allies and Germany
Treaty of Versailles
-The peace settlement negotiated by the Allies with Germany at the end of World War I focused on ensuring that Germany would never again be a threat to the security of Europe
League of Nations
-Created after World War I, the League of Nations was the first permanent international organization dedicated to maintaining peace
Mandate System
- An article in the covenant of the League of Nations stated that colonies and territories needed assistance as they prepared themselves for self-government and that more advance nations would act as guides for the less experienced ones
Russian Revolution (March 1917)
In february 1917, Czar Nicholas II abdicated the Russian throne and ended nearly 300 years of Romanov rule
October Revolution (Bolshevik Revolution)
-The second part of the Russian Revolution led by Vladimir Lenin and his Bolshevik Party
V.I. Lenin
-A student of Marxism, Lenin saw in revolutionary Russia the seeds of a communist revolution
New Economic Policy
-Introduced to the USSR by V.I. Lenin, the policy provided limited private business
War Communism
-Nationalization on a massive scale
Age of Anxiety
-The period after World War I when doubt was cast upon previously existing ways of life
Great Depression
-In 1929 economic depression spread across the world as the US stock market crashed and European countries struggled to rebuild their damaged postwar economies
New Deal
-In response to the Great Depression, President Franklin Roosevelt proposed legislation aimed at economic recovery
Origins of World War II
-Axis Powers: Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, and Japan; Allied powers:France and its empire, Great Britain and its empire, Commonwealth allies (Canada, Austailia, New Zealand), Soviet Union, China, and the United States
Rise of Fascism
-Fascism emerged in both Italy and Germany in the interwar period; both nations were faced with economic depression and in desperate need of strong leaders. Powerful dictators emerged, greatly influenced by fascist ideology
Adolph Hitler: Rise to Power
-Rose to power in Germany in the 1920s and 1930s
Adolph Hitler at war
-In the late 1930s, Europe felt compelled to respond to the aggressive actions of Hitler, who had rearmed Germany and taken control of the Rhineland and Austria
Benito Mussolini
Responsible for the establishment of the world's first fascist state
Indian National Congress (INC): In action
-Partnered with the Muslim League to lead a mass movement to gain self-rule from Great Britain for the Indian subcontinent
Mohandas Gandhi: early years
-An Indian nationalist leader who fought for India's independence from Great Britain
Mohandas Gandhi: an Indian nationalist
-He quickly became a popular leader among the ordinary citizens of India, and the support of an extensive segment of the population made the Non-Cooperation and the Civil Disobedience movements largely successful
Chinese Civil War
-A conflict between the Kuomintang and the Communist parties
Mao Zedong
-A nationalist leader in China, he successfully defeated the Kuomintang in a civil war in large measure because of the support of the peasants
Cultural revolution
-Known as the Great Proletarina Cultural Revolution, it was launched in CHina in 1966 by Mao Zedong in order to seek out and silence opposition to Mao's leadership and his vision of communism
Joesph Stalin
Following the death of V.I. Lenin, Stalin, the "man of steel," became the totalitarian dictator of the Soviet Union
Soviet five-year plans
-An economic policy initiated by Joesph Stalin that set high quotas in an attempt to improve Soviet agricultural and industrial output
Mukden/Manchurian Incident
-Occurred in Manchuria in September 1931, when Japanese troops blew up part of the South manchurian Railway
OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries)
-An organization of producers of oil established in 1960. Member nations include Abu Dhabi, Algeria, Ecuador, Gabon, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Kuwaiti, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela.
Mikhail Gorbachev
-Controlled the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991
Iron Curtain: Demise
In November 1989, the Berlin Wall was opened, allowing people to travel freely from east to west; soon the entire wall was torn down, symbolizing the end of the Cold War.
Fall of Soviet Union
-Failed invasion of Afghanistan contributed to the decline as resources were strained to support an unpopular and ultimately unsuccessful attempt to expand Soviet influence.
Nuclear Arms Race since the Fall of the Soviet Union
-With the collapse of the Soviet Union, both the United States and Russia dramatically reduced their nuclear weapons spending
Genocide
-The killing of a specific group of people based on specific ethnic, religious, or racial characteristics
Feminism
-Women make up 40 to 50 percent of workforce in industrialized societies, 20 percent in developing countries. Jobs characterized as "women's work": teaching, clerical work
Islamic Fundamentalism
-The term is often used by western sources to describe an extreme movement to replace secular states wtih Islamic ones
Intifada
-Part of the Arab-Israeli conflict over the struggle for control of Israel that began as a result of U.N. Resolution 181, in which the United Nations created Israel from lands claimed by Palestinians
Persian Gulf War (1991)
-Saddam Hussein's Iraqi troops invaded Kuwait and took control of its oil fields
Asian Tigers
-Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan enjoyed rapid growth rates and were major economic powers by the 1980s.
Global Problems
-Poverty: Unequal distributions of resources and income (scarcity) leads to poverty, especially in underdeveloped areas of Africa, Latin America, eastern Europe, and Asia. People in these areas lack food, clean water, and adequate shelter.
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
-Established in 1949, as a military alliance of democratic nations against Soviet aggression
Warsaw Pact
-A defensive military alliance of communist nations designed to counter the collective defense formed by the democratic nations of NATO
Geneva Conference
-Cold War peace conference held in 1954
Korean War
-Following World War II, Korea, which had been annexed by Japan, was occupied by both the Soviet Union and the US-- the Soviet Union north of the 38th parallel and the US south of it. The occupation was to be fo a limited time while the terms of uniting the country were negotiated.
Cuban Revolution
-In 1959, Marxist leader Fidel Castro ousted Cuban dictator Fulgenico Batista and took control of Cuba
Cuban Missile Crisis
-Leader of communist Cuba, Fidel Castro, formed an alliance with Stalin, leader of the Soviet Union, after the Bay of Pigs Incident and an attempted assassination by rebels funded by the US
Nonalignment
-Nations did not take a side in the Cold War
Arab Nationalism
Former Arab colonies easily gained independence from their mother countries post-World War II
Creation of Israel
-Created by the United Nations in 1947 as a result of UN Resolution 181
Decolonization
-In the post- World war II world, mother countries could no longer maintain control of their colonies as they attempted to repair their own war-torn lands.
Indian Independence
Post-World War II, overseas empires became increasingly difficult to maintain, Great Britain held on, but election of the Labour Party ushered in a movement toward home rule.
Pan-Africanism
-Pan-African movements first emerged in the US and the Caribbean and the ns pread to French West as the Negritude
Jomo Kenyatta
-A kenyan nationalist leader, who led a moement to gain independence from Great Britain. He was jailed in 1953 by the British government in its effort to suppress all nationalist movements.
European Community
-Formed in 1957, six founding member nations: France, Belgium, West Germany, Luxembourg, Italy, and the Netherlands; characterized by a common market and free trade
Detente
-Policy adopted by the Soviet Union and the United States during the Cold War in an effort to reduce tensions between the two superpowers over the arms race and control of developing countries
Vietnam War
-The United Statees intervened in the conflict on the side of noncommunist South Vietnam after the French were defeated
Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan
-Muslim-controlled Afghanistan maintained a position of nonalignment in the Cold War until 1978, when a pro-Soviet coup dragged the country into a civil war
Apartheid
-Established by the Afrikaner National Party in 1948 in an effort to maintain control over the black African majority
Nelson Mandela
-A leader of the ANC (African National Congress), arrested for military protests against apartheid and sentenced to jail for life
Iranian Revolution
-1941: Muhammed Reza Pahlavi declared himself shah. Backed by the US and Britain, he modernized and westernized Iran
Iran-Iraq war
-1979: Saddam Hussein became the leader of Iraq and seized control over disputed border area
Deng Xiaoping
-1976: replaced Mao Zedong as leader of communist China; introduced new economic reforms but little extension of individual political rights
Globalization
-Goal: a global economy to facilitate the movement of goods and trade associated with the term free trade (trade unrestricted by state limits as it crosses borders)
Japanese Invasion of China (1937)
-Japan launched a full-scale invasion of China in the hopes of gaining control of China's extensive natural resources
Rape of Nanking
-Following Japan's invasion of mainland China in 1937, China experienced mass death and suffering; Japan began aerial bombing of major Chinese cities (especially Shanghai, where people died by the thousands)
Blitzkreig ("Lightning War")
-Germans invaded Poland unannounced on September 1, 1939. Their strategy included a preemptive air attack, to weaken resistance, followed by land forces - Panzer ("armored") columns, which were fast and mobile
Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor
-In an attempt to destroy American naval forces in the Pacific, Japan attacked the US naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on December 7, 1941
Dropping of the Atomic Bomb
-The war in Europe ended in May 1945 but waged on in the Pacific
US Occupation of Japan
-Following Japan's unconditional surrender in World War II, Japan was occupied by US forces under General Douglas MacArthur
Jewish Holocaust
-Nazi regime killed over 6 million Jews and an additional 5 million Slavs, Gypsies, homosexuals, communists, and other "undesirables"-a human disaster on a previously unknown scale
United Nations
-Created at the end of World War II as a coalition dedicated to maintaining world peace and security. had more power than the League of Nations, which had been ineffective in preventing World War II
Cold War: Origins
-The Cold War was an ideological war between two ideologically opposed superpowers
Iron Curtain: Creation
-First articulated in a 1946 speech by English Prime Minister Winston Churchill, the term refers to the symbolic division of Europe following the end of World War II
Nuclear Arms Race
-as the Cold War progressed, a new reality emerged: the struggle between the US and the Soviet Union to claim polical hegemony across the globe led to an expensive arms race and the proliferation of nuclear weapons
Satellite Nations
-Soviet-occupied nations at the end of World War II: Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, and Romania. Soviets set up a communist government in Poland
Trumane Doctrine
-Established March 12, 1947 by President Harry Truman-- an economic and military program intended to help nations resist Soviet aggression and prevent the spread of communism
Marshall Plan
-Also known as the European Recovery Program, a massive economic aid package, part of the containment policy, designed to strengthen democracy and lessen the appeal of communism (developed after WWII)
Compare the social, political and cultural features ofh te Egyptian/Nile River civilizations to the Sumerian Civilization
ZZEgyptian civ. and Sumerian civ all centralized government, a system of writing, significant advances in technology, and religion.
Briefly describe the major components used to characterize civilization.
ZZSpecialization-specialization of labor technological advancement, peoples occupations are what htey do best
Describe three major shifts emanating from the change from early Neolithic to Agrarian Civilizations.
ZZRevolution in state formation-People began to more readily come together and form a civilization and form ideologies on how a government should work.
Descrie three major technological developments and their impact during the Agricultutral Revolution.
ZZWheel- The wheel allowed for increased transportation of goods, as carts with wheels could be drawn by horses. Also, allows for better farming equipment in the fields.
Describe three differences between agrarian and pastoral nomadic societies.
ZZAgrarian societies were generally settled, as they relied on farming (which you have to be settled to take part in, for the most part). Pastoral nomadic societies moved from place to place with their agriculture, never settling.
Describe the fundamental differences between bands, tribes, chiefdoms and state-level societies
ZZBands- Dozens of members, nomadic, no division of labor, reciprocal exchange
Compare the social, political and culutral features of the Shang/Yellow River Valley Civilization to the Harappan/Indus River Civilization
ZZThe Yellow River civilization had a very complex system of writing that was developed, while the Indus River civilization had a very simplistic form of writing
Describe social, political and cultural features of the Olmec/Meso-American civilization
ZZBelieved to be the first nation in the West to develop a writing system
Iron Metallurgy
-Experimentation began as early as the fourth millennium BCE
Patriarchal Society
-Basis of Mesopotamian and Egyptian societies-- men made decisions regarding division of household chores among family members and arranged marriages
Origins of Writing
-Cuneiform, the earliest known writing, originated in Mesopotamia
Hebrews
-Nomads who originally settled between Mesopotamia and Egypt
Phoenecians
-Lived between eastern Mediterranean Sea and Lebanon, earned a reputation as seafaring traders in the first millennium BCE
Indus River Civilization
-Originated in the Indus River Valley ca. 2500 BCE
Indo-European Languages
-During the 18th and 19th centuries similarities between the languages of Europe, Persia, and India were noticed
Aryans
-Originally pastoral nomads who spoke Indo-European languages
Vedic Age
-A period in Indian history, between 1500 and 500 BCE when the Vedas were recorded; Rig Veda is the most important of these
Caste System
-Developed over time as the Aryans established settlements in India
Vedas
-Vedas: a collection of hymns, songs, prayers, and rituals honoring various Aryan gods
Yellow River Civilization - Xia Dynasty
-Huang He means Yellow River and refers to the light colored loess soil that it picks up and deposits on the riverbank
Shang Dynasty
-Earliest recorded dynasty(1750-027 BCE); rise and success based on technology, especially bronze
Chou Dynasty
-Ruled by proclamation; military forces and allies disseminated laws and justice
Warring States
-Time of disunity for China (403-221 BCE); many independent states adopted Legalist philosophies as the basis for their rule
Olmecs
-Olmecs (means rubber people) are named after trees from the region in which they flourished
Mayan Civilization
-Society located in present-day southern Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, and El Salvador; classical Maya ruled from ca. 300-900 CE
Mayan Culture
-Built 80 large ceremonial centers, which included pyramids, palaces, and temples; large centers included Palenque, Chichen Itza, and Tikal, the latter with a population of approximately 40000 people and the Temple of the Jaguar
Teotihuacan
-City built in Central Mexico because of the abundant supplies of Fish; developed agriculture by 500 BCE, rapid expansion after 200 BCE
Chavin
-Chavin cult began after 1000 BCE, peaked in popularity 900 to 800 BCE, spread through Peru, and vanished approximately 300 BCE
Achaemenid Empire
-Includes the Medes and the Persians, both people of sizable military power and equestrian skills
Achaemenid Adminstration
-Government relied on a balance between central adminstration and locally appointed governors
Persian Wars
-Fought between Greeks and Achaemenids(500-479 BCE)- led to demise of the empire began when Ionian Greek cities revolted against their governors
Society in Classical Persia
-In the cities free classes included priests, priestesses, artisans, craftsmen, merchants, and low-ranking civil servants
Government in Classical Persia
-Sophisticated government led to the development of a new class of educated bureaucrats who played an important role in the daily affairs of the empire
Economics of Classical Persia
-Agriculture was the foundation of the Persian economy - surpluses were necessary to support military forces, government administrators, and residents in the cities
Zoroastrianism
-A religion based on the teachings of Zarathustra, who left his family at the age of twenty in search of wisdom; after 10 years he proclaimed that visions revealed to him the supreme god, whom he called Ahura Mazda ("wise lord"); this supreme being had chosen him to be his prophet and spread his message
Confucius
-Lived in China during the Warring States period and sought to restore order to China
Confucianism
-One of the major philosophies that emerged from the Hundred Schools of Thought
Daoism
Daoist came up with an alternative solution to end the Warring States period -- contrary to Confucian beliefs, Daoists reflected in an effort to understand natural principles that governed the world and to achieve harmony with nature
Legalism
-One of the major philosophies that emerged from the Hundred Schools of Thought during the Warring States period
Qin Dynasty
-Used Legalist philosophy to restore order and stability to China and end the Warring States period
Shi Huangdi
-Self-proclaimed "first emperor" of China- reigned fourteen years; established centralized rule through large scale political organization
Early Han Dynasty
-Claiming the "mandate of heaven" Liu Bang centralized rule using persistence and methodical planning; started the longest lasting Chinese dynasty -- the Han (206BCE-220CE)
Emperor Wudi
-Han emperor who had a problem recruiting qualified people for government posts because there was no uniform system of public education
Later Han Dynasty
-Separated from the former Han as a result of a temporary loss of power from 9 to 23 CE, the later Han lasted from 25 to 220 CE
Fall of the Han Dynasty
-Collapsed- divisions within the ruling elite limited the effectiveness of the government
Mauryan Dynasty
- A classical Indian dynasty that developed out of a political void created by the failed invasions of Persian emperor Darius- then controlled by the kingdom of Magadha for two centuries
Gupta Dynasty
-Chandra Gupta laid the foundations for empire by making alliances with powerful families in the Ganges; he conquered many; others chose to form tributary alliances with the Guptas
Jainism
-Indian belief system popularized by Vardhamana Mahavira ("the great hero"). Disciples referred to Mahavira as Jina("the conqueror") and called themselves the Jains.
Buddhism
-About 534 BCE, Siddharta Gautama, a Hindu of the Brahmin caste, left his family to live like a holy man
Hinduism
-World's oldest organized religion, originated in India
Mycenaeans
-Language combined Greek and Minoan
Polis
-A Greek word meaning city
Sparta
- A city state in classical Greece- conquered neighbors and forced them into servitude
Athens
-A city state in Ancient Greece whose government was based on democratic principles. However, only free adult males could participate in government
Macedonian Empire
-Supplied Greeks with grain timber and natural resources in exchange for olives, wine and finished products
Hellenistic Empire
-The period during the reign of Alexander the Great and the subsequent division into three large states(each led by one of Alexander's generals) is known as the Hellenistic age(after Greece, or Hellas)
Olympics
-Most famous of Pan Hellenistic festivals
Greek Philosophy-Socrates
-Socrates developed a method of questioning aimed at exposing ethics and morality through a series of increasingly difficult questions; his student Plato recorded his thoughts in a series of writings called the dialogues
Greek Philosophy-Aristotle
-Plato believed that everything was based on forms or ideas. Definitions were not absolute because virtue, honesty, courage, truth and beauty all mean different things in different situations;so there is the imperfect reality of the definition in each individual situation and true definitions, which existed in the world of forms and ideas
Hellenistic Philosophies(i)
-Epicureans suggested that individual needs could be met through reflection
Hellenistic Philosophies (II)
-Skeptics doubted the existence of absolute certain knowledge and so did not espouse strong political, social, or moral beliefs. They taught that people should abandon their search for certain answers and find an inner peace
Roman Republic
-Republic- a form of government whose head of state is usually a president
Rome: From Republic to Empire
-87 BCE: invasion and subsequent occupation of Rome led by Marius until his death
Julius Caesar
-Named himself dictator of the Roman Empire (for life, not six months as was the past precedent)
Expansion of Roman Empire
During the republic the empire included Italy, Greece, Syria, Gaul, most of the Iberian penninsula, and outposts in North Africa and Antoloia; Augustus added most of southeastern Europe and most of North Africa and increased control in Anatolia and southwestern Asia; at its height the empire included Britain and all of the land surrounding the northern and southern coast of the Mediterranean from Iberia to Mesopotamia
Roman Roads
-Roman engineers developed an intricate process for building roads -- prepared a deep bed, edged roads with curbs, provided for drainage, topped with large flat paving stones
Roman Law
-Roman law was first recorded in approximately 450 BCE. The Twelve Tables were meant to provide a standard system of law throughout the early empire
Trade in the Mediterranean
Grain from latifundia in North Africa, Egypt, Sicily, supported large cities in the empire and was also used for trade with Greece(for olives and vines) and with Syria and Palestine (for fruits, nuts, and wool fabrics); trade facilitated crop specialization throughout the climatically diverse empire
Jesus
-Major teachings: devotion to God and love for fellow man
Early Christianity
-Christians would not worship false gods of the Roman Empire
Silk Road
Southeastern Asia, China, and India traded: silk and spices west to consumers in central Asia, Iran, Arabia, and the Roman empire
Fall of Roman Empire
Problems;internal opposition, power struggle (26 people claimed the throne), generals struggled for power and died violently, empire was simply too large, epidemics
Germanic Invasions
Ended imperial Roman power in western Europe by 476 CE ; power later shifts to Byzantium in the east
Early Byzantine Empire
-Emperor Constantine accepted Christianity in 313 CE. He then relocated the capital of the Roman Empire to Constantinople in the east because the eastern Mediterranean was wealthier and allowed him to spy on enemies in the East
Justinian's Code
-Justinian(reigned 527-565 CE) was a very important emperor during the early Byzantine empire; his wife, Theodora, advised him on political, religious, and diplomatic issues
Byzantine economy and society
-Lower Danube region was the breadbasket of the empire
Legacy of Classical Greece
Greek replaced Latin as the official language of the Byzantine Empire
Fall of the Byzantine Empire
-Turks invaded the east and conquered Constantinople(later renamed it Istanbul)
Byzantium and Russia
-Russia created several trade centers including Kiev along the Dnieper River
Long-Distance Trade
-Specialized labor and efficient means of transformation encouraged trade between groups such as the Mesopotamians and the Egyptians as early as 3500 BCE
Spread of Epidemic Diseases
-Smallpox and measles were the most pervasive; bubonic plague also broke out
Muhammad
-About 610, Muhammad had a transformational spiritual experience and travelled through the Arabian Peninsula proclaiming that he was the last prophet of Allah
Expansion of Islam
- Rapid expansion in the century after Muhammad's death was the work of early caliphs who spread the word through pilgrimages
Abbasid Dynasty
-In 750 the Umayyad Dynasty ended after a rebellion in Persia led by Abu al-Abbas who founded the Abbasid dynasty, the main source of power in the dar-al-Islam
Trade within the Eastern Hemisphere
-Commercial centers in Nishapur, Bukhura, and Samarkand facilitated the revival of trade over the Silk Road (perpetuated by Muslims)
The Quran and Women
-The Quran helped and hurt women
Influences on the Dar-Al Islam(Persian, Indian, and Greek)
-Arabic term referring to the "house of Islam" and the lands under Islamic rule
Islam in northern India
-Muslim forces reached India by the mid-seventeenth century
Sui Dynasty
-After centuries of turmoil following the Han dynasty, the Sui emerged to restore peace and order
Tang Dynasty
-Restored peace and stability after the fall of the Sui dynasty
Song Dynasty
-Followed the Tang Dynasty; first emperor, Song Taizu, started policy of distrust of military leaders- focused on civil service exams (based on Confucian philosophy), industry, education, and the arts
Technological Development of Tang and Song Dynasties
-Advances were made possible as a result of abundant food supplies
Neo-Confucianism
-Developed in response to the growing popularity of Buddhism
Early Japan
-Earliest inhabitants of Japan, nomadic peoples from northeastern Asia came with their language, culture, and religion
Medieval Japan
-Includes the Kamakura and Muromachi periods
Merchantilism
I. A new economic theory adopted by many European nations with the goal of maintaining a favorable trade balance-whereby a country exports more than it imports.
East African Cultures
I. Bantus migrated to the eastern coast of Africa-bringing agriculture, cattle hearding, and iron metallurgy-and developed complex societies governed buy small, local states.
Frankish Empire
I. Franks built a society based on agriculture in the northern region of Europe (France, Germany, and Low COuntries) and oversaw the development of decentralized political institutions in those areas.
Decline of Carolingian Empire
I. Charlemagne accepted the title of emperor from the pope in 800 but died short thereafter, in 814.
Establishment of Nationstates in Western Europe
I. New strong nations with centralized authority emerged after the feudal period in Italy, Spain, France, and England.
Hanseatic League (Hansa)
I. A trade that developed in the Baltic and North Sea (1400's to 1600's); encompassed the comertial centers of Poland, northern Germany, and Scandinavia; linked to the Mediterranean through the Rhine and Danube Rivers.
Mongol- Christian Deplomacy
I. Large imperial states were connected by expansice trading networks. For transactions between states to go smoothly, it was imperitive that political and diplomatic ties be strong.
Results of the Crusades
I. Increased cultural diffusion- Europe was reintroduced to Greco- Roman culture, which had been preserved by the Byzantine Empire, and, in addition, discovered eastern goods such as silk, rice, glass, and coffee.
Ghana
I. Primary state of West Africa: located between the Senagal and Niger rivers ca. 750-1250.
Toltecs
I. Migrated to central Mexico, settled int Tula during the eight century.
Aztec Religion
I. Adapted indiginous beliefs.
Development in Oceania
I. Aboriginal people of Australia, isolated from other societies, created trade and exchange networks with other hunting and gathering societies as far away as 1,000 miles.
Development of Pacific Islands
I. Owing to the expanse of the Pacific Ocean, trade networks did not easily develop allowing for limited contact with other societies. There was some cultural diffusion, such as the spread of sweet potatoes.
Sufis
I. Sufis focused on personal relationship to Allah rather than a strict interpritation of Islam. They allowed worship of traditional gods, who they believed were manifestations of Allah.
Agricultural Diffusion
I. Muslim travelers introduced new foods (citrus fruits, rice) and commercial crops (cotton, sugarcane) to sub-Sahahran Africa.
Technology of European Exploration
I. Lanteen sails, whuich allowed ships to sail in any direction.
European Exploration of the Pacific
I. Between the 1500's and the 1700's, Europeans explored the Pacific motivated by trade.
Commertial Revolution
I. The changing nature of trade in this period was known as the Commercial Revolution.
Medival Colonization
I. Once regional states emergen in Europe, Vikings looked to colonize elsewhere.
Influence of Christianity in Europe
I. Franks solidified Christianity as a foundation of the empire when Clovis converted; Charlemagne continued the commitment to Rome.
British Economic interests in India
-Beginning in the early 1600s, Mogul emperors granted concessions to allow the British to trade in India
Russian Empire: rise and expansion
-After breaking free of Mongol control in the late 1400s, Muscovite princes began to take control over much of Russia, eliminating the authority of local princes
Ivan the Terrible
-Russian czar(r. 1533-1584) who continued to expand the empire and to consolidate the czar's absolute authority
The Romanovs
Following a period of civil unrest in Russia, Mikhail Romanov's election as czar established the Romanovs as the new royal family
Westernization
-Occurs as societies are influenced by Western culture and assimilate and/or adopt western ideas
Peter the Great
-Russian czar (r. 1682-1725) best known for centralizing his authority and bringing Western ideas to the Russian Empire
St. Petersburg
-Located on the Baltic Sea, was established as the capital of the Russian empire by Peter the Great
Catherine the Great
- A Russian czarina(r. 1763-1796), she continued Peter the Great's policy of modernization while ensuring the absolute authority of the monarch
Serfdom in Russia
-As a result of the unpaid debts, many peasants were forced into serfdom
Origins of the Industrial Revolution
-Technological innovations in the 1700s led to industrialization, the mass production of goods using machine power (rather than hand power)
Industrial Revolution: new machines
-The advent of mechanization revolutionized the production of goods
Effects of Industrial Revolution on Society
-Mass production of goods drove down the price of consumer items, and the resulting increase in demand encouraged the development of quicker and more efficient methods of production. The standard of living rose
Political and Economic Effects of Industrialization
-Governments passed legislation protecting workers (for example, the establishment of a minimum wage)
Factory System: Economic Impact
-Developed as a way to house large and expensive machines in a single location, near a source of power, in order to mass-produce goods
Factory System: Social Impact
-Prior to industrialization, societies were agriculturally based. Although in some places in Europe the domestic system existed, in which individuals worked on one part of production (for example, making cloth from wool), most people still worked on farms
American Revolution:Causes
-The 13 British colonies in North America resented legislation passed by the British Parliament levying taxes and infringing on their rights
American Revolution:Impact
-War began, and with the aid of France, the colonists forced the British to surrender in 1781
French Revolution:causes
-In 1789, King Louis XVI summoned representatives to a meeting of the Estates General to convince them of the necessity of raising taxes
National Assembly
-In June 1789, the Third Estates broke away from the Estates General and declared themselves the National Assembly
French Revolution: convention to Napoleon
-A new constitution gave the convention power to govern; the convention abolished the monarchy
Napoleon Bonaparte
-A general in the French army who gained control of France in a coup d'etat in 1799, seizing control from the Directory, a small group of governing aristocrats
Congress of Vienna
-A meeting held from 1814 to 1815 in Vienna and attended by representatives of the nations that had defeated Napoleon Bonaparte
Latin American independence movements
-The American and French revolutions and the ideals of the Enlightenment inspired independence movements in Latin America
Simon Bolivar
-A creole form South America, he led a successful revolutionary movement against Spanish rule
Haitian Revolution
-The French colony of Saint Domingue was the first colony in Latin America to gain its independence
Touissant-Louverture
-A slave who helped lead a revolt in Haiti against white settlers
Conservatism in Europe
A political philosophy that sought to return things to the way they were prior to the political revolution that spread across Europe in the 19th century and to maintain traditional ways
Liberalism in Europe
-A political ideology asserting that individuals possess certain rights such as liberty and equality and that the purpose of government is to protect these rights
Nationalism
-Feeling of pride in one's nation
Socialism
-Utopian socialists believed that people should work toward the creation of a perfect society in which everyone was equal
Karl Marx
- A 19th century philosopher, he developed a socialist theory with Friedrich Engels in response to the changing nature of the workplace that resulted from the industrial revolution
Unification of Germany
-Independent German-speaking states in Germany united to form a single nation
Otto von Bismarck
-Chancellor of the German state of Prussia, he worked to united the German-speaking states into a single nation
Italian Unification
-Independent states in Italy united to form a single nation
Zionism
- A nationalist movement that emerged in the late 1800s with the stated goal of establishing a Jewish state in Palestine; led in part by Theodore Herzl
Emancipation of Serfs in Russia(1861)
-Following a humiliating defeat by Western powers in the Crimean War, Russian czars sought to reform society
New Imperialism: Causes
-Beginning in the late 1800s, modern industrial nations sought economic control (and sometimes political and social control) over weaker nations
Crimean War (1853-1856)
-In the mid 19th century, war between Russian and an alliance of British, French, and Ottoman troops broke out after Russia had threatened the stability of the Ottoman Empire by seeking to take Ottoman-controlled territory in the Balkans
White Man's Burden
-Poem by Rudyard Kipling, that explained why white Europeans (and Americans) had a moral responsibility to take control of weaker nations
Social Darwinism
-A theory based in part on Charles Darwin's theories of evolution and natural selection
Direct vs. Indirect Control (of colonial possessions)
-As European nations sought to extend their authority over weaker lands, they needed to determine if rule was to be direct or indirect
Sepoy Rebellion
-A revolt led by Indian soldiers against the British Eats India Company (BEIC) in protest of rules that threatened their religious traditions
Indian National Congress (INC): Origins
-A nationalist group formed in British India in 1885 by upper-class Hindus
King Leopold
-King of Belgium who established a colony known as the Congo Free State in Africa
Berlin Conference(1884-1885)
- A meeting of European powers in which the rules for colonizing Africa were established: European powers had to notify one another of their intentions to take control of an area
Opium War:Causes
- A conflict fought between Britain and China (1839-1842) over British sale of opium in China
Opium War: Results
-Britain's superior military led to a decisive victory over the Chinese and the signing of a series of unequal treaties
Taiping Rebellion (1850s and 1860s)
- A rebellion by Chinese peasants that threatened the Qing dynasty
Self-Strengthening Movement
-Following the signing of a series of unequal treaties and a number of internal rebellions in the 19th century, the Qing enacted a series of reforms
Spheres of Influence
-An area of economic influence/control
Boxer Rebellion
An internal rebellion led by a group known as the Boxers, who unsuccessfully sought to rid China of foreign influence
Monroe Doctrine
-Articulated in 1823 as a part of US foreign policy, it sought to limit European interference in the Americas
Spanish American War
-In response to the destruction of a US ship in Havana's harbor and under the guise of protecting American business interests in Cuba, as well as the interest of those Cubans suffering under Spanish rule, the United States declared war on Spain
US Open Door Policy
-US foreign policy that sought equal trading rights for all nations trading in China and commercial advantages for US business
Panama Canal
-A canal built through the Isthmus of Panama connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans
Opening of Japan
-Following over 200 years of self-imposed isolation, Japan was forced to open its doors to the world following the arrival of US Commodore Matthew Perry
Meiji Restoration
-After Japan ended its isolation, rebellion led to the overthrow of the shogun who was replaced by an emperor, who initiated a series of social,economic, and political reforms
Sino-Japanese War
- A war fought between China and Japan for control of Korea
Russo-Japanese War
-Imperial rivalries led to armed conflict between Russia and Japan for control of parts of Korea and Manchuria
Bloody Sunday
-In 1905 a peaceful demonstration at the Russian czar's winter palace in St. Petersburg turned violent when the czar's guards opened fire on the unarmed crowd
Fall of the Qing
-Despite the Qing's enacting of a series of reforms in the second half of the 19th century, the signing of a number of unequal treaties and numerous internal rebellions had left the ruling family weak, and in 1911 revolution broke out in China
Decline of the Ottoman Empire
-In the 19th century, the Ottoman Empire, now small, weak, and in debt, became known as the Sick Man of Europe
Muhammad Ali
-Emerged as the ruler of Egypt following an unsuccessful invasion by Napoleon in 1798
Armenian Genocide
-The massive and deliberate killing of Armenian civilians by the Ottoman Turks
Mexican Revolution: causes
-discontent after decades of limited social reform led Mexicans to demand change
Mexican Revolution:Results
-In 1917 Mexico adopted a new constitution that established land reform and granted rights to workers and women
Background causes of World War I
-By 1900 nationalism was a powerful global force, sometimes urging people to unite for a common purpose and at others acting to break groups up. Ethnic minorities living in the multinational empires of the Ottomans and Austria-Hungary were seeking independence
Immediate causes of World War I
The crisis sometimes referred to as the "spark" that started the war came on June 28, 1914. While on a visit to Sarajevo (in Bosnia) Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, was assassinated in Sarajevo by a Serbian nationalist. Almost immediately, Germany pledged its support to Austria-Hungary, and with Austria-Hungary's declaration of war on Serbia a month later. Russia mobilized forces against Austria-Hungary in support of Serbia. A few days later, Germany declared war on Russia and then on France. Following the German invasion of Belgium, Britain declared war on Germany and world war was well on its way.
Total War
-When all of a nation's resources are dedicated to the war effort and both civilian and military populations mobilize to defeat an enemy
21 demands
-In 1915 Japan, at war with Germany, invaded German-held territory in one of China's provinces
Technology of World War I
-World War I was the world's first truly modern war: new weapons of revolutionist warfare
Results of World War I
-Cities throughout Europe were destroyed and millions were dead, injured, or homeless.
Paris Peace Conbference
The Allied nations met in Paris in 1919 to settle peace terms with the Central Powers. Five treaties in all were negotiated; the most significant was the Treaty of Versailles, between the Allies and Germany
Treaty of Versailles
-The peace settlement negotiated by the Allies with Germany at the end of World War I focused on ensuring that Germany would never again be a threat to the security of Europe
League of Nations
-Created after World War I, the League of Nations was the first permanent international organization dedicated to maintaining peace
Mandate System
- An article in the covenant of the League of Nations stated that colonies and territories needed assistance as they prepared themselves for self-government and that more advance nations would act as guides for the less experienced ones
Russian Revolution (March 1917)
In february 1917, Czar Nicholas II abdicated the Russian throne and ended nearly 300 years of Romanov rule
October Revolution (Bolshevik Revolution)
-The second part of the Russian Revolution led by Vladimir Lenin and his Bolshevik Party
V.I. Lenin
-A student of Marxism, Lenin saw in revolutionary Russia the seeds of a communist revolution
New Economic Policy
-Introduced to the USSR by V.I. Lenin, the policy provided limited private business
War Communism
-Nationalization on a massive scale
Age of Anxiety
-The period after World War I when doubt was cast upon previously existing ways of life
Great Depression
-In 1929 economic depression spread across the world as the US stock market crashed and European countries struggled to rebuild their damaged postwar economies
New Deal
-In response to the Great Depression, President Franklin Roosevelt proposed legislation aimed at economic recovery
Origins of World War II
-Axis Powers: Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, and Japan; Allied powers:France and its empire, Great Britain and its empire, Commonwealth allies (Canada, Austailia, New Zealand), Soviet Union, China, and the United States
Rise of Fascism
-Fascism emerged in both Italy and Germany in the interwar period; both nations were faced with economic depression and in desperate need of strong leaders. Powerful dictators emerged, greatly influenced by fascist ideology
Adolph Hitler: Rise to Power
-Rose to power in Germany in the 1920s and 1930s
Adolph Hitler at war
-In the late 1930s, Europe felt compelled to respond to the aggressive actions of Hitler, who had rearmed Germany and taken control of the Rhineland and Austria
Benito Mussolini
Responsible for the establishment of the world's first fascist state
Indian National Congress (INC): In action
-Partnered with the Muslim League to lead a mass movement to gain self-rule from Great Britain for the Indian subcontinent
Mohandas Gandhi: early years
-An Indian nationalist leader who fought for India's independence from Great Britain
Mohandas Gandhi: an Indian nationalist
-He quickly became a popular leader among the ordinary citizens of India, and the support of an extensive segment of the population made the Non-Cooperation and the Civil Disobedience movements largely successful
Chinese Civil War
-A conflict between the Kuomintang and the Communist parties
Mao Zedong
-A nationalist leader in China, he successfully defeated the Kuomintang in a civil war in large measure because of the support of the peasants
Cultural revolution
-Known as the Great Proletarina Cultural Revolution, it was launched in CHina in 1966 by Mao Zedong in order to seek out and silence opposition to Mao's leadership and his vision of communism
Joesph Stalin
Following the death of V.I. Lenin, Stalin, the "man of steel," became the totalitarian dictator of the Soviet Union
Soviet five-year plans
-An economic policy initiated by Joesph Stalin that set high quotas in an attempt to improve Soviet agricultural and industrial output
Mukden/Manchurian Incident
-Occurred in Manchuria in September 1931, when Japanese troops blew up part of the South manchurian Railway
OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries)
-An organization of producers of oil established in 1960. Member nations include Abu Dhabi, Algeria, Ecuador, Gabon, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Kuwaiti, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela.
Mikhail Gorbachev
-Controlled the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991
Iron Curtain: Demise
In November 1989, the Berlin Wall was opened, allowing people to travel freely from east to west; soon the entire wall was torn down, symbolizing the end of the Cold War.
Fall of Soviet Union
-Failed invasion of Afghanistan contributed to the decline as resources were strained to support an unpopular and ultimately unsuccessful attempt to expand Soviet influence.
Nuclear Arms Race since the Fall of the Soviet Union
-With the collapse of the Soviet Union, both the United States and Russia dramatically reduced their nuclear weapons spending
Genocide
-The killing of a specific group of people based on specific ethnic, religious, or racial characteristics
Feminism
-Women make up 40 to 50 percent of workforce in industrialized societies, 20 percent in developing countries. Jobs characterized as "women's work": teaching, clerical work
Islamic Fundamentalism
-The term is often used by western sources to describe an extreme movement to replace secular states wtih Islamic ones
Intifada
-Part of the Arab-Israeli conflict over the struggle for control of Israel that began as a result of U.N. Resolution 181, in which the United Nations created Israel from lands claimed by Palestinians
Persian Gulf War (1991)
-Saddam Hussein's Iraqi troops invaded Kuwait and took control of its oil fields
Asian Tigers
-Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan enjoyed rapid growth rates and were major economic powers by the 1980s.
Global Problems
-Poverty: Unequal distributions of resources and income (scarcity) leads to poverty, especially in underdeveloped areas of Africa, Latin America, eastern Europe, and Asia. People in these areas lack food, clean water, and adequate shelter.
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
-Established in 1949, as a military alliance of democratic nations against Soviet aggression
Warsaw Pact
-A defensive military alliance of communist nations designed to counter the collective defense formed by the democratic nations of NATO
Geneva Conference
-Cold War peace conference held in 1954
Korean War
-Following World War II, Korea, which had been annexed by Japan, was occupied by both the Soviet Union and the US-- the Soviet Union north of the 38th parallel and the US south of it. The occupation was to be fo a limited time while the terms of uniting the country were negotiated.
Cuban Revolution
-In 1959, Marxist leader Fidel Castro ousted Cuban dictator Fulgenico Batista and took control of Cuba
Cuban Missile Crisis
-Leader of communist Cuba, Fidel Castro, formed an alliance with Stalin, leader of the Soviet Union, after the Bay of Pigs Incident and an attempted assassination by rebels funded by the US
Nonalignment
-Nations did not take a side in the Cold War
Arab Nationalism
Former Arab colonies easily gained independence from their mother countries post-World War II
Creation of Israel
-Created by the United Nations in 1947 as a result of UN Resolution 181
Decolonization
-In the post- World war II world, mother countries could no longer maintain control of their colonies as they attempted to repair their own war-torn lands.
Indian Independence
Post-World War II, overseas empires became increasingly difficult to maintain, Great Britain held on, but election of the Labour Party ushered in a movement toward home rule.
Pan-Africanism
-Pan-African movements first emerged in the US and the Caribbean and the ns pread to French West as the Negritude
Jomo Kenyatta
-A kenyan nationalist leader, who led a moement to gain independence from Great Britain. He was jailed in 1953 by the British government in its effort to suppress all nationalist movements.
European Community
-Formed in 1957, six founding member nations: France, Belgium, West Germany, Luxembourg, Italy, and the Netherlands; characterized by a common market and free trade
Detente
-Policy adopted by the Soviet Union and the United States during the Cold War in an effort to reduce tensions between the two superpowers over the arms race and control of developing countries
Vietnam War
-The United Statees intervened in the conflict on the side of noncommunist South Vietnam after the French were defeated
Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan
-Muslim-controlled Afghanistan maintained a position of nonalignment in the Cold War until 1978, when a pro-Soviet coup dragged the country into a civil war
Apartheid
-Established by the Afrikaner National Party in 1948 in an effort to maintain control over the black African majority
Nelson Mandela
-A leader of the ANC (African National Congress), arrested for military protests against apartheid and sentenced to jail for life
Iranian Revolution
-1941: Muhammed Reza Pahlavi declared himself shah. Backed by the US and Britain, he modernized and westernized Iran
Iran-Iraq war
-1979: Saddam Hussein became the leader of Iraq and seized control over disputed border area
Deng Xiaoping
-1976: replaced Mao Zedong as leader of communist China; introduced new economic reforms but little extension of individual political rights
Globalization
-Goal: a global economy to facilitate the movement of goods and trade associated with the term free trade (trade unrestricted by state limits as it crosses borders)
Japanese Invasion of China (1937)
-Japan launched a full-scale invasion of China in the hopes of gaining control of China's extensive natural resources
Rape of Nanking
-Following Japan's invasion of mainland China in 1937, China experienced mass death and suffering; Japan began aerial bombing of major Chinese cities (especially Shanghai, where people died by the thousands)
Blitzkreig ("Lightning War")
-Germans invaded Poland unannounced on September 1, 1939. Their strategy included a preemptive air attack, to weaken resistance, followed by land forces - Panzer ("armored") columns, which were fast and mobile
Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor
-In an attempt to destroy American naval forces in the Pacific, Japan attacked the US naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on December 7, 1941
Dropping of the Atomic Bomb
-The war in Europe ended in May 1945 but waged on in the Pacific
US Occupation of Japan
-Following Japan's unconditional surrender in World War II, Japan was occupied by US forces under General Douglas MacArthur
Jewish Holocaust
-Nazi regime killed over 6 million Jews and an additional 5 million Slavs, Gypsies, homosexuals, communists, and other "undesirables"-a human disaster on a previously unknown scale
United Nations
-Created at the end of World War II as a coalition dedicated to maintaining world peace and security. had more power than the League of Nations, which had been ineffective in preventing World War II
Cold War: Origins
-The Cold War was an ideological war between two ideologically opposed superpowers
Iron Curtain: Creation
-First articulated in a 1946 speech by English Prime Minister Winston Churchill, the term refers to the symbolic division of Europe following the end of World War II
Nuclear Arms Race
-as the Cold War progressed, a new reality emerged: the struggle between the US and the Soviet Union to claim polical hegemony across the globe led to an expensive arms race and the proliferation of nuclear weapons
Satellite Nations
-Soviet-occupied nations at the end of World War II: Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, and Romania. Soviets set up a communist government in Poland
Trumane Doctrine
-Established March 12, 1947 by President Harry Truman-- an economic and military program intended to help nations resist Soviet aggression and prevent the spread of communism
Marshall Plan
-Also known as the European Recovery Program, a massive economic aid package, part of the containment policy, designed to strengthen democracy and lessen the appeal of communism (developed after WWII)
Compare the social, political and cultural features ofh te Egyptian/Nile River civilizations to the Sumerian Civilization
ZZEgyptian civ. and Sumerian civ all centralized government, a system of writing, significant advances in technology, and religion.
Briefly describe the major components used to characterize civilization.
ZZSpecializationXXXspecialization of labor technological advancement, peoples occupations are what htey do best
Describe three major shifts emanating from the change from early Neolithic to Agrarian Civilizations.
ZZRevolution in state formationXXXPeople began to more readily come together and form a civilization and form ideologies on how a government should work.
Descrie three major technological developments and their impact during the Agricultutral Revolution.
ZZWheelXXX The wheel allowed for increased transportation of goods, as carts with wheels could be drawn by horses. Also, allows for better farming equipment in the fields.
Describe three differences between agrarian and pastoral nomadic societies.
ZZAgrarian societies were generally settled, as they relied on farming (which you have to be settled to take part in, for the most part). Pastoral nomadic societies moved from place to place with their agriculture, never settling.
Describe the fundamental differences between bands, tribes, chiefdoms and stateXXXlevel societies
ZZBandsXXX Dozens of members, nomadic, no division of labor, reciprocal exchange
Compare the social, political and culutral features of the Shang/Yellow River Valley Civilization to the Harappan/Indus River Civilization
ZZThe Yellow River civilization had a very complex system of writing that was developed, while the Indus River civilization had a very simplistic form of writing
Describe social, political and cultural features of the Olmec/MesoXXXAmerican civilization
ZZBelieved to be the first nation in the West to develop a writing system
Iron Metallurgy
XXXExperimentation began as early as the fourth millennium BCE
Patriarchal Society
XXXBasis of Mesopotamian and Egyptian societiesXXXXXX men made decisions regarding division of household chores among family members and arranged marriages
Origins of Writing
XXXCuneiform, the earliest known writing, originated in Mesopotamia
Hebrews
XXXNomads who originally settled between Mesopotamia and Egypt
Phoenecians
XXXLived between eastern Mediterranean Sea and Lebanon, earned a reputation as seafaring traders in the first millennium BCE
Indus River Civilization
XXXOriginated in the Indus River Valley ca. 2500 BCE
IndoXXXEuropean Languages
XXXDuring the 18th and 19th centuries similarities between the languages of Europe, Persia, and India were noticed
Aryans
XXXOriginally pastoral nomads who spoke IndoXXXEuropean languages
Vedic Age
XXXA period in Indian history, between 1500 and 500 BCE when the Vedas were recorded; Rig Veda is the most important of these
Caste System
XXXDeveloped over time as the Aryans established settlements in India
Vedas
XXXVedas: a collection of hymns, songs, prayers, and rituals honoring various Aryan gods
Yellow River Civilization XXX Xia Dynasty
XXXHuang He means Yellow River and refers to the light colored loess soil that it picks up and deposits on the riverbank
Shang Dynasty
XXXEarliest recorded dynasty(1750XXX027 BCE); rise and success based on technology, especially bronze
Chou Dynasty
XXXRuled by proclamation; military forces and allies disseminated laws and justice
Warring States
XXXTime of disunity for China (403XXX221 BCE); many independent states adopted Legalist philosophies as the basis for their rule
Olmecs
XXXOlmecs (means rubber people) are named after trees from the region in which they flourished
Mayan Civilization
XXXSociety located in presentXXXday southern Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, and El Salvador; classical Maya ruled from ca. 300XXX900 CE
Mayan Culture
XXXBuilt 80 large ceremonial centers, which included pyramids, palaces, and temples; large centers included Palenque, Chichen Itza, and Tikal, the latter with a population of approximately 40000 people and the Temple of the Jaguar
Teotihuacan
XXXCity built in Central Mexico because of the abundant supplies of Fish; developed agriculture by 500 BCE, rapid expansion after 200 BCE
Chavin
XXXChavin cult began after 1000 BCE, peaked in popularity 900 to 800 BCE, spread through Peru, and vanished approximately 300 BCE
Achaemenid Empire
XXXIncludes the Medes and the Persians, both people of sizable military power and equestrian skills
Achaemenid Adminstration
XXXGovernment relied on a balance between central adminstration and locally appointed governors
Persian Wars
XXXFought between Greeks and Achaemenids(500XXX479 BCE)XXX led to demise of the empire began when Ionian Greek cities revolted against their governors
Society in Classical Persia
XXXIn the cities free classes included priests, priestesses, artisans, craftsmen, merchants, and lowXXXranking civil servants
Government in Classical Persia
XXXSophisticated government led to the development of a new class of educated bureaucrats who played an important role in the daily affairs of the empire
Economics of Classical Persia
XXXAgriculture was the foundation of the Persian economy XXX surpluses were necessary to support military forces, government administrators, and residents in the cities
Zoroastrianism
XXXA religion based on the teachings of Zarathustra, who left his family at the age of twenty in search of wisdom; after 10 years he proclaimed that visions revealed to him the supreme god, whom he called Ahura Mazda ("wise lord"); this supreme being had chosen him to be his prophet and spread his message
Confucius
XXXLived in China during the Warring States period and sought to restore order to China
Confucianism
XXXOne of the major philosophies that emerged from the Hundred Schools of Thought
Daoism
Daoist came up with an alternative solution to end the Warring States period XXXXXX contrary to Confucian beliefs, Daoists reflected in an effort to understand natural principles that governed the world and to achieve harmony with nature
Legalism
XXXOne of the major philosophies that emerged from the Hundred Schools of Thought during the Warring States period
Qin Dynasty
XXXUsed Legalist philosophy to restore order and stability to China and end the Warring States period
Shi Huangdi
XXXSelfXXXproclaimed "first emperor" of ChinaXXX reigned fourteen years; established centralized rule through large scale political organization
Early Han Dynasty
XXXClaiming the "mandate of heaven" Liu Bang centralized rule using persistence and methodical planning; started the longest lasting Chinese dynasty XXXXXX the Han (206BCEXXX220CE)
Emperor Wudi
XXXHan emperor who had a problem recruiting qualified people for government posts because there was no uniform system of public education
Later Han Dynasty
XXXSeparated from the former Han as a result of a temporary loss of power from 9 to 23 CE, the later Han lasted from 25 to 220 CE
Fall of the Han Dynasty
XXXCollapsedXXX divisions within the ruling elite limited the effectiveness of the government
Mauryan Dynasty
XXX A classical Indian dynasty that developed out of a political void created by the failed invasions of Persian emperor DariusXXX then controlled by the kingdom of Magadha for two centuries
Gupta Dynasty
XXXChandra Gupta laid the foundations for empire by making alliances with powerful families in the Ganges; he conquered many; others chose to form tributary alliances with the Guptas
Jainism
XXXIndian belief system popularized by Vardhamana Mahavira ("the great hero"). Disciples referred to Mahavira as Jina("the conqueror") and called themselves the Jains.
Buddhism
XXXAbout 534 BCE, Siddharta Gautama, a Hindu of the Brahmin caste, left his family to live like a holy man
Hinduism
XXXWorld's oldest organized religion, originated in India
Mycenaeans
XXXLanguage combined Greek and Minoan
Polis
XXXA Greek word meaning city
Sparta
XXX A city state in classical GreeceXXX conquered neighbors and forced them into servitude
Athens
XXXA city state in Ancient Greece whose government was based on democratic principles. However, only free adult males could participate in government
Macedonian Empire
XXXSupplied Greeks with grain timber and natural resources in exchange for olives, wine and finished products
Hellenistic Empire
XXXThe period during the reign of Alexander the Great and the subsequent division into three large states(each led by one of Alexander's generals) is known as the Hellenistic age(after Greece, or Hellas)
Olympics
XXXMost famous of Pan Hellenistic festivals
Greek PhilosophyXXXSocrates
XXXSocrates developed a method of questioning aimed at exposing ethics and morality through a series of increasingly difficult questions; his student Plato recorded his thoughts in a series of writings called the dialogues
Greek PhilosophyXXXAristotle
XXXPlato believed that everything was based on forms or ideas. Definitions were not absolute because virtue, honesty, courage, truth and beauty all mean different things in different situations;so there is the imperfect reality of the definition in each individual situation and true definitions, which existed in the world of forms and ideas
Hellenistic Philosophies(i)
XXXEpicureans suggested that individual needs could be met through reflection
Hellenistic Philosophies (II)
XXXSkeptics doubted the existence of absolute certain knowledge and so did not espouse strong political, social, or moral beliefs. They taught that people should abandon their search for certain answers and find an inner peace
Roman Republic
XXXRepublicXXX a form of government whose head of state is usually a president
Rome: From Republic to Empire
XXX87 BCE: invasion and subsequent occupation of Rome led by Marius until his death
Julius Caesar
XXXNamed himself dictator of the Roman Empire (for life, not six months as was the past precedent)
Expansion of Roman Empire
During the republic the empire included Italy, Greece, Syria, Gaul, most of the Iberian penninsula, and outposts in North Africa and Antoloia; Augustus added most of southeastern Europe and most of North Africa and increased control in Anatolia and southwestern Asia; at its height the empire included Britain and all of the land surrounding the northern and southern coast of the Mediterranean from Iberia to Mesopotamia
Roman Roads
XXXRoman engineers developed an intricate process for building roads XXXXXX prepared a deep bed, edged roads with curbs, provided for drainage, topped with large flat paving stones
Roman Law
XXXRoman law was first recorded in approximately 450 BCE. The Twelve Tables were meant to provide a standard system of law throughout the early empire
Trade in the Mediterranean
Grain from latifundia in North Africa, Egypt, Sicily, supported large cities in the empire and was also used for trade with Greece(for olives and vines) and with Syria and Palestine (for fruits, nuts, and wool fabrics); trade facilitated crop specialization throughout the climatically diverse empire
Jesus
XXXMajor teachings: devotion to God and love for fellow man
Early Christianity
XXXChristians would not worship false gods of the Roman Empire
Silk Road
Southeastern Asia, China, and India traded: silk and spices west to consumers in central Asia, Iran, Arabia, and the Roman empire
Fall of Roman Empire
Problems;internal opposition, power struggle (26 people claimed the throne), generals struggled for power and died violently, empire was simply too large, epidemics
Germanic Invasions
Ended imperial Roman power in western Europe by 476 CE ; power later shifts to Byzantium in the east
Early Byzantine Empire
XXXEmperor Constantine accepted Christianity in 313 CE. He then relocated the capital of the Roman Empire to Constantinople in the east because the eastern Mediterranean was wealthier and allowed him to spy on enemies in the East
Justinian's Code
XXXJustinian(reigned 527XXX565 CE) was a very important emperor during the early Byzantine empire; his wife, Theodora, advised him on political, religious, and diplomatic issues
Byzantine economy and society
XXXLower Danube region was the breadbasket of the empire
Legacy of Classical Greece
Greek replaced Latin as the official language of the Byzantine Empire
Fall of the Byzantine Empire
XXXTurks invaded the east and conquered Constantinople(later renamed it Istanbul)
Byzantium and Russia
XXXRussia created several trade centers including Kiev along the Dnieper River
LongXXXDistance Trade
XXXSpecialized labor and efficient means of transformation encouraged trade between groups such as the Mesopotamians and the Egyptians as early as 3500 BCE
Spread of Epidemic Diseases
XXXSmallpox and measles were the most pervasive; bubonic plague also broke out
Muhammad
XXXAbout 610, Muhammad had a transformational spiritual experience and travelled through the Arabian Peninsula proclaiming that he was the last prophet of Allah
Expansion of Islam
XXX Rapid expansion in the century after Muhammad's death was the work of early caliphs who spread the word through pilgrimages
Abbasid Dynasty
XXXIn 750 the Umayyad Dynasty ended after a rebellion in Persia led by Abu alXXXAbbas who founded the Abbasid dynasty, the main source of power in the darXXXalXXXIslam
Trade within the Eastern Hemisphere
XXXCommercial centers in Nishapur, Bukhura, and Samarkand facilitated the revival of trade over the Silk Road (perpetuated by Muslims)
The Quran and Women
XXXThe Quran helped and hurt women
Influences on the DarXXXAl Islam(Persian, Indian, and Greek)
XXXArabic term referring to the "house of Islam" and the lands under Islamic rule
Islam in northern India
XXXMuslim forces reached India by the midXXXseventeenth century
Sui Dynasty
XXXAfter centuries of turmoil following the Han dynasty, the Sui emerged to restore peace and order
Tang Dynasty
XXXRestored peace and stability after the fall of the Sui dynasty
Song Dynasty
XXXFollowed the Tang Dynasty; first emperor, Song Taizu, started policy of distrust of military leadersXXX focused on civil service exams (based on Confucian philosophy), industry, education, and the arts
Technological Development of Tang and Song Dynasties
XXXAdvances were made possible as a result of abundant food supplies
NeoXXXConfucianism
XXXDeveloped in response to the growing popularity of Buddhism
Early Japan
XXXEarliest inhabitants of Japan, nomadic peoples from northeastern Asia came with their language, culture, and religion
Medieval Japan
XXXIncludes the Kamakura and Muromachi periods
Merchantilism
I. A new economic theory adopted by many European nations with the goal of maintaining a favorable trade balanceXXXwhereby a country exports more than it imports.
East African Cultures
I. Bantus migrated to the eastern coast of AfricaXXXbringing agriculture, cattle hearding, and iron metallurgyXXXand developed complex societies governed buy small, local states.
Frankish Empire
I. Franks built a society based on agriculture in the northern region of Europe (France, Germany, and Low COuntries) and oversaw the development of decentralized political institutions in those areas.
Decline of Carolingian Empire
I. Charlemagne accepted the title of emperor from the pope in 800 but died short thereafter, in 814.
Establishment of Nationstates in Western Europe
I. New strong nations with centralized authority emerged after the feudal period in Italy, Spain, France, and England.
Hanseatic League (Hansa)
I. A trade that developed in the Baltic and North Sea (1400's to 1600's); encompassed the comertial centers of Poland, northern Germany, and Scandinavia; linked to the Mediterranean through the Rhine and Danube Rivers.
MongolXXX Christian Deplomacy
I. Large imperial states were connected by expansice trading networks. For transactions between states to go smoothly, it was imperitive that political and diplomatic ties be strong.
Results of the Crusades
I. Increased cultural diffusionXXX Europe was reintroduced to GrecoXXX Roman culture, which had been preserved by the Byzantine Empire, and, in addition, discovered eastern goods such as silk, rice, glass, and coffee.
Ghana
I. Primary state of West Africa: located between the Senagal and Niger rivers ca. 750XXX1250.
Toltecs
I. Migrated to central Mexico, settled int Tula during the eight century.
Aztec Religion
I. Adapted indiginous beliefs.
Development in Oceania
I. Aboriginal people of Australia, isolated from other societies, created trade and exchange networks with other hunting and gathering societies as far away as 1,000 miles.
Development of Pacific Islands
I. Owing to the expanse of the Pacific Ocean, trade networks did not easily develop allowing for limited contact with other societies. There was some cultural diffusion, such as the spread of sweet potatoes.
Sufis
I. Sufis focused on personal relationship to Allah rather than a strict interpritation of Islam. They allowed worship of traditional gods, who they believed were manifestations of Allah.
Agricultural Diffusion
I. Muslim travelers introduced new foods (citrus fruits, rice) and commercial crops (cotton, sugarcane) to subXXXSahahran Africa.
Technology of European Exploration
I. Lanteen sails, whuich allowed ships to sail in any direction.
European Exploration of the Pacific
I. Between the 1500's and the 1700's, Europeans explored the Pacific motivated by trade.
Commertial Revolution
I. The changing nature of trade in this period was known as the Commercial Revolution.
Medival Colonization
I. Once regional states emergen in Europe, Vikings looked to colonize elsewhere.
Influence of Christianity in Europe
I. Franks solidified Christianity as a foundation of the empire when Clovis converted; Charlemagne continued the commitment to Rome.
British Economic interests in India
XXXBeginning in the early 1600s, Mogul emperors granted concessions to allow the British to trade in India
Russian Empire: rise and expansion
XXXAfter breaking free of Mongol control in the late 1400s, Muscovite princes began to take control over much of Russia, eliminating the authority of local princes
Ivan the Terrible
XXXRussian czar(r. 1533XXX1584) who continued to expand the empire and to consolidate the czar's absolute authority
The Romanovs
Following a period of civil unrest in Russia, Mikhail Romanov's election as czar established the Romanovs as the new royal family
Westernization
XXXOccurs as societies are influenced by Western culture and assimilate and/or adopt western ideas
Peter the Great
XXXRussian czar (r. 1682XXX1725) best known for centralizing his authority and bringing Western ideas to the Russian Empire
St. Petersburg
XXXLocated on the Baltic Sea, was established as the capital of the Russian empire by Peter the Great
Catherine the Great
XXX A Russian czarina(r. 1763XXX1796), she continued Peter the Great's policy of modernization while ensuring the absolute authority of the monarch
Serfdom in Russia
XXXAs a result of the unpaid debts, many peasants were forced into serfdom
Origins of the Industrial Revolution
XXXTechnological innovations in the 1700s led to industrialization, the mass production of goods using machine power (rather than hand power)
Industrial Revolution: new machines
XXXThe advent of mechanization revolutionized the production of goods
Effects of Industrial Revolution on Society
XXXMass production of goods drove down the price of consumer items, and the resulting increase in demand encouraged the development of quicker and more efficient methods of production. The standard of living rose
Political and Economic Effects of Industrialization
XXXGovernments passed legislation protecting workers (for example, the establishment of a minimum wage)
Factory System: Economic Impact
XXXDeveloped as a way to house large and expensive machines in a single location, near a source of power, in order to massXXXproduce goods
Factory System: Social Impact
XXXPrior to industrialization, societies were agriculturally based. Although in some places in Europe the domestic system existed, in which individuals worked on one part of production (for example, making cloth from wool), most people still worked on farms
American Revolution:Causes
XXXThe 13 British colonies in North America resented legislation passed by the British Parliament levying taxes and infringing on their rights
American Revolution:Impact
XXXWar began, and with the aid of France, the colonists forced the British to surrender in 1781
French Revolution:causes
XXXIn 1789, King Louis XVI summoned representatives to a meeting of the Estates General to convince them of the necessity of raising taxes
National Assembly
XXXIn June 1789, the Third Estates broke away from the Estates General and declared themselves the National Assembly
French Revolution: convention to Napoleon
XXXA new constitution gave the convention power to govern; the convention abolished the monarchy
Napoleon Bonaparte
XXXA general in the French army who gained control of France in a coup d'etat in 1799, seizing control from the Directory, a small group of governing aristocrats
Congress of Vienna
XXXA meeting held from 1814 to 1815 in Vienna and attended by representatives of the nations that had defeated Napoleon Bonaparte
Latin American independence movements
XXXThe American and French revolutions and the ideals of the Enlightenment inspired independence movements in Latin America
Simon Bolivar
XXXA creole form South America, he led a successful revolutionary movement against Spanish rule
Haitian Revolution
XXXThe French colony of Saint Domingue was the first colony in Latin America to gain its independence
TouissantXXXLouverture
XXXA slave who helped lead a revolt in Haiti against white settlers
Conservatism in Europe
A political philosophy that sought to return things to the way they were prior to the political revolution that spread across Europe in the 19th century and to maintain traditional ways
Liberalism in Europe
XXXA political ideology asserting that individuals possess certain rights such as liberty and equality and that the purpose of government is to protect these rights
Nationalism
XXXFeeling of pride in one's nation
Socialism
XXXUtopian socialists believed that people should work toward the creation of a perfect society in which everyone was equal
Karl Marx
XXX A 19th century philosopher, he developed a socialist theory with Friedrich Engels in response to the changing nature of the workplace that resulted from the industrial revolution
Unification of Germany
XXXIndependent GermanXXXspeaking states in Germany united to form a single nation
Otto von Bismarck
XXXChancellor of the German state of Prussia, he worked to united the GermanXXXspeaking states into a single nation
Italian Unification
XXXIndependent states in Italy united to form a single nation
Zionism
XXX A nationalist movement that emerged in the late 1800s with the stated goal of establishing a Jewish state in Palestine; led in part by Theodore Herzl
Emancipation of Serfs in Russia(1861)
XXXFollowing a humiliating defeat by Western powers in the Crimean War, Russian czars sought to reform society
New Imperialism: Causes
XXXBeginning in the late 1800s, modern industrial nations sought economic control (and sometimes political and social control) over weaker nations
Crimean War (1853XXX1856)
XXXIn the mid 19th century, war between Russian and an alliance of British, French, and Ottoman troops broke out after Russia had threatened the stability of the Ottoman Empire by seeking to take OttomanXXXcontrolled territory in the Balkans
White Man's Burden
XXXPoem by Rudyard Kipling, that explained why white Europeans (and Americans) had a moral responsibility to take control of weaker nations
Social Darwinism
XXXA theory based in part on Charles Darwin's theories of evolution and natural selection
Direct vs. Indirect Control (of colonial possessions)
XXXAs European nations sought to extend their authority over weaker lands, they needed to determine if rule was to be direct or indirect
Sepoy Rebellion
XXXA revolt led by Indian soldiers against the British Eats India Company (BEIC) in protest of rules that threatened their religious traditions
Indian National Congress (INC): Origins
XXXA nationalist group formed in British India in 1885 by upperXXXclass Hindus
King Leopold
XXXKing of Belgium who established a colony known as the Congo Free State in Africa
Berlin Conference(1884XXX1885)
XXX A meeting of European powers in which the rules for colonizing Africa were established: European powers had to notify one another of their intentions to take control of an area
Opium War:Causes
XXX A conflict fought between Britain and China (1839XXX1842) over British sale of opium in China
Opium War: Results
XXXBritain's superior military led to a decisive victory over the Chinese and the signing of a series of unequal treaties
Taiping Rebellion (1850s and 1860s)
XXX A rebellion by Chinese peasants that threatened the Qing dynasty
SelfXXXStrengthening Movement
XXXFollowing the signing of a series of unequal treaties and a number of internal rebellions in the 19th century, the Qing enacted a series of reforms
Spheres of Influence
XXXAn area of economic influence/control
Boxer Rebellion
An internal rebellion led by a group known as the Boxers, who unsuccessfully sought to rid China of foreign influence
Monroe Doctrine
XXXArticulated in 1823 as a part of US foreign policy, it sought to limit European interference in the Americas
Spanish American War
XXXIn response to the destruction of a US ship in Havana's harbor and under the guise of protecting American business interests in Cuba, as well as the interest of those Cubans suffering under Spanish rule, the United States declared war on Spain
US Open Door Policy
XXXUS foreign policy that sought equal trading rights for all nations trading in China and commercial advantages for US business
Panama Canal
XXXA canal built through the Isthmus of Panama connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans
Opening of Japan
XXXFollowing over 200 years of selfXXXimposed isolation, Japan was forced to open its doors to the world following the arrival of US Commodore Matthew Perry
Meiji Restoration
XXXAfter Japan ended its isolation, rebellion led to the overthrow of the shogun who was replaced by an emperor, who initiated a series of social,economic, and political reforms
SinoXXXJapanese War
XXX A war fought between China and Japan for control of Korea
RussoXXXJapanese War
XXXImperial rivalries led to armed conflict between Russia and Japan for control of parts of Korea and Manchuria
Bloody Sunday
XXXIn 1905 a peaceful demonstration at the Russian czar's winter palace in St. Petersburg turned violent when the czar's guards opened fire on the unarmed crowd
Fall of the Qing
XXXDespite the Qing's enacting of a series of reforms in the second half of the 19th century, the signing of a number of unequal treaties and numerous internal rebellions had left the ruling family weak, and in 1911 revolution broke out in China
Decline of the Ottoman Empire
XXXIn the 19th century, the Ottoman Empire, now small, weak, and in debt, became known as the Sick Man of Europe
Muhammad Ali
XXXEmerged as the ruler of Egypt following an unsuccessful invasion by Napoleon in 1798
Armenian Genocide
XXXThe massive and deliberate killing of Armenian civilians by the Ottoman Turks
Mexican Revolution: causes
XXXdiscontent after decades of limited social reform led Mexicans to demand change
Mexican Revolution:Results
XXXIn 1917 Mexico adopted a new constitution that established land reform and granted rights to workers and women
Background causes of World War I
XXXBy 1900 nationalism was a powerful global force, sometimes urging people to unite for a common purpose and at others acting to break groups up. Ethnic minorities living in the multinational empires of the Ottomans and AustriaXXXHungary were seeking independence
Immediate causes of World War I
The crisis sometimes referred to as the "spark" that started the war came on June 28, 1914. While on a visit to Sarajevo (in Bosnia) Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to the AustroXXXHungarian throne, was assassinated in Sarajevo by a Serbian nationalist. Almost immediately, Germany pledged its support to AustriaXXXHungary, and with AustriaXXXHungary's declaration of war on Serbia a month later. Russia mobilized forces against AustriaXXXHungary in support of Serbia. A few days later, Germany declared war on Russia and then on France. Following the German invasion of Belgium, Britain declared war on Germany and world war was well on its way.
Total War
XXXWhen all of a nation's resources are dedicated to the war effort and both civilian and military populations mobilize to defeat an enemy
21 demands
XXXIn 1915 Japan, at war with Germany, invaded GermanXXXheld territory in one of China's provinces
Technology of World War I
XXXWorld War I was the world's first truly modern war: new weapons of revolutionist warfare
Results of World War I
XXXCities throughout Europe were destroyed and millions were dead, injured, or homeless.
Paris Peace Conbference
The Allied nations met in Paris in 1919 to settle peace terms with the Central Powers. Five treaties in all were negotiated; the most significant was the Treaty of Versailles, between the Allies and Germany
Treaty of Versailles
XXXThe peace settlement negotiated by the Allies with Germany at the end of World War I focused on ensuring that Germany would never again be a threat to the security of Europe
League of Nations
XXXCreated after World War I, the League of Nations was the first permanent international organization dedicated to maintaining peace
Mandate System
XXX An article in the covenant of the League of Nations stated that colonies and territories needed assistance as they prepared themselves for selfXXXgovernment and that more advance nations would act as guides for the less experienced ones
Russian Revolution (March 1917)
In february 1917, Czar Nicholas II abdicated the Russian throne and ended nearly 300 years of Romanov rule
October Revolution (Bolshevik Revolution)
XXXThe second part of the Russian Revolution led by Vladimir Lenin and his Bolshevik Party
V.I. Lenin
XXXA student of Marxism, Lenin saw in revolutionary Russia the seeds of a communist revolution
New Economic Policy
XXXIntroduced to the USSR by V.I. Lenin, the policy provided limited private business
War Communism
XXXNationalization on a massive scale
Age of Anxiety
XXXThe period after World War I when doubt was cast upon previously existing ways of life
Great Depression
XXXIn 1929 economic depression spread across the world as the US stock market crashed and European countries struggled to rebuild their damaged postwar economies
New Deal
XXXIn response to the Great Depression, President Franklin Roosevelt proposed legislation aimed at economic recovery
Origins of World War II
XXXAxis Powers: Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, and Japan; Allied powers:France and its empire, Great Britain and its empire, Commonwealth allies (Canada, Austailia, New Zealand), Soviet Union, China, and the United States
Rise of Fascism
XXXFascism emerged in both Italy and Germany in the interwar period; both nations were faced with economic depression and in desperate need of strong leaders. Powerful dictators emerged, greatly influenced by fascist ideology
Adolph Hitler: Rise to Power
XXXRose to power in Germany in the 1920s and 1930s
Adolph Hitler at war
XXXIn the late 1930s, Europe felt compelled to respond to the aggressive actions of Hitler, who had rearmed Germany and taken control of the Rhineland and Austria
Benito Mussolini
Responsible for the establishment of the world's first fascist state
Indian National Congress (INC): In action
XXXPartnered with the Muslim League to lead a mass movement to gain selfXXXrule from Great Britain for the Indian subcontinent
Mohandas Gandhi: early years
XXXAn Indian nationalist leader who fought for India's independence from Great Britain
Mohandas Gandhi: an Indian nationalist
XXXHe quickly became a popular leader among the ordinary citizens of India, and the support of an extensive segment of the population made the NonXXXCooperation and the Civil Disobedience movements largely successful
Chinese Civil War
XXXA conflict between the Kuomintang and the Communist parties
Mao Zedong
XXXA nationalist leader in China, he successfully defeated the Kuomintang in a civil war in large measure because of the support of the peasants
Cultural revolution
XXXKnown as the Great Proletarina Cultural Revolution, it was launched in CHina in 1966 by Mao Zedong in order to seek out and silence opposition to Mao's leadership and his vision of communism
Joesph Stalin
Following the death of V.I. Lenin, Stalin, the "man of steel," became the totalitarian dictator of the Soviet Union
Soviet fiveXXXyear plans
XXXAn economic policy initiated by Joesph Stalin that set high quotas in an attempt to improve Soviet agricultural and industrial output
Mukden/Manchurian Incident
XXXOccurred in Manchuria in September 1931, when Japanese troops blew up part of the South manchurian Railway
OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries)
XXXAn organization of producers of oil established in 1960. Member nations include Abu Dhabi, Algeria, Ecuador, Gabon, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Kuwaiti, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela.
Mikhail Gorbachev
XXXControlled the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991
Iron Curtain: Demise
In November 1989, the Berlin Wall was opened, allowing people to travel freely from east to west; soon the entire wall was torn down, symbolizing the end of the Cold War.
Fall of Soviet Union
XXXFailed invasion of Afghanistan contributed to the decline as resources were strained to support an unpopular and ultimately unsuccessful attempt to expand Soviet influence.
Nuclear Arms Race since the Fall of the Soviet Union
XXXWith the collapse of the Soviet Union, both the United States and Russia dramatically reduced their nuclear weapons spending
Genocide
XXXThe killing of a specific group of people based on specific ethnic, religious, or racial characteristics
Feminism
XXXWomen make up 40 to 50 percent of workforce in industrialized societies, 20 percent in developing countries. Jobs characterized as "women's work": teaching, clerical work
Islamic Fundamentalism
XXXThe term is often used by western sources to describe an extreme movement to replace secular states wtih Islamic ones
Intifada
XXXPart of the ArabXXXIsraeli conflict over the struggle for control of Israel that began as a result of U.N. Resolution 181, in which the United Nations created Israel from lands claimed by Palestinians
Persian Gulf War (1991)
XXXSaddam Hussein's Iraqi troops invaded Kuwait and took control of its oil fields
Asian Tigers
XXXHong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan enjoyed rapid growth rates and were major economic powers by the 1980s.
Global Problems
XXXPoverty: Unequal distributions of resources and income (scarcity) leads to poverty, especially in underdeveloped areas of Africa, Latin America, eastern Europe, and Asia. People in these areas lack food, clean water, and adequate shelter.
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
XXXEstablished in 1949, as a military alliance of democratic nations against Soviet aggression
Warsaw Pact
XXXA defensive military alliance of communist nations designed to counter the collective defense formed by the democratic nations of NATO
Geneva Conference
XXXCold War peace conference held in 1954
Korean War
XXXFollowing World War II, Korea, which had been annexed by Japan, was occupied by both the Soviet Union and the USXXXXXX the Soviet Union north of the 38th parallel and the US south of it. The occupation was to be fo a limited time while the terms of uniting the country were negotiated.
Cuban Revolution
XXXIn 1959, Marxist leader Fidel Castro ousted Cuban dictator Fulgenico Batista and took control of Cuba
Cuban Missile Crisis
XXXLeader of communist Cuba, Fidel Castro, formed an alliance with Stalin, leader of the Soviet Union, after the Bay of Pigs Incident and an attempted assassination by rebels funded by the US
Nonalignment
XXXNations did not take a side in the Cold War
Arab Nationalism
Former Arab colonies easily gained independence from their mother countries postXXXWorld War II
Creation of Israel
XXXCreated by the United Nations in 1947 as a result of UN Resolution 181
Decolonization
XXXIn the postXXX World war II world, mother countries could no longer maintain control of their colonies as they attempted to repair their own warXXXtorn lands.
Indian Independence
PostXXXWorld War II, overseas empires became increasingly difficult to maintain, Great Britain held on, but election of the Labour Party ushered in a movement toward home rule.
PanXXXAfricanism
XXXPanXXXAfrican movements first emerged in the US and the Caribbean and the ns pread to French West as the Negritude
Jomo Kenyatta
XXXA kenyan nationalist leader, who led a moement to gain independence from Great Britain. He was jailed in 1953 by the British government in its effort to suppress all nationalist movements.
European Community
XXXFormed in 1957, six founding member nations: France, Belgium, West Germany, Luxembourg, Italy, and the Netherlands; characterized by a common market and free trade
Detente
XXXPolicy adopted by the Soviet Union and the United States during the Cold War in an effort to reduce tensions between the two superpowers over the arms race and control of developing countries
Vietnam War
XXXThe United Statees intervened in the conflict on the side of noncommunist South Vietnam after the French were defeated
Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan
XXXMuslimXXXcontrolled Afghanistan maintained a position of nonalignment in the Cold War until 1978, when a proXXXSoviet coup dragged the country into a civil war
Apartheid
XXXEstablished by the Afrikaner National Party in 1948 in an effort to maintain control over the black African majority
Nelson Mandela
XXXA leader of the ANC (African National Congress), arrested for military protests against apartheid and sentenced to jail for life
Iranian Revolution
XXX1941: Muhammed Reza Pahlavi declared himself shah. Backed by the US and Britain, he modernized and westernized Iran
IranXXXIraq war
XXX1979: Saddam Hussein became the leader of Iraq and seized control over disputed border area
Deng Xiaoping
XXX1976: replaced Mao Zedong as leader of communist China; introduced new economic reforms but little extension of individual political rights
Globalization
XXXGoal: a global economy to facilitate the movement of goods and trade associated with the term free trade (trade unrestricted by state limits as it crosses borders)
Japanese Invasion of China (1937)
XXXJapan launched a fullXXXscale invasion of China in the hopes of gaining control of China's extensive natural resources
Rape of Nanking
XXXFollowing Japan's invasion of mainland China in 1937, China experienced mass death and suffering; Japan began aerial bombing of major Chinese cities (especially Shanghai, where people died by the thousands)
Blitzkreig ("Lightning War")
XXXGermans invaded Poland unannounced on September 1, 1939. Their strategy included a preemptive air attack, to weaken resistance, followed by land forces XXX Panzer ("armored") columns, which were fast and mobile
Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor
XXXIn an attempt to destroy American naval forces in the Pacific, Japan attacked the US naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on December 7, 1941
Dropping of the Atomic Bomb
XXXThe war in Europe ended in May 1945 but waged on in the Pacific
US Occupation of Japan
XXXFollowing Japan's unconditional surrender in World War II, Japan was occupied by US forces under General Douglas MacArthur
Jewish Holocaust
XXXNazi regime killed over 6 million Jews and an additional 5 million Slavs, Gypsies, homosexuals, communists, and other "undesirables"XXXa human disaster on a previously unknown scale
United Nations
XXXCreated at the end of World War II as a coalition dedicated to maintaining world peace and security. had more power than the League of Nations, which had been ineffective in preventing World War II
Cold War: Origins
XXXThe Cold War was an ideological war between two ideologically opposed superpowers
Iron Curtain: Creation
XXXFirst articulated in a 1946 speech by English Prime Minister Winston Churchill, the term refers to the symbolic division of Europe following the end of World War II
Nuclear Arms Race
XXXas the Cold War progressed, a new reality emerged: the struggle between the US and the Soviet Union to claim polical hegemony across the globe led to an expensive arms race and the proliferation of nuclear weapons
Satellite Nations
XXXSovietXXXoccupied nations at the end of World War II: Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, and Romania. Soviets set up a communist government in Poland
Trumane Doctrine
XXXEstablished March 12, 1947 by President Harry TrumanXXXXXX an economic and military program intended to help nations resist Soviet aggression and prevent the spread of communism
Marshall Plan
XXXAlso known as the European Recovery Program, a massive economic aid package, part of the containment policy, designed to strengthen democracy and lessen the appeal of communism (developed after WWII)