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82 Cards in this Set

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the incas were settled in Cuzco, Peru from their founding in the 1200’s to their demise during the late 16th century. Francisco Pizarro and the Spaniards first encountered the Incas. Their civilization was brought to an end after a Spanish invasion in 1532.
located in central Mexico in Tenochtitlan from 600’s to 1500’s. Invaded and conquered by Cortes and his men due to war and smallpox in 1521. The Spaniards wee the first international nation the Aztecs had met.
located in central America- yucatan peninsula (2600 BC). Golden age for mayans  300 to 900 AD. Known for their astronomical technology as well as their calendars. Had advanced agricultural practices.
a village of multistoried, terraced buildings, developed in the late 1500’s. Also a group of people abused by the Spaniards. In rebellion against Spanish they destroyed churches, killed priests, and killed hundreds of Spanish settlers.
Indian tribe- mainly located in Northern Georgia. Sometimes stayed n the Appalachians to avoid British attack during the early 18th century. Had fertile plantations and diverse agriculture.
Missisipian Indian culture. Had a high population density due to the rich diet that their clever farming techniques provided. Practiced three-sister farming. The tribe was particularly active in the 1600’s and 1700’s.
Powerful Indian tribe located in Georgia and the Carolinas. Also had a high population density for the same reasons as the Choctaws and the creeks.
Iroquois confederation
emerged from the Mohawk valley/present day new York. Confederation consisted of the Mohawks, the Oneidas, the Onodagas, the Cayugas, and the senecas. According to legend, tribe was formed in the late 16th century by Deganawidah and Hiawatha. Developed the political and organizational skills to sustain a threatening military. Where a threat to natives and settlers alike.
- land discovered by traveling norsmen in 1000 AD. Located in present day New Foundland. Called vinland because of the many abundant grapes ad grape vines found there. Noorsemen did not stay and settle there for very long.
Vasco de Gama
Portugese explorer of the late 15th century. He traveled along the coast of Africa to India. Brought back Jewels and Spices on his journey home.
11. Portugese slave trade
portugese wee set up in posts along African coast for high profit slave trade. Received gold and slaves from arab and African civilizations and sold them to the European world.
12. Christopher Columbus
Italian explorer who travelled across the Atlantic in 1492. Brought with him three boats- thought it was the west indies but it was really the New World. Linked two worlds together. Sailed for the Spanish.
13. Old world diseases
killed off many natives and made it easier for the Indians to be conquered. Brought over by the Europeans. Diseases include: smallpox, measles, influenza, and typhus.
14. Hispaniola
Caribbean island- located on present day Haiti. 1493, Columbus sailed to Hispaniola with many ships and brought with him livestock (cattle, horses, etc)
15. Treaty of Tordesillas(1494)-
spain and protugal agree to treaty: treaty divides the new world between spain and Portugal. Most of the land went to spain thus resulting in spain becoming a colonizing power during the 16th century.
16. Vasco Nunez Balboa-
Spanish Conquistador- credited with the discovery of the pacific ocean in the early 1500’s. in 1513- claimed panama and its surrounding islands
17. Ferdinand Magellan
Spanish explorer- given credit as the first person to circumvent the globe. 1519- set sail with five ships under his command- 1522- last ship returned without Magellan on it, but proved that long distance travel was possible.
18. Juan Ponce de Leon-
- Juan Ponce de Leon was a Spanish explorer who explored Florida in search of gold between 1513 and 1521. He was killed by a Native American arrow during his search.
19. Francisco Coronado-
Francisco Coronado was a Spanish explorer who travelled through Arizona and New Mexico in the early 1540s. He discovered two natural wonders, the Grand Canyon and large herds of buffalo.
20. Hernando de Soto
Hernando de Soot was a Spanish explorer who searched in Florida with six hundred men in the years 1539-1542. He discovered and crossed the Mississippi River. He mistreated the Native Americans and died of fever and wounds.
21. Hernando Cortes
A Spanish conquistador who set sail from Cuba to Mexico with a few horses and several hundred men in 1519. He was mistaken as the Aztec god Quetzalcoatl and allowed into Tenochtitlan, but soon he outstayed his welcome and laid siege to the city on August 3, 1521.
22. John Cabot
Also known as Giovanni Caboto, he is an English explorer who was sent to explore the northeastern coast of North America in 1497 and 1498.
23. Giovanni de Verrazano
An Italian mariner who was sent by the king of France to search the eastern seaboard in 1524.
24. Robert de La Salle
A French explorer who led an expedition down the Mississippi River in the 1680s.
25. Father Junipero Serra
A Franciscan missionary who founded twenty-one missions in California in the year 1769.
26. Queen Elizabeth I- The queen of England was born in 1533 and died in 1603. Known as the “Virgin Queen” because she never married.
27. Sir Francis Drake
An English privateer he travelled around the world raiding Spanish ships and returned in 1580 with a ship full of Spanish booty. He was knighted by Queen Elizabeth I on the deck of his ship.
28. Sir Walter Raleigh
- An English explorer who organized an expedition that first landed on North Carolina’s Roanoke Island in 1585. After several false starts the settlers of the colony disappeared. Sir Walter Raleigh is also credited with introducing both tobacco and the potato into England.
29. Philip II-
The king of Spain who assembled an “Invincible Armada” to invade England and stop the spread of Protestantism.
30. Spanish Armada
A Spanish fleet sent to invade England that faced the English privateers in 1588 and was badly damaged. Then a storm arose and scattered the remaining ships of the fleet. That storm would be called the “Protestant wind.”
31. Laws of Primogeniture
A set of laws that said only the eldest son of a family could fully inherit his families fortunes.
26. Queen Elizabeth I
The queen of England was born in 1533 and died in 1603. Known as the “Virgin Queen” because she never married.
32. Joint stock companies
Companies with groups that invested into colonizing efforts, but only thought of short term goals and did not look for long term colonization.
33. Virginia Company of London
An English joint stock corporation that sent the expedition to North America to found Jamestown. They also created a document that stated the colonists had all the rights of Englishmen.
34. Jamestown-
An English colony set up on the edge of the James River. It was easy to defend but it was infested with mosquitoes and soon forty out of the original one hundred colonists died. The land was plentiful with food but many settlers searched for gold and the colony was on the verge of collapse, but in 1608 Captain John Smith took over and said “he who shall not work shall not eat” yet disease still ravaged the colonists and soon Lord De La Warr took over and started aggressive military efforts against the Native Americans. By 1625 Virginia contained only twelve hundred survivors of the nearly eight thousand adventurers who had tried o start a life there.
. Captain John Smith
made the Virginians work to survive; abducted by Powhatan and saved by Pocahontas which resulted in White/Indian peace relations
. Anglo-Powhatan Wars
1. The result of Lord De La Warr’s arrival and tension in 1610 which ended in 1614 by the marriage of John Rolfe and Pocahontas
2. Indian response in 1622 to stolen territory resulting in their defeat which ended in 1646 with a peace treaty that banished the Chesapeake Indians from their native land
. House of Burgesses
an assembly summoned by the settlers authorized by the London Company
Lord Baltimore
founder of Maryland in 1634 who set up ML as a safe place for Roman Catholics
Maryland Act of Toleration
law passed in 1649 which guaranteed toleration to all Christians in Maryland
Charles II/English Restoration
restored to throne in 1660; son of Charles I; Carolina (named after him) helped establish crops in the new world
. James Oglethorpe
dynamic soldier-statesman military leader who repelled Spanish attacks and is one of the founders of Georgia
Protestant Reformation
a religious reform movement in Europe that started with M. Luther and resulted in many religious denominations of Catholicism
. John Calvin
religious leader sparked by Martin Luther’s ideas during the Protestant Reformation; started Calvinism which became the dominant religion for people in the New World
Church Of England (1530s)
King Henry VIII broke ties with the Roman Catholic Church and made himself the head/pope; remained identically like RCC but without the pope
believed that only visible saints could be Church members and be separated from sinners; dedicated to their beliefs to the extents that King James I felt threatened and pressed them to leave England
Captain Myles Standish
a Separatist soldier who voyaged on the Mayflower and proved himself to the Puritans by fighting and negotiating with the Indians
Mayflower Compact
an agreement constructed by Pilgrim leaders and signed by Mayflower voyagers before the trip that said that they would form a government and submit to the will of the majority under the regulations
William Bradford
self-taught scholar who read Hebrew, Greek, Latin, French, and Dutch; chosen mayor for 30 years; “good” Puritan leader who established interdependence in Puritanism
Massachusetts Bay Colony
neighbor of Plymouth; settled mostly by non-Separatist Puritans
51) Great Migration (1630s) – the great waves of refugees, nearly seventy thousand, who left England. Many were attracted to the warm and fertile West Indies
John Winthrop
well-to-do attorney, manor lord, and educated person of English society. Came to the Massachusetts Bay Colony during the Great Migration, become the colony’s first governor and served for nineteen years. He believed he was called to do god’s work, and formed the Bay Colony with the “protestant ethic”
Anne Hutchinson
-a sharp challenger to Puritan Orthodoxy in the Bay colony. She was intelligent and strong willed mother of 14. Banished and settled in New York, for her views trailed as heresy.
Roger Williams
personable and popular Salem minister and extreme Separatist. He hounded his clergy to make a clean break with the Church of England. He questioned the Bay colony’s character for the stealing of land from the Indians and the last blow when he denied the authority of civil government to regulate religion. He was also banished from the colony. He built a Baptist Church on Rhode Island, and established complete freedom of religion, and sheltered Quakers and outcasts.
Pequot War (1637
hostilities arose between the English and Pequot Indians, as more English arrived pushing the Indians out. The English set fire to villagers and shot runners, virtually extinguishing the tribe and bringing uneasy peace between Indians and English.
King Philip’s War (1675-1676
in 1675 Wampanoag Massasoit’s son, Metacom, called King Philip by the English. Massasoit was the Wampanoag who signed a treaty with the first Pilgrims and helped them share the first thanksgiving. He launched a series of assaults on English villages, the war ended in 1676 with 52 Puritan towns attacked. King Philip’s War slowed the westward movement, but drastically reduced Indian numbers posing only a small threat.
New England Confederation
launched in 1643, four colonies banded together because resources no longer came from the Old World, engrossed in civil war. The main purpose of the confederation was defense against enemies. It was mainly a Puritan club, two Massachusetts colonies, and two Connecticut colonies. It was a first milestone towards colonial unity.
Dominion of New England
created by royal authority in 1686, imposed by London on Massachusetts. It aimed to increase colonial defense, in case of Indian war. Most importantly it promoted efficiency in the Navigation laws. It fell with news of the Glorious Revolution
Navigation Laws (Acts)
it hoped to tie a closer bond with the colonies by prohibiting trade with other countries not ruled by England. This in turn produced defiance and smuggling.
Glorious Revolution
English revolution in 1688, the common people revolted against re-establishing the Roman Catholic religion. Pitted a fight against Parliament and king James II. Ended with victory of the people who had the power/freedom and a constitutional monarchy was developed. This inspired challenge to the crown within the colonies, and the Dominion of New England collapsed.
Dutch East India Company –
in the seventeenth century, the Dutch Republic became a leading colonial power with its most activity in the East Indies. The company was virtually a state with thousands of men and naval fleets. Seeking riches, the company founded Henry Hudson.
Henry Hudson –
An English explorer employed by the Dutch. He ventured into Delaware and New York Bay in 1609, then down the Hudson river with hopes of a shortcut, but just claimed a wood and water area for the Dutch
Great Migration (1630s)
the great waves of refugees, nearly seventy thousand, who left England. Many were attracted to the warm and fertile West Indies
New Netherland
a colony founded in 1623-1624 by the Dutch East India Company for a quick-profit fur trade. Beautiful land near the Hudson river and expanded when the Dutch bought Manhattan from the Indians
New Amsterdam
later new York City – a company town, run by the Dutch company for stockholders; this Dutch colony tool on a strong aristocratic vibe with huge estates along the Hudson river thus attracted a cosmopolitan population
New York
was the Dutch New Netherland. In 1664 named in honor of Duke of York, Charles II’s brother after victory over the Dutch. This had a great harbor, in the middle of the colonies along the Hudson River flowing inland.
Society of Friends
a group of dissenters, known as Quakers, arose in England during the mid-1600s. officially they were known as the Religious Society of Friends. Quakers were especially offensive to the authorities, both religious and civil. They refused to support established Church of England with taxes. Under William Penn established Pennsylvania for Quakers.
William Penn
An Englishmen who was attracted to the Quaker faith in 1660 at the age of sixteen. After disapproval from his father and joining the army, he joined the Quakers. Seeking a haven for his people, he secured an immense land grant from the King, which was named after Penn himself, Pennsylvania.
Indentured Servants
Displaced farmers who are voluntarily obligated to work the plantations in exchange for transatlantic passage and eventual freedom.
Headright System
Under its terms, whoever paid the passage of a laborer, received the right to acquire fifty acres of land. This system was used to the advantage of many masters as a way to get land for plantations.
William Berkeley
Governor of Virginia at the time of Nathaniel Bacon’s rebellion. He was driven from Jamestown during Bacon’s rebellion because of his friendly policies of Indians and his failure to retaliate for a series of Indian attacks. After the uprising, he hanged more than twenty rebels
Bacon’s Rebellion
Led by Nathaniel Bacon, an uprising of freedmen and indentured servants that started after William Berkeley refused to retaliate after a series of Indian attacks on frontier settlements. During the uprising friendly and hostile Indians were murdered, Berkeley was driven from Jamestown, and the rebels set fire to the capital. Jump-started the African slave trade after plantation owners started looking for workers that would not rebel.
Middle Passage
The voyage across the Atlantic that African slaves were forced to endure. The journey was long and hazardous and the death rate ran as high as twenty percent. It was named because it was the “middle” segment in between Africa and the New World
Slave codes
Laws used to subjugate African slaves. They stated that Slaves and their children were the owner’s property (or chattels). Some laws prohibited slaves read and write. These codes nurtured the idea of racism toward Africans in America.
Half-way Covenant
New covenant of the Puritans that allowed unconverted children of existing members baptism but not full communion. This new arrangement obscured distinctions between the “elect” and other members of society, which weakened the spiritual purity intended by the original Puritan community.
Salem Witch Trials
The famous witch hunt that occurred in Salem, Massachusetts in 1692. Twenty girls were put to death. Most of these girls came from families associated with the flourishing market economy, and their accusers came from subsistence farming families. This event reflected the widening social stratification, or arrangements, in New England.
Triangular Trade
Trading practice where goods from Europe were shipped to Africa in order to be bartered for slaves. Slaves were then shipped to the New World where slaves were exchanged for goods such as sugar or molasses, which was then distilled into rum. The rum or other goods from the New World were then shipped back to Europe. In all this practice proved profitable as merchants made profit at each leg of the trade.
Molasses Act (1733)
a tax on imports of molasses aimed at ending direct American trade with the international market. This tax was passed when America started exporting their products to (non-British) foreign countries. America smuggled and bribed their way around the law, which foreshadowed the upcoming American Revolution.
Great Awakening (1730-40s
A massive religious revival that occurred after the role of religion began to decline. People such as Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield jumpstarted the movement that brought new religious fervor to America. The Great Awakening was the first spontaneous mass movement of the American people.
Jonathan Edwards
Revivalist that started the Great Awakening in Northampton, Massachusetts. He cast out the idea of good works earning salvation and brought back the Calvanism ideology of predestination. He is famous for his sermon, “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God.”
Harvard college
one of the colleges in New England that stressed religion and the classical languages, Latin and Greek. It was the intellectual center of England’s Puritanism. These institutions were important to colonial life, as most parents believed that college was more important than ABC’s. It fostered new ministers that were vital to the Church and the town.
Poor Richard’s Almanac
Written by Benjamin Franklin, this literary work contained virtues from “thinkers of the ages.” They contained virtues of thrift, industry, morality, and common sense, for example “Honesty is the best policy.” It was known in Europe and it was widely read in America, second only to the bible.
John Peter Zenger
A newspaper printer, who criticized the corrupt royal governor in his newspaper, and was sent to court for seditious libel. He was defended by Andrew Hamilton and was found not guilty in court. This verdict was an achievement and victory for freedom of press and newspapers were free to print criticisms of powerful officials.
John rolfe
father of tobacco who settled in virginia; married pocahantes which acted as a peace treaty that ended the first anglo powhatan war