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87 Cards in this Set

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Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)
English philosopher who believed that people are motivated mainly by greed and fear, and need a strong government to keep them under control. He developed the theory that kings are given their position by divine right, and thus should have absolute power.
John Locke, Second Treatise of Government, 1690
He wrote that all human beings have a right to life, liberty, and property and that governments exist to protect those rights. He believed that a contract existed between a government and its people, and if the government failed to uphold its end of the contract, the people could rebel and institute a new government. Locke’s theories had a great deal of influence on the thinking of the Founding Fathers.
Montesquieu, The Spirit of Laws, 1748
French philosopher who believed that the government's power should be divided into separate branches, that the government should be close to the people, and that laws should reflect the will of the people. His writings influenced delegates at the Constitutional Convention.
Jean Jacques Rousseau, The Social Contract, 1762
French political philosopher whose work, The Social Contract, was very influential in Western political thought. Rousseau argued that humans were born in an absolute state of freedom, but that only through giving up these natural rights and joining together through a social contract could they retain this freedom. In addition, Rousseau argued that sovereignty was in the hands of the people.
Adam Smith/ The Wealth of Nations, 1776
Scottish philosopher whose work, The Wealth of Nations, created the theory of capitalism and attacked mercantilism. Smith argued that invisible forces ruled the marketplace and the law of supply and demand determined price. He saw the desire for profit as a powerful tool driving the marketplace and maintained government should stay out of the economy.
Charles Wilson Peale (1741-1827)
An American naturalist painter who was a student of Benjamin West and was known for his portraits of early leading generals. Peale was also an inventor and a naturalist. His portraits influenced generations of American artists. Peale's interest in natural history led him to the idea an American museum of natural history which he opened in Philadelphia in 1786.
Gilbert Stuart, (1755-1828)
American artist who portrayed virtually all the outstanding men and women of the Federal period in the United States. Stuart is most known for painting the portrait of Washington that was copied for the one-dollar bill.
Articles of Confederation, 1781-1789
• A document adopted in 1777 that articulated the powers of the Second Continental Congress.
• The Articles were written primarily by John Dickinson.
• It preserved states’ rights while authorizing a limited central govt. – the Congress—with some power to defend the Union and conduct foreign affairs. Since it allowed for no taxation, executive (president), or national judiciary, the Articles left the Congress too weak to carry out even its limited duties.
• Ratified by the states in 1781.
• Replaced by the Constitution in 1789.
Articles of Confederations: powers, weaknesses, successes
The Articles’ weakness was that they gave the federal government so little power that it could not keep the country united. The Articles’ only major success was that they settled western land claims with the Northwest Ordinance. The Articles were abandoned for the Constitution.
Allowed Powers
1. Declare war
2. Determine foreign policy
3. Issue money
Disallowed Powers
1. Could not tax
2. Could not regulate trade
3. Could not draft troops
Cession of western land claims
After the Revolutionary War, many states claimed all of the western land between their northernmost and southernmost borders, which meant that many strips of land were claimed by more than one state. The Continental Congress was trying to get the states to ratify the Articles of Confederation, but Maryland refused to ratify it until all the states gave their western land claims.
Post Revolutionary War Depression, 1784-1787
Created by the decrease in trade in the American economy. The states were no longer part of the British empire and found British ports closed to them. Eventually they developed new trade in the Caribbean and South America, but the depression worsens the long standing problem of an inadequate money supply and this particularly hurt debtors.
Land Ordinance of 1785
A major success of the Articles of Confederation government.
• Provided for the orderly surveying and distribution of land in the Northwest territory.
• Provided funding for a public school in every township by setting aside the proceeds from one section.
• Land was divided into sections and each section consisted of 640 acres at $1.00 per acre. The minimum purchase price of $640 greatly benefited land speculators since the ordinary person could not afford to buy 640 acres.
Northwest Ordinance, 1787
A major success of the Articles of Confederation government.
• This ordinance set up the framework of a government for the Northwest territory.
• The Territory would be divided into 3 to 5 states
• Prohibited slavery in the Territory
• Set up the procedure for a territory to become a state -- 60,000 was the minimum population for statehood.
• Guaranteed freedom of religion
• Guaranteed the right of trial by jury
Shay's Rebellion (1786-1787)
An uprising that occurred during the winter of 1786-87, under the Articles of Confederation government. Poor, indebted landowners in Massachusetts, led by Daniel Shays, blocked access to courts and prevented the government from arresting or repossessing the property of those in debt. The federal government was too weak to help Massachusetts remove the rebels, a sign that the Articles of Confederation were not effective or practical. Daniel Shay and his lieutenants were initially sentenced to death, but then received pardons and tax relief and postponement of debt payments. Shay’s Rebellion encouraged additional support for the proposed May 1787 meeting to revise the Articles of Confederation government.
Annapolis Convention, 1786
A precursor to the Constitutional Convention of 1787. A dozen commissioners from New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware and Virginia met to discuss reform of interstate commerce regulations, to design a U.S. currency standard, and to find a way to repay the federal government's debts to Revolutionary War veterans. Little was accomplished, except for the delegates to recommend that a further convention be held to discuss changes to the form of the federal government; the idea was endorsed by the Confederation Congress in February 1787, which called for another convention to be held in May that year in Philadelphia. The Philadelphia convention will be the Constitutional Convention.
Philadelphia Convention/ Constitutional Convention, May-September, 1787
On May 25, 1787, the convention to revise the Articles of Convention recommended by the Annapolis Convention was held in Philadelphia. All of the states except Rhode Island sent delegates, and George Washington served as president of the convention. The convention lasted 16 weeks, and on September 17, 1787, produced the present Constitution of the United States, which was drafted largely by James Madison.
Constitution, adopted by Constitutional Convention Sept. 17, 1787; Ratification completed, June 21, 1781
A formal document that establishes the fundamental laws and governing institutions of a society. The U.S. Constitution, signed in 1787, sets forth the form of America’s national govt. and defines the rights and liberties of the people. The document was created to give more cohesiveness to the nation’s political system than the Articles of Confederation had provided.
James Madison, "Father of the Constitution"
His proposals for an effective government became the Virginia Plan. He was responsible for drafting most of the language of the Constitution, was a contributor to The Federalist Papers, and wrote the Bill of Rights.
Virginia Plan, New Jersey Plan, Connecticut Plan
• Virginia Plan - Offered by James Madison and the Virginia delegation at the Constitutional Convention. The plan called for a new govt. with a strong executive office and a bicameral Congress with each state's representation based on state population.
• New Jersey Plan - Smaller states countered with this plan that called for a unicameral Congress in which each state had equal representation.
• Connecticut Plan - Proposed by Roger Sherman, the plan called for a bicameral Congress in which both types of representation would be applied, and this is also known as the Compromise Plan. The House would be based on proportional representation and the Senate on equal representation with each state sending two senators. The Connecticut Plan was the one adopted by the Convention.
Constitutional Compromises
3/5 Compromise
Commercial Compromise
• Great Compromise - At the Constitutional Convention, larger states wanted to follow the Virginia Plan, which based each state's representation in Congress on state population. Smaller states wanted to follow the New Jersey Plan, which gave every state the same number of representatives. The convention compromised by creating the House and the Senate. Each state, regardless of population size, would be given two seats in the Senate, while representation in the House of Representatives would be based on population. Senators would serve a six-year term and be elected by state legislatures while Representatives would serve a two-year term and be elected by the people.
• 3/5 Compromise - The South's slave trade was guaranteed for at least 20 years after the ratification of the Constitution. Slaves were considered 3/5 of a person (for every five slaves, a congressional district received credit for three free voters) when determining the state population for taxation or representation in Congress.
• Commercial Compromise – Congress could regulate interstate and foreign trade, including placing tariffs on foreign imports, but it was prohibited from placing taxes on exports.
Relocation of the nation's capital in Washington, D.C.
Alexander Hamilton received Jefferson and his supporters’ agreement that the United States pay off the national debt at face value and assume the war debts of the states. In return, Hamilton agreed to Jefferson’s proposal to establish the nation’s capital in the South along the Potomac River. This area was, after George Washington’s death, named Washington, D.C.
"Separation of Powers"
John Adams’s plan called for three branches of govt., each representing one function: executive, legislative, and judicial. This system of dispersed authority was devised to maintain a balance of power between the branches.
A political system in which power is divided between a central govt. and smaller govt. units. The United States is a federal system. The Constitution defines the division of power between the central federal govt. and the smaller state units.
A system of govt. in which the people have the power to rule, either directly or indirectly through their elected representatives. Believing that direct democracy was dangerous, the framers of the Constitution created a govt. that gave direct voice to the people only in the House of Representatives and that placed a check on that voice in the Senate by offering unlimited six-year terms to senators, elected by the state legislatures to protect them from the whims of democratic majorities. The framers further curbed the perceived dangers of democracy by giving each of the three branches of govt. (legislative, executive, and judicial) the ability to check the power of the other two.
A one-house assembly in which the elected legislators directly represent the people. Considered efficient and democratic, this type of assembly was established in Pennsylvania during the Revolution.
A two-house assembly, usually a house of representatives and a senate, suggested by John Adams in 1776. Different qualifications, procedures, term lengths, and means of election differentiate the two. Its existence means that each piece of legislation is reviewed and debated by two groups.
Apportionment is the process of dividing the current 435 memberships, or seats, in the U.S. House of Representatives among the 50 states based upon population size. This is done on the basis of the census taken every ten years.
House of Representatives
One of the two parts of Congress, considered the "lower house." Representatives are elected for 2 year terms directly by the people, with the number of representatives for each state determined by the state's population.
The other of the two parts of Congress, considered the "upper house." Senators were originally appointed by state legislatures, but now they are elected directly by the people. Each state has two senators and senators serve a 6 year term.
Electoral College
The Constitution provides for the president to be elected indirectly through the Electoral College. A group of electors, chosen state by state, is appointed each presidential election year, to vote for the president and vice president according to the majority of popular votes cast in that state. This was done to give individual states a greater role in the choosing of a president.
Procedures for amendments
An amendment to the Constitution may be proposed if 2/3 of Congress or 2/3 of state legislatures vote for it. The amendment may then be added to the Constitution by a 3/4 vote of state legislatures or state conventions. The intent of the Constitutional founders was to make it feasible (unlike the Articles of Confederation which required the unanimous consent of the states) but not easy to change the Constitution.
Loose vs. Strict Interpretation of the U.S. Constitution
Loose interpretation allows the government to do anything which the Constitution does not specifically forbid it from doing. Strict interpretation forbids the government from doing anything except what the Constitution specifically empowers it to do.
Implied Powers, Elastic Clause, Necessary and Proper Clause
Section 8 of Article I contains a long list of powers specifically granted to Congress, and ends with the statement that Congress shall also have the power "to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers." These unspecified powers are known as Congress' "implied" powers. There has long been a debate as to how much power this clause grants to Congress, which is sometimes referred to as the "elastic" clause because it can be "expanded" to include almost any other power that Congress might try to assert.
Federalists, 1787-1789
Supporters of the Constitution who supported the new plan of govt. proposed in 1787. Federalists believed in a strong national government that would support the development of a national economy. They also wanted the new government to be strong enough to move against threats to order and stability and that was somewhat removed from popular passions.
Antifederalists, 1787-1789
Opponents of the Constitution who argued against the new plan of govt. proposed in 1787. Antifederalists believed that the Constitution would diminish the power of the states, create a new merchant-based aristocracy, and, without a declaration of individual rights, threaten personal liberties. They also believed that republican institutions of govt. would not function in a territory as large as the United States.
The Federalist Papers, 1788
A series of eighty-five essays written under the pen name Publius but actually by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison that explained the importance of a strong central government. First published in newspapers, (to try to convince New York to ratify the Constitution) they appeared in book form in 1788. Federalist # 10 is the most famous of the essays and is considered the classic defense of the Constitution by legal scholars.
"Federalist #10", 1788
An essay from the Federalist Papers proposed setting up a republic to solve the problems of a large democracy (anarchy, rise of factions that disregard the public good).
"Federalist #51", 1788
An essay from the Federalist Papers that was written by James Madison. The essay explains the virtues of separation of powers and checks and balances in the proposed new Constitution.
George Mason, 1788
Mason was the author of the 1776 Virginia Declaration of Rights. He fought against ratification of the United States Constitution because it contained no bill of rights. As a leader of the Antifederalists, his objections led to the first 10 amendments, which were ratified in 1791.
Bill of Rights, adopted 1791
The first ten amendments to the U. S. Constitution. Many states made the promise of the prompt addition of a bill of rights a precondition for their ratification of the Constitution.
First Amendement
Freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition. It also establishes the separation of church and state.
Second Amendment
Right to keep and bear arms in a state militia.
Third Amendment
People cannot be required to quarter soldiers during peacetime.
Fourth Amendment
The govt. may not carry out any unreasonable searches or seizures of the people’s property.
Fifth Amendment
No one can be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law. No one can be compelled to testify against themselves or be tried for the same crime twice (double jeopardy).
Sixth Amendment
Accused persons have a right to a speedy and public trial and the right to call and question witnesses.
Seventh Amendment
In most civil cases, citizens have the right to trial by jury.
Eighth Amendment
Persons accused or convicted of crimes are protected against excessive bail and fines and cruel and unusual punishments.
Ninth Amendment
Just because a right is not mentioned in the Constitution does not prevent it from being a legitimate right of the people.
Tenth Amendment
All powers not delegated to the federal govt. belong to the states or the people.
President George Washington
Years of Presidency
He established many of the presidential traditions (precedents), including limiting a president's tenure to two terms. He was against political parties and strove for political balance in government by appointing political adversaries to government positions.
Cabinet, 1789
George Washington organized bureaucratic departments to carry out the work of the executive branch and appointed secretaries to run those departments in 1789. These secretaries formed the cabinet, a small group of the president’s closest advisors on matters of policy.
Cabinet Positions
• Secretary of State – Thomas Jefferson
• Secretary of the Treasury – Alexander Hamilton
• Secretary of War – Henry Knox
• Attorney General – Edmund Randolph
Judiciary Act, 1789
Created the federal court system. The act created a Supreme Court with a Chief Justice and five associates. It also established the office of Attorney General and created federal district courts and circuit courts.
Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of State, 1789
A leading Democratic-Republican, who served as Secretary of State under Washington. He opposed Hamilton's (Washington’s Secretary of the Treasury) economic plan and other ideas. Washington tended to side with Hamilton, so Jefferson eventually resigned when Washington issued the Proclamation of Neutrality in 1793 that stated the United States was not going to fight in the European war with France since the Alliance had been made with the French monarchy rather than the French Republic.
Whiskey Rebellion, 1794
Farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.
Washington's Farewell Address
During his Farewell Address to the nation, which was printed newspapers, outgoing Washington warned against the dangers of political parties and "entangling" foreign alliances. Washington’s advice to steer clear of foreign alliances became a cornerstone of American diplomacy.
"Two term tradition"
Washington chose not to run for a third presidential term and thus created a “two-term tradition” followed by American presidents until Franklin Roosevelt broke that tradition by running for a third term in 1940. The 22nd amendment passed in 1951 limits presidents to two elected terms.
Hamilton's Financial Program (1789-1791)
Hamilton created the following comprehensive financial program while serving as Washington’s Secretary of the Treasury. It included the following provisions.
• National debt, state debt, foreign debt - The U.S.'s national debt included domestic debt owed to soldiers and others who had not yet been paid for their Revolutionary War services, plus foreign debt to other countries which had helped the U.S. The federal government also assumed all the debts incurred by the states during the war. Hamilton's program paid off these debts.
• Assumption - Alexander Hamilton wanted the federal govt. to take over the war debts of the states and states’ creditors. By doing so, the national govt. quickly increased its national debt while relieving the state govts. of their debts. Hamilton’s purpose was to create reputable credit for the new nation and to tie wealthy landowners to the new govt.
• High tariffs to protect new and developing industries. – The Tariff of 1789 was a tax of about 5% on imports. This was intended to raise revenue for the federal government and it was successful in that.
• Bank of the United States
This was a bank funded in part by the federal govt. It would be where the majority of the govt’s. surplus would be stored and it could issue currency acceptable in payment of federal taxes.
Excise taxes, 1793
The 1789 tax revenue was not enough so taxes were placed on goods and products manufactured within the nation. The excise tax on whiskey helped raise revenue for Hamilton's economic program, but it also brought great controversy and caused the Whiskey Rebellion.
Treaty of Alliance aka Franco-American Treaty, 1778
France aided the U.S. in the American Revolution, and the U.S. agreed to aid France if the need ever arose. Although France could have used American aid during the French Revolution, the U.S. did not do anything to help. The U.S. did not fulfill their part of the agreement until World War I (see Neutrality Proclamation, 1793).
French Revolution, 1789
The second great democratic revolution, taking place in the 1790s, after the American Revolution had been proven to be a success. The French people overthrew the king and his government, and then instituted a series of unsuccessful democratic governments until Napoleon took over, as dictator in 1799.The United States did nothing to aid either side. The Democratic-Republicans were sympathetic toward the French Revolution while the Federalists saw it as rampant radicalism. This becomes another issue that divides the Federalists and Democratic-Republicans
Democratic societies/Jacobean clubs, 1789
Clubs which met for discussion, designed to keep alive the philosophies of the American Revolution. They were sometimes called Jacobean clubs because they also supported the French Revolution.
Genet Affair, 1793
Edmond Charles Genêt. A French diplomat who came to the U.S. in 1793 to ask the American government to send money and troops to aid the revolutionaries in the French Revolution. President Washington asked France to recall Genêt after Genêt began recruiting men and arming ships in U.S. ports. However, Washington later relented and allowed Genêt U.S. citizenship upon learning that the new French government planned to arrest Genêt.
Neutrality Proclamation, 1793
Washington's declaration that the U.S. would not take sides after the French Revolution touched off a war between France and a coalition consisting primarily of England, Austria and Prussia. The Proclamation was technically a violation of the Franco-American Treaty of 1778. Washington’s position was the Alliance between the French and Americans had been signed with the French monarch and since Revolutionary France had overthrown the king and it was now a republic, the Alliance was no longer binding.
XYZ Affair, Talleyrand (1798)
A diplomatic incident in which American peace commissioners sent to France by President John Adams in 1797 were insulted with bribe demands from their French counterparts, dubbed X,Y, and Z in American newspapers. The incident intensified war fever against France.
Quasi War/ Undeclared naval war with France, 1798-1800
Late 1790s - Beginning in 1794, the French had begun seizing American vessels in retaliation for Jay's Treaty, so Congress responded by ordering the navy to attack any French ships on the American coast. The conflict became especially violent after the X,Y, Z Affair. A peace convention in 1800 with the newly installed dictator, Napoleon, ended the conflict.
Convention of 1800
A conference between the U.S. and France which ended the naval hostilities. This formally ended the Franco-American Alliance of 1778 and it was almost 150 years before the U.S. entered into another formal alliance.
A small political group or alliance organized around a single issue or person. Factions often became the basis for political parties. In the eighteenth century, many considered factions dangerous because they were thought to undermine the stability of a community or nation.
An informal meeting of politicians held by political parties to make majority decisions and enforce party discipline. Until the advent of conventions, party candidates were often selected by caucus method.
Federalist Party vs. Democratic-Republicans, 1793
The first party system in the United States.
Leading Federalists
• Origins - The Federalist Party grew out of a fundamental disagreement at the Constitutional Convention as to how to structure the new country’s govt.
• Beliefs - The Federalists advocated a strong national govt., arguing that a large polity checked by a balance of power would best protect against the tyranny of a minority over the interest of the majority. Their opponents, the Antifederalists, feared that a centralized govt. would erode local political participation and encourage corruption. The Federalist plan won out and was enshrined in the Constitution.
• Policies - In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the Federalists advocated conservative policies designed to encourage economic growth and consolidate elite power, such as the establishment of a national bank, protective tariffs, friendship with Britain, and condemnation of the radical egalitaritiansim of the French Revolution.
• Leading Federalists - Alexander Hamilton and John Adams.
Leading Democratic-Republicans
• Origins - Many of the Democratic-Republicans had earlier been members of the Antifederalists, which had never organized into a formal political party.
• Beliefs - Republicans advocated states’ rights, strict interpretation of the Constitution, friendship with France, and wanted a nation of independent yeomen farmers rather than an industrial nation and the accompanying social ills they saw in countries such as Britain.
• Policies - They opposed the National Bank and taxes to support the growth of industry, instead favoring state banks and little industry.
• Leading Democratic- Republicans - Thomas Jefferson and James Madison.
A political and social doctrine holding that govt. rests on the consent of the governed and has a duty to protect the freedom and property of the individual. Economic liberals believe that the govt. should regulate the economy and protect individual rights. Social liberals believe that the govt. should ensure the material well-being and general welfare of all people, and cultural liberals support multiculturalism and tolerance.
A political and social doctrine, stressing stability and adherence to tradition, dating back to Alexander Hamilton’s belief of a strong central govt. resting on a solid banking foundation. Economic conservatives place a high value on low taxes and minimal govt. interference in the economy; social conservatives champion military preparedness, family values, and religious morality.
British withdrawl from the Northwest forts, 1794
British fur-trading forts in the Northwest Territory. The British had not turned the forts over to the U.S. as specified in the Treaty of Paris of 1783 because they argued the U.S. had failed to honor the treaty’s provision of seeing that debts to British merchants were paid and Loyalists compensated for confiscated or destroyed property. Their presence in the U.S. led to continued British-American conflicts.
Jay's Treaty, 1794
Controversial treaty with Britain negotiated by Chief Justice John Jay in 1794 to settle American grievances and prevent war. Though the British agreed to surrender the Northwest posts, the treaty failed to attain the key diplomatic goal of stopping British attacks on neutral American merchant ships. It created a storm of protest in America because it didn’t address this issue and the British restrictions on the rights of neutrals remained intact.
Pinckney's Treaty aka Treaty of San Lorenzo, 1795
A treaty between the U.S. and Spain that contained the following provisions.
• Gave the U.S. the right to transport goods on the Mississippi river and to deposit goods in New Orleans without paying duties.
• A secure southern border on the 31st parallel (northern boundary of Florida), and a promise to stay out of Indian affairs.
The Spanish offered these generous provisions because they wrongly assumed Britain and the U.S. had formed an alliance to strip Spain of its North American territory. (Treaty is named for the special envoy to Spain, Thomas Pinckney)
"Mad" Anthony Wayne, Battle of Fallen Timbers, 1794
Wayne had been one of the leading generals of the Continental Army, and had played a crucial role in the defeat of Cornwallis at Yorktown. In the early 1790's, the British held trading posts in the Ohio Valley and encouraged the local Indian tribes to attack the Americans. Led by Wayne, the Americans defeated the Miami Indians in the Battle of Fallen Timbers on August 20, 1794, near what is today Toledo, Ohio. This paved the way for American settlement of the Ohio Valley.
Treaty of Greenville, 1795
The Miami Indians signed this treaty with the United States a year after their defeat at Fallen Timbers. The tribe relinquished land in the Northwest Territory in return for the federal government’s recognition of their sovereignty over lands that remained under their control. This marked the first time the new federal govt. recognized the sovereignty of the tribes over Indian lands.
Election of 1796: President Adams, Vice-President Thomas Jefferson
The first true election (when Washington ran, there was never any question that he would be elected).
• Federalist John Adams vs. Democratic-Republican Thomas Jefferson.
• Adams won by just three electoral votes.
• Jefferson became vice president since the Constitution stipulated the candidate that received the second highest number of votes would become the vice-president.
• This method of selecting a vice-president was changed by the Twelfth Amendment in 1804.
Alien and Sedition Acts, 1798
Four laws passed by the Federalist Congress and signed by Adams in 1798. The first 3 were enacted in response to the XYZ Affair, and were aimed at French and Irish immigrants, who were considered subversive. The Sedition Act was an attempt to stifle Democratic-Republican opposition, although only 25 people were ever arrested, and only 10 convicted, under the law. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which initiated the concept of "nullification" of federal laws were written in response to the Acts.
• Naturalization Act increased the waiting period for an immigrant to become a citizen from 5 to 14 years.
• Alien Act empowered the president to arrest and deport dangerous aliens.
• Alien Enemy Act allowed for the arrest and deportation of citizens of countries at war with the US.
• Sedition Act made it illegal to publish defamatory statements about the federal government or its officials.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, 1798
Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts.
• They declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
• Southern states used these as the foundation for the secession theory crafted during the debate over slavery in the 1800’s.
Doctrine of Nullificaiton, 1798
Expressed in the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, it said that states could nullify federal laws because the states remained supreme to the national government as part of their original compact.
Republican Motherhood, early 1800s
The idea that American women’s moral superiority gave them a special role to play in the new political and social system. In the early to mid-nineteenth century, republican mothers were to instill the values of patriotic duty and republican virtue in their children and mold them into outstanding American citizens with moral and religious education.
An English common-law doctrine adopted by the U.S. that incorporated women’s civil, political, and economic rights into those of their husbands, leaving wives with no individual rights of their own. State-specific limitations to coverture began in the mid-nineteenth century, but until the twentieth century, most American women, along with their property and children, were largely under the legal control of their husbands