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33 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Annapolis Convention
A group of delegates from five states met in an effort to solve the problems of interstate commerce. Because there was little representation, the delegates decided that a convention of all states should be held the year after in order to amend the Articles of Confederation.
Philadelphia Convention
A congressional convention met to amend the Articles of Confederation in 1788. The convention ultimately scrapped the Articles and came up with the much more effective Constitution, in which various compromises were made to pacify sectional differences.
James Madison
He drafted the Virginia Plan of national government that became the basis for its bicameral structure in 1788. He also assisted in the writing of the "Federalist Papers" in order to persuade delegates who were fearful of centralized power.
Great Compromise
This was introduced by the Connecticut delegation in 1788, and contained both the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan. It provided for a presidency, a senate with states represented with two senators each, and a House of Representatives with representation according to population.
Virginia Plan
Called for an executive branch with two houses of Congress which were both based on population.
New Jersey Plan
Introduced by William Patterson, called for a legislature with equal representation and increased powers for the national government.
Opponents of the Constitution who thought that it failed to balance power between the national and state governments. Believing that a balance was impossible to reach, the opponents thought that the new government would ultimately ruin the states.
Federalist Papers
The eighty-five newspaper essays offered a glimpse of the framers’ intentions in designing the Constitution, and shaped the American philosophy of the government. They explained that the Constitution would protect the minority’s rights but would not make them too powerful.
The Federalist #10
Madison rejected the Antifederalist argument that establishing a republic in United States would lead to a struggle for power. He also argued that the Constitution would prevent the formation of national factions and parties.
Loose Interpretation of the Constitution
Hamilton believed in a loose interpretation, or that powers implied within the Constitution should be included in the new government to fit changes over time.
Strict Interpretation of the Constitution
This interpretation of the constitution meant that it was to be followed exactly to the word, a philosophy adopted by Jefferson.
Electoral College
In order to protect the interests of the elite, land owning class, the framers of the Constitution added this as a safeguard against the majority opinion. As a result, electors could elect a presidential candidate without considering the popular vote and elections could be won without a majority in the popular vote.
Judiciary Act of 1789
Created a federal-court system and replaced the old system, in which the courts varied from state to state. They were burdened with filling in the holes of the judiciary system left by the Constitution.
Excise Taxes
A fixed charge on items of consumption, usually used for revenue raising.
Whiskey Rebellion
An organized resistance in 1794, to an excise tax in which federal revenue officials were tarred and feathered, riots were conducted, and mobs burned homes of excise inspectors. The federal militia captured many of the protesters, but most were released. This demonstrated the strength of the new constitutional federal government.
Citizen Genet
Sent to the United States by the French in 1793 to find soldiers to attack British ships and conquer the territories held by the Spanish, he founded the American Foreign Legion despite Washington’s April 22 proclamation of American neutrality.
X, Y, Z Affair
When a commission was sent to France in 1797 in order to negotiate problems between the two countries, they were told by the French foreign minister Talleyrand that the agents, three officials who did not take the process seriously, would only negotiate for a loan of $10 million to the French government and a personal gift of 250 thousand dollars.
Jay's Treaty
Negotiated between the United States and France in 1794, the treaty evacuated British posts in the West, appointed a committee to set up the U.S.-French boundary, and named a commission to determine how much the British should pay for illegally seizing American ships. It did not resolve the British West Indies trade dispute.
Pinckney's Treaty
Ratified in 1796, this gave westerners the right to access the world markets duty-free through the Mississippi River. Spain promised to recognize the thirty-first parallel, to end U.S. camps, and to discourage Indian attacks on western settlers.
Battle of Fallen Timbers
In 1794, “Mad” Anthony Wayne defeated a coalition of Native American tribes as the major general and commander in chief of the troops. The battle took place around present day Toledo and led to the Treaty of Greenville which opened up the Northwest to American settlers.
Treaty of Greenville
This treaty opened the Northwest Territory to settlement by white United States citizens. The territory had formerly only been inhabited by Indians, so therefore the treaty between the two races was an important one. The treaty served to end white-Indian hostilities for sixteen years.
Barbary Pirates
Following the American Revolution, they began to raid the ships of the United States. The United States therefore formed treaties with Morocco, Tripoli, and Tunis, as European nations already had, that gave them immunity from these attacks.
Tripolitan War
They had seized U.S. ships in the U.S. refusal to pay in increase in the tribute paid to the pasha of Tripoli. In the end, the demand for payment was ended and the U.S. paid $60,000 to free Americans caught captive.
Washington's Farewell Address
This asked the citizens of the United States to avoid involvement in political problems between foreign nations.
It urged for a stronger national government to take shape after 1781. Its leaders included Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, James Madison, and George Washington rose to power between 1789-1801. Under Hamilton, they solved the problem of revolutionary debt, created Jay’s Treaty and also the Alien and Sedition Acts. Madison later left the group as the federal government assumed too much power from the states.
The first political party in the United States, it was created by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison in opposition to the views of Alexander Hamilton. It arose to power in the 1790s and opposed the Federalist party, while advocating states rights and an agricultural society. The party expressed sympathy towards the French Revolution and opposed close ties with the British.
Society of Cincinnati
A post-war organization of veteran officers from the Continental Army, it was feared by many because its charter had the possibility of becoming a hereditary aristocracy, as it gave membership to descendants.
Alien and Sedition Acts
It allowed the exportation of any alien believed to be a threat to national security. It was also a criminal offense to plot against government. These acts were criticized because they oppressed the people’s First Amendment rights.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Written by Jefferson and Madison in protest to the Alien and Sedition Acts, which stated that states possessed the right to intervene in unconstitutional acts in government, and that federal government could not extend powers outside of constitutionally granted powers.
Second Great Awakening
Occurring mainly in the frontier states in the 1790s and was characterized by "camp meetings," or open air revivals which lasted for weeks at a time where revivalists spoke of the second coming of Jesus. Charles Finney, an especially prominent preacher of the time, preached not only the second coming of Jesus, but also the gospel of free will, which lead to a greater democratic power commonly seen in the ideals of Jacksonian democracy.
Gabriel's Rebellion
It occurred near Richmond, Virginia when 1,000 slaves marched to the capital. Thirty five slaves were executed by a swift state militia, but whites still feared what may occur in the future with slave uprisings. This increased tensions between the North and the South.
Charles Wilson Peale
As a portrait painter of the Federalist period, Peale is best known for his fourteen portraits of George Washington. In 1786, Peale began a museum of nature in Independence Hall, He also helped to found the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in 1805.
Election of 1796
John Adams, Federalist, defeated Thomas Jefferson, Democratic Republican, 71-68 in the electoral college. This was a partisan struggle between the two parties with the Federalists controlling the north and the Democratic Republicans controlling the south.