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25 Cards in this Set

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Election of 1800
Jefferson and fellow Republican Aaron Burr, who ran for Vice-presidency in the same year, received an equal number of electoral votes, thus creating a tie and throwing the presidential election into the House of Representatives, in agreement to Article II, Section 2, of the Constitution. With Hamilton’s coercion, Jefferson was elected as president, with Burr as Vice-president. (The Constitution was amended to require separate votes for each position.)
Jeffersonian Democracy
It led to cuts in naval and military operations. 70 percent of the national revenue was applied to reducing the national debt as well. Most importantly, the Louisiana territory was purchased from the French, though a Constitutional violation. Gallatin was the genius behind the public debt cut and creating a large surplus of funds. He opposed war, seeing it as detrimental to the national economy.
Midnight Judges
Last minute Federalist appointments made by Adams on his final day in office before Jefferson took over.
Louisiana Purchase
When France obtained the territory from Spain, Jefferson’s goal was to purchase the great port of New Orleans, land West of the Mississippi, as well as to end the threat of French invasion. Jefferson obtained the territory for $15 million, and was ratified as a treaty by the Senate, though purchasing the territory was Constitutionally illegal and going beyond his presidential rights. From this territory became 14 new state governments.
Lewis and Clark
They explored the vast territory west of the Mississippi River by the US, when they where commissioned by Jefferson. They cataloged plants and animals, and established relations with Indian inhabitants. They reached the Rockies, over the Continental Divide, and reached the Pacific in November 1805.
Berlin Decree
Was created in response to the Orders in Council by the British, in which the French proclaimed a blockade of the British isles, and any ship attempting to enter or leave a British port would be seized by France. The Decree was answered with another Orders in Council, in which all ships must come to England for licenses of trade.
Milan Decree
: Napoleon replied to the continuous British opposition, with the Milan Decree, which was to tighten his so-called Continental System. The decree proclaimed that any vessel that submitted to British regulations or allowed it self to be searched by the Royal Navy, was subject to seizure by France.
Orders in Council
In May 1806, the British followed the Essex decision with the first of several trade regulations, known as the Orders in Council, which established a blockade of part of the continent of Europe and prohibited trade with France, unless American vessels went to British ports for licenses for trade.
Impressment
Arbitrary seizure of goods or individuals by a government or its agents for public services. Used by British to regain deserters from the Royal Navy to American vessels during 1790 to 1812. This was one of the reasons for the War of 1812, when British vessels boarded and obtained their crew from the high paying American ships.
Chesapeake - Leopard Affair
The British demanded the return and surrender of four deserters from the royal navy, in which the commanding officer, James Barron, refused, resulting in British attack. Barron relented and the men were seized.
Embargo of 1807
Prohibited United States vessels from trading with European nations during the Napoleonic War. This was in response to the restrictive measure imposed on American neutrality by France and Britain, who where at war with each other. To pressure the nations to respect the neutral rights of the US and to demonstrate the value of trade with the US, Jefferson imposed this instead of open warfare.
Non-Intercourse Act
It repealed the Embargo Act, and reactivated American commerce with all countries except the warring French and the British. The US also agreed to resume trade with the first nation of the two, who would cease violating neutral rights, pressuring the needs for American goods.
Macon's Bill #2
This was designed to discourage the British and the French from interfering with US commerce, by bribing either the England or France in repealing their restrictions on neutral shipping; who ever obliged, the US would halt all commerce with the other nation.
Tecumseh
A Shawnee leader, who fought against the United States expansion into the Midwest. He opposed any surrender of Native American land to whites, and tried with his brother, Tenskwatawa the "Prophet," in uniting the tribes from American customs, especially liquor. He was defeated at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811.
Essex Junto
The Essex Junto was a name given to the extreme nationalist wing, led by Timothy Pickering, Senator George Cabot, Theophilus Parsons, and several of the Lowell family of merchants and industrialists in New England. It opposed the Embargo Act and the War of 1812.
Hartford Convention
This damaged the Federalists with its resolutions to the idea o secession, leaving an idea of disloyalty to use against them. It was to oppose the war, which was hurting American industries and commerce. The recommendation of the convention was to have an amendment to the Constitution that would grant taxation and representation in each state, and prohibit congress from the embargo.
Treaty of Ghent
This was an agreement between the United States and Great Britain, in Belgium, on December 24, 1814. This treaty ended the War of 1812, and provided that all territory captured would be returned to the rightful owner. Great controversy occurred over fishing rights and the Northwest Boundary, between England and America.
Adams - Onis Treaty
It was the treaty in 1819 that purchased eastern Florida to establish the boundary between Mexico and the Louisiana territory. It provided for the cession of Florida to the United States in return for American settlement of claims of her citizens against Spain.
Monroe Doctrine
It consisted of 3 principles: U.S. policy was to abstain from European wars unless U.S. interests were involved, European powers could not colonize the American continents and shouldn’t attempt to colonize newly independent Spanish American republics. Ridiculed in Europe, it was used to justify U.S. expansion by presidents John Tyler and James Polk. In 1904, the Roosevelt Corollary was introduced.
Era of Good Feelings
This phrase exemplifies both of Monroe’s presidencies, from 1816-1824. The War of 1812 eliminated some divisive issues, and Republicans embraced the Federalist’s issues. Monroe made an effort to avoid political controversies, but soon sectionalism divided the nation.
John Marshall
The last of the Federalists to remain in power. Most long lasting decision was Marbury v. Madison which instituted Judicial Review. Favored businesses and property rights in his decisions.
Clay's American System
In his tariff speech to Congress on March 30- 31, 1824, he proposed a protective tariff in support of home manufactures, internal improvements such as federal aid to local road and canal projects, a strong national bank, and distribution of the profits of federal land sales to the states.
Missouri Compromise
Congress admitted Maine as a free state in 1820 so that Missouri would become a slave state and prohibited slavery in the rest of the Louisiana Purchase territory north of 36 30, the southern boundary of Missouri.
Election of 1808
The Democratic Republicans dominated this election with the ascendancy of James Madison to the presidency. Madison defeated Charles Cotesworth Pinckney 122-47 in the electoral college. Originally a Federalist, Madison clearly moved to the Democratic Republcian party over Hamilton’s financial program, John Adams as Vice President, and Jay’s Treaty.
Election of 1816
James Monroe, the handpicked successor by both Madison and Jefferson, continued the Virginia Dynasty. Monroe, a Democratic Republican, defeated Rufus King, a Federalist Senator from NY, 183-34 in the electoral college. With their opposition to the War of 1812 demonstrated in the Hartford Convention, the Federalist Party lost national power and was limited to the northeast.