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51 Cards in this Set

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Appendicular Skeleton
-second division of the skeleton
-consists of all bones of the upper & lower extremities,the shoulder & pelvic girdles
-126 bones in adults
Shoulder Girdles
(Appendicular Skeleton)
Clavicles - 2 bones

Scapula (scapulae) - 2 bones
Upper Limbs
Humerus (humeri) 2 bones
Ulna (ulnae) 2 bones
Radius(radii) - 2 bones
Carpals - 16 bones
Metacarpals - 10 bones
Phalanges(finger) 28 bones
Pelvic girdle
Hip bones - 2
Lower limbs
Femur (Femora) - 2 bones
Tibias - 2
Fibula (fibulae) - 2
Patellapatellae)sesamoid
bone - 2
Tarsals - 14 bones
Metatarsals - 10
Phalanges - toes 28 bones
Sesamoid bones
are a special type of small, oval-shaped bone found in the tendons (mostly near joints. 2 patellae largest sesamoid & sasamoid bones on the posterior base of first toe.
What are the classification of bones?
*Long Bones
*Short Bones
*Flat Bones
*Irregular bones
Long Bones
*consist of a body & 2 ends or extremities.
*long bones are found only in the appendicular skeleton
ex. humerus, radius, femur.
Compact Bone (Cortex)
the outer shell of most bones is composed of hard or dense bone tissue or cortex meaning an external layer.
Body (Shaft)
contains a thicker layer of compact bone than the ends to help resist the stress of the weight placed on tem
Cancellous bone (spongy bone)
*highly porous and usually contains red bone marrow
*responsible for the production of red blood cells.
Medullary cavity
*the body of a long bone is hollow
*hollow cavity contains fatty yellow marrow
Periosteum
*a dense fibrous membrane w/c covers bone except ate the articulating surfaces
* is essential for bone growth, repair & nutrition.
Hyaline
glassy or clear is a common type of cartilage or connecting tissue aka "gristle"
Short Bones
* are roughly cuboidal & are found only in the wrists & ankles.
ex. 8 carpal bones each wrist
ex. 7 tarsal bones each foot
Flat Bones
* consist of 2 plates of compact bone w/cancellous bone & marrow between tem.
ex. calvarium(skull cap)
sternum, ribs, scapulae,
pelvis
Diploe
* narrow space between the inner & outer table of flat bones in the cranium.
* provide protection for interior contents & broad surfaces for muscle attachment.
Irregular Bones
bones that have peculiar shapes
ex.vertebrae, facial bones, boned of the base of the cranium & bones of the pelvis
Ossification
* process by w/c bones form in the body.
* the embryonic skeleton is composed of fibrous membranes & hyaline cartilage
* begins about the sixth embryonic week & continues until adulthood.
Name 2 Bone Formation
1. Intramembranous ossification
2. Endochondral ossification
Primary Centers of Endochondral Ossification
*diaphysis growing bones
*becomes body in a fully developed bone
Secondary Centers of Endochondral Ossification
* epiphysis located at the ends of extremities of long bones
* epiphysis of the distal femur & proximal tibia
Epiphyseal plates
* are found between the diaphysis and each epiphysis until growth is complete.
* full maturity @ 25 yrs old.
Arthrology (Joints)
* the study of joints or articulations
* important that movement does not occur in all joints.
* joints adapted for growth rather than for movement
Synarthrosis
immovable joints
Amphiarthrosis
joint with limited movement
Diarthrosis
freely movable joints
3 Types of tissue that separate the ends of bones
1. Fibrous Joints
2. Cartilaginous Joints
3. Synovial joints
Fibrous Joints
- lack joint cavity
- held together by fibrous connective tissue
3 Types of Fibrous Joints
1. Syndesmoses
2. Sutures
3. Gomphoses
Syndesmoses
(Fibrous Joints)
- the only true syndesmosis joint in the body is the distal tibiofibular joint
- fibrous ligaments hold the distal tibia & fibula together at this joint
- slightly movable or amphiarthrodial
Sutures
(Fibrous Joints)
- are found between bones in the skull
- immovable or synarthrodial joints
Gomphoses
(Fibrous Joints)
- a unique type of bibrous joint
- a conical process is inserted into a socketlike portion of bone
-ex. roots of the teeth & alveoli of mandible and maxillae - little movemtn
Cartilaginous Joints
-held tightly together by cartilage.
-joints are either synaarthrodial or amphiarthrodial
2 Types of Cartilaginous Joints
Symphyses & Synchondroses
Symphyses
(Cartilaginous Joint)
-the presense of a broad flattened disk of fibrocartilage between 2 contiguous bony surfaces.
-amphiarthrodial (slightly movable) ex. intervertebral disk(between bodies of the vertebrae) & symphysis (between the 2 pubic bones)
Synchondroses
(Cartilaginous Joint)
- temporary form of joint wherein the connecting hyaline cartilage
ex. epiphyseal plate)
Synovial Joints
- freely movable joints, mostly upper & lower limbs
-diarthrodial (freely movable)
-synovial fluid(lubricating fluid
-hyaline articular cartilage(protetive covering)
Movement Types of Synovial Joints
1. Plane (gliding) joints
2. Ginglymus (hinge) joints
3. Trochoid (pivot) joints
4. Ellipsoid(condyloid) joints
5.Sellar(saddle) joints
6. Spheroid(ball & socket) joints
1.Plane (gliding) joints
(Synovial Joints)
- is a sliding/gliding motion between the articulating surfaces
ex. intermetacarpal,carpometacarpal, & intercarpal joints of the hnd & wrist. right & left lateral atlantoaxial joings between C1 & C2 vertebrae
2.Ginglymus (hinge) joints
(Synovial Joints)
- flexion & extension movements only
ex. knee joint, elbow joint, ankle joint, interphalangeal joints of both fingers & toes
3. Trochoid (pivot) joints
(Synovial Joints)
-rotational movements around a single axis
ex. between the first & second cervical vertebrae
4. Ellipsoid (condyloid) joints
(Synovial Joints)
-flexion & extension & abduction & adduction
-circumduction
ex. 2nd-5th metacarpophalangeal joints of fingers, wrist joint & metatarsophalangeal joints of the toes.
5. Sellar (saddle) joints
(Synovial Joints)
- ends of the bones are shaped concave-convex & position opposite each other.
- flexion, extension, adduction, abduction & circumduction
ex. 1st carpometacarpal joint of the thumb
6. Spheroid (ball & socket) joints
(Synovial Joints)
-greatest freedome of motion
-flexion,extension,abduction, adduction, circumduction & medial lateral position
ex. hip joint & shoulder joint
4 Main Groups of the upper limb bones
1. hand & wrist
2. forearm
3. arm(humerus)
4. shoulder girdle
4 Main Groups of the upper limb bones
1. hand & wrist
2. forearm
3. arm(humerus)
4. shoulder girdle
Hand & Wrist
-ea. hands/wrist has 27 bones
divided into:
1.phalanges(fingers&thumb) 14
2.metacarpals(palm) 5
3.carpals(wrist) 8
Hand & Wrist
-ea. hands/wrist has 27 bones
divided into:
1.phalanges(fingers&thumb) 14
2.metacarpals(palm) 5
3.carpals(wrist) 8
Steve Scaphoid
Left Lunate
The Triquetrum
Party Pisiform
To Trapezium
Take Trapezoid
Carol Capitate
Home Hamate
Navicular
Semilunar
Triangular or cuneiform
(none)
Greater multangular
Lesser multangular
Os Magnum
Unciform
Steve Scaphoid
Left Lunate
The Triquetrum
Party Pisiform
To Trapezium
Take Trapezoid
Carol Capitate
Home Hamate
Navicular
Semilunar
Triangular or cuneiform
(none)
Greater multangular
Lesser multangular
Os Magnum
Unciform