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55 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the 3 general functions of blood
distribution, regulation, protection
What are the distributive function of blood
02 delivery; nutrients via GI tract
transport metabolic waste to elimination sites, convey hormones from endocrine organs to target
What are the regulative functions of blood.
body temp, pH in tissues, fluid volume
What are the protective functions of blood.
prevent blood loss, prevent infection
What are the formed elements of the blood and which are cells
RBCs, WBCs, Platelets; the WBCs are the only complete cells, platelets are fragments, RBCs lack nucleus
What is the purpose of RBCs and WBCs?
RBC- respiratory gas transport
WBC- combat disease
What is hemoglobin
globin protein with heme (pigment) with an Fe in the middle. 4-O2 transported by one HB, single RBC possess 250 million HB
What is erythropoiesis, what is responsible, what triggers it.
The production of RBC, its originates in myeloid stem cell in bone marrow. Triggered by hypoxia, O2 sensitive NZs in kidney unable to degrade HIF which accumulates and triggers EPO
What are the stages of hemostasis
1. Vascular Spasm
2. Platelet Plug Formation
3. Coagulation
What happens in vascular spasm
Vasoconstriction, chemical release by endothelial cells, pain reflexes by nociceptors, platelets
what happens during the platelet plug
platelets aggregate to form temp. seal, Intact endothelial cells release NO and prostacyclin to restrict aggregation, platelets bind to exposed collagen fibers, ADP is aggregating agnet
What happens during coagulation
reenforces plug w/ fibrin threads, fibrin mesh seals larger breaks, procoagulants (plasma protein) promote gelatinization, vitamin K required for synth. of 4 procoagulants, intrinsic and extrinsic pathways
What can inhibit hemostasis
thrombeoemblic disorders-cause undesirable clot formations
disseminated intravascular coagulation-unwanted clotting to bleeding
bleeding disorders
Explain blood groupings
ABO blood groups based on presence of A and B aggluntinogens
Rh h blood groups are -/+
What happens when you give someone the wrong blood
recipients agglutinins attack donors erythrocytes, foreign RBCs agglutinized then rupture or are destroyed, can cause death ect
What does thalassemias do
found in greeks or italians, has a missing missing or faulty globin and the erythrocytes are thin and delicate
what does sickle-cell anemia do
beta chains in the globin molecule are stiff rods so that hemoglobin s becomes spiky and under pressure rupture and can damn up small blood vessels
what are the components of blood plasma
90% water, over 100 solutes including wastes, protiens (albumen), hormones, nutrients, respiratory gasses, electrolytes, globulins
Which direction does lymph flow
only flows towards the heart
What is the purpose of the lymphatic system
return fluid leaked out from vascular system back to blood, remove foreign material from lymph and blood streams
What are lacteals
highly specialized lymphatic capillaries in the villi of the intestinal mucosa that absorb and digest fat
What are the types and functions of lymphatic cells
T cells-manage immune response also attack/destroy infected cells/B cells-produce plasma cells to generate antibodies/Macrophages-phagocytize foreign matter/Dendric-capture antigens bring them to lymph nodes/Reticular-form stoma to support other cell types
What do lymph nodes do
filter lymph, macorphages in nodes remove/destroy microorganisms and other debris, assist in immune system activation
what is the role of the spleen
provides site for lymphocyte proliferation, immune surveillance and response, stores some breakdown products of RBCs for r-use and platelets
What is the role of the thymus
site for maturation of T lymphocyte precursors
What and where are peyer's patches and where are they located
destroy bacteria preempting intestinal wall breach, can generate memory lymphocytes for LT immunity, throughout intestines in abdomen
what is MALT and what does it do
Mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue, prevents mucous membrane lining of exterior passages from being compromised
What does the compliment do
provides mechanism for destroying foreign substances, enhances innate and adaptive defenses
What is MAC and what does it do to a cell
Membrane Attack Complex=lysis (holes into cell membrane)
What are the two main types of immune system defenses and differences between them
Innate-always working/ready-1-2 line of defense
adaptive-adapts and attacks specifics but takes more time, 3rd line of defense
What makes up the innate defense system
1st line-skin and mucous
2nd line-inflamation, phagocytes, fever NK cells, antimicrobial proteins
What makes up the adaptive defense system
humoral and cell-mediated
What is the difference between humoral and cell mediated immunity
humoral-antibody's produced by lymphocytes that float freely and temporarily attach to primarily bateria and mark them for destruction by phagocytes
cell-mediated-lymphocytes themselves attack same plus actual cells
How do Interferons work
small proteins that diffuse to nearby cells where they stimulate synthesis of proteins which interfere with the viral replication in the still healthy cells by blocking protein synthesis and degrading viral RNA
What are diapedesis and chemotaxis in relation to phagocyte mobilization
diapedesis is the chemical signaling that allows them to leave the capillary walls, chemotaxis is the inflammation chemicals that attract the wbc's to the site
what are the two important properties of complete antigens
immunogenicity-the ability to stimulate specific lymph. and antibodies
reactivity-ability to react with the activated antibodies and lymphocytes
What are MHC proteins
Major histocompatibility comples proteins, determine self/nonself,
Class 1-virtually all cells(origin displayed peptides inside)
Class 2-certain cells that act in immune response(origin displayed peptides outside)
what is an antigen presenting cell and examples
engulfs antigens and present fragments for T-cell recognition ex. Dendritic cells(most effective), macrophages, B lymphocytes
What is clonal selection
B lymphcytes bind antigens that then use receptor-mediated endocytosis, then starts growing rapidly and multiply creating an army of identical clones. most morph into plasma cells to secrete antibodies, some become memory cells in case it ever come back to activate quickly (immunological memory)
What are the types of immunological immunity
naturally active-infection/contact w/ pathogen, naturally passive-antibodies pass from mother to fetus, artificially active-vaccine;dead pathogens, artificially passive-injection of immune serum
Whats the primary role of IgA
Mucosa to prevent attachment of pathogens to epithelial cells
What is the primary role of IgG
protects against bacteria, viruses, and toxins circulating in blood, provides passive immunity to fetus
What is the primary role of IgM
first Ig class released during primary response, potent agglutinating agent, readily fixes and activates complement
What is the primary role of IgD
almost always attached to B cell as the antigen receptor, important to the B cell activation
IgE
in plasma of skin, intestine, mucus, tonsils. stem region becomes bound to mast cells and basophils and when triggered causes a release histamines and chemicals that cause allergic reaction.
what does somatic recombination contribute too
antigen receptor diversity
What are some typical effects of hormonal signaling
alter permeability of plasma membran, stimulates synthesis of protens or regulatory molecules, Activates/deA enzymes, stimulates mitosis
What hormones are water soluble and what type of receptors do they employ
all amino acid based except thyroid(t3/t4), extracellular
What hormones are lipid soluble and what type of receptors do they employ
steroids and thyroid hormones, intracellular
What are the 2 types of signalling mechanisms
2nd messenger (H2O soluble), transcription or direct gene activation (lipid soluble)
how does 2nd messenger system work
1.hormone attaches to receptor outside cell which binds a g-protien. 2.a GTP replaces a GDP on g-protein activating it and moving to Adenylate cyclase 3.an ATP activate Adr.Cy. to generate a cAMP which activates protein kinases that phosphorylate
What is the importance of the thyroid hormone in thermoregulation and metabolism
stimulates enzymes concerned with glucose oxidation that increase basal metabolic rates and body heat production (known as calorigenic effect)
what are the general steps in T3/T4 synthesis
1.formation and storage of thyroglobulin 2.Iodide trapping 3.Oxidation to iodine and iodination 4.Coupling T2 and T1 5.Colloid endocytosis 6.Cleavage of the hormones for release
What role does Iodine play in T3/T4
is a crucial component of hormone and required for synthesis
What is positive feedback
causes the level of change to increase in the same direction (domino effect)