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20 Cards in this Set

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Pepsin
Pepsin-

(1) protease from the gastric glands (stomach enzyme)
(2) activated by pepsinogen
(3) secreted by chief cells
MODE OF ACTION:
(1) Enzyme capable of digesting proteins in an acid pH
(2) hydrolyzes certain peptide bonds, breaking protein down into smaller polypeptides.
Pancreatic Enzymes
Pancreatic Enzymes-

(1) Trypsin
(2) Chymotrypsin

FUNCTION:
take over protein digestion in small intestine by hydrolyzing polypeptides into shorter oligopeptides
Trypsin
Trypsin-

(1) pancreatic enzymes
(2) activated by trypsinogen (zymogen)

MODE OF ACTION:
(1) hydrolyzes polypeptides into even shorter oligopeptides (so does Chymotrypsin)
Chymotrypsin
Chymotrypsin-

(1) pancreatic enzymes
(2) activated by chymotrypsinogen (zymogen)

MODE OF ACTION

(1) hydrolyzes polypeptides into even shorter oligopeptides (as does Trypsin)
Carboxypeptidase
Carboxypeptidase-

(1) a pancreatic secretion
(2) activated by procarboxypeptidase

MODE OF ACTION
(3) removes amino acids from carboxyl (–COOH) end of the chain
Brush border enzymes
Brush border enzymes

(1) Dipeptidase
(2) Aminopeptidase
(3) Nucleosidases
(4) Phosphotases

FUNCTION:
finish task, producing free amino acids that are absorbed into intestinal epithelial cells
Dipeptidase
Dipeptidase-

(1) is a brush border enzyme

MODE OF ACTION
(1) splits dipeptides in the middle and releases two free amino acids
Aminopeptidase
Aminopeptidase-

(1) is a brush border enzyme

MODE OF ACTION
(1) removes one amino acid at a time from
the amino (–N H ) end.
Zymogen
Zymogen-

(1) Inactive enzymes secreted by the digestive system (found in acinar cells) and then activated in the lumen.

FUNCTION:
(1) Which prevents the enzymes from digesting the cells that manufacture them.
Pancreatic proteases
Pancreatic PROTEASES:

(1) Pepsin (gastric enzyme)
(2) trypsin (pancreatic enzymes)
(3) chymotrypsin (pancreatic enzymes)
(4) carboxypeptidase (pancreatic secretion)
(5) dipeptidase (brush border enzyme)
(6) aminopeptidase (brush border enzyme)
Name at least (4) important parts of alimentary canal (digestive)
Alimentary canal

ANATOMY:
(1) mouth
(2) most of pharynx
(3) esophagus
(4) stomach
(5) small intestine
(6) large intestine.
Mouth
Mouth-

ENZYMES:
(1) salivary amylase (breaks down carbohydrates) (2) lingual lipase (breaks down lipids).

FUNCTION:
(1) chemically & mechanically breaks down food & forms a bolus.
Stomach
Stomach-

ENZYMES:
(1) pepsin (breaks down protein)
(2) gastric lipase (breaks down lipids).

FUNCTION:
(1) where protein breakdown starts
(2) and the further breakdown of lipids continue.
(3) The muscularis of the stomach performs mixing waves which mixes food with gastric juices to form chime
(4) peristalsis forces chime through the pyloric sphincter.
Small Intestine
Small intestine-

ENZYMES: (found in the brush border).
(1) α-dextrinase (digests carbohydrates)
(2) maltase (digests carbohydrates)
(3) sucrase (digests carbohydrates)
(4) lactase (digests carbohydrates)
(5) aminopeptidase (digests protein)
(6) dipeptidase (digests protein)
(7) nucleosidases (digests nucleic acids)
(8) phosphatases (digests nucleic acidszawsxs)

FUNCTION:
(1) further breaks down carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids.
(2) site of absorption of all nutrients (monosacchrides, amino acids, dipeptides, tripeptides, & lipids) from digested foods.
Large Intestine
Large intestine-

ENZYMES:
None are secreted from this organ.

FUNCTION:
(1) Here chyme is prepared for elimination by the action of bacteria.
(2) Bacteria can also breakdown any remaining proteins to amino acids and amino acids into smaller substances.
(3) There is a very small amount of absorption of water, ions, and some vitamins in the large intestine.
What are the microscopic structures of the liver?
Structures of the Liver

(1) hepatocytes
(2) bile canaliculi
(3) hepatic sinsoids
What are the general functions of the liver?
Liver-

FUNCTION:
(1) secreting bile
(2) metabolism of carbohydrates
(3) lipids
(4) proteins
(5) processing of drugs and hormones
(6) activation of vitamin D
(7) phagocytosis
(8) excretion of bile salts and bilirubin

(9) storage of certain vitamins.
Hepatocytes-
Hepatocytes-

ANATOMY:
mature liver cells

FUNCTION:
(1) after a meal-ABSORBS nutrients from blood
(2) REMOVES/DEGRADES
hormones, toxins, bile pigments, and drugs
(3) secretes into the blood
albumin, lipoproteins, clotting factors, angiotensinogen, and other products

(4) (b/w meals) breaks down stored glycogen and releases glucose into the blood
Bile Canaliculi
Bile canaliculi "Little channels"

FUNCTION:
(1) narrow channels into which the liver secretes bile
(2) collect bile from hepatocytes
Hepatic sinusoids
Hepatic sinusoids

blood-filled channels that fill spaces between the plates

FUNCTION:
(1) small ducts that receive oxygenated blood from branches of the hepatic artery
(2) nutrient rich deoxygenated blood from branches of the hepatic portal vein