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174 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
House of Burgesses
An elective representative assembly in colonial Virginia. It was the first example of representative government in the English colonies.
joint-stock company
Business enterprise that enabled investors to pool money for commercial trading activity and funding for sustaining colonies.
Mayflower Compact
Agreement among the Pilgrims aboard the Mayflower in 1620 to create a civil government at Plymouth Colony
John Winthrop
Governor of Massachusetts Bay;
did not like the Chesapeake settlements. Did not help the settlers of Virginia in 1644 when they were attacked by Indians because of a religious stand of his own.
Sir William Berkeley
Royal governmor of Virginia; was glad when the New Englanders faced the same fate when all outwar was declared on them in 1675. outlawed the export of foodstuffs to New England
Humble Englsih farmers that originated in the early 1600s in Scrooby Manor, England.

Residents of the area believed that the English Church retained too much of the Catholic church.

Scrooby area formally left the Church of England during the beginning of James I's reign; they were then called Separatists. These Separatists moved to Holland in 1608-1609.

In the Neitherlands the church members feared the lose of their individual identity; their children were Dutch children. 1617; some of the original members of the Scrooby congregation said they would sail to America.
William Bradford
Pilgrim of the original Scrooby congregation that wrote Of Plymouth Plantation. elected govenor by the Pilgrims
Virginia Company of London
the company the Pilgrims peitioned for a land patent from. recieved a patents to settle in Virginia
Mayflower Compact
signed by 41 men to "covenaant and combine our selves together into a civil body politick."
Disease and hunger
about 50 of the 102 people who set out on the Mayflower died.
Patuxt Indian; kidnapped by unscrupulous adventures and sold in Spain as a slave.

Escaped Spain and got to London; tought how to speak English by a group of merchatns who had land in Newfoundland. Squanto returned to the Plymouth area just before the Pilgrims first arrived.
local Native American leader who helped Squanto to teach the Pilgrims about hunting and agriculture
Massachusetts Bay
absorbed Plymouth in 1691
condemned liquor and sex, dressed in drab clothes, and minded their neighbors' business.
Captian William Claiborne
confrintation between the Wicomesses and Susquehannocks at the trading post
type of beads made by Native Americans and used as money
Admiral Christopher Colombus
discovered the new world and committed genocide against the Native Americans
Agricultural Revolution
the shift of Native Americans to basic crops such as maize, squash, and beans from the north to central Mexico
Native AmericanCeramics
began to be produced after the Agricultural Revolution
Permanent villages
established a clear hierarchy of elders and kings; established due to more stable crops and food sources
Chaco Canyon
located on the San Juan River in New Mexico
had a politicaly and religious active society that had complex housing and had about fifteen thousand residence.

angriculture supported through irrigation canals; had a transportation system
Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)
divided the entire world along a line located 270 leagues west of the Azores; land discovered to the west was the property of Spain
encomienda system
Monarch of Spain rewarded the leaders of the conquest with Indian villages; those living in the settlements provided the encomenderos iwth labor tribute for legal protection and religious guidance
joint-stock company
a business organization in which scores of people could invest without fear of bankruptcy
House of Burgesses
relaxed Dale's martial law and promised an electived representative assembly in Virginia
a 50-acre lot for which they paid only a small annual rent; paid to colonists who paid their own way across the Atlantic
indentured servants
promised land at the moment of freedom but were usually cheated and became a member of the landless class in Virginia.
Mayflower Compact
an agreement to "covenant and combine our selves together into a civil body politick."
far-reaching instituational change wanted by these people in the Anglican church
the belief that the leaders of the church were wrong and that people were in charge of their own religion; Anne Hutchinson
believers of an extreme form of Antinomianism
well-integrated set of ideas about the nature of international commerce and a carefully planned set of mercantilist government policies to implement them; English
Marriage in the New England colonies
male average age :: mid-twenties

female average age :: twenty-two

started by courtships

women contributed dowry worth half of the bride-groom that was made up of money or household goods

men usually brought land to the marriage

men and women lived in commmunities with their parents and grandparents

marriage was usually between neighbors, lived less than thirteen miles apart
New England Churches and towns
consisted of families and not just individuals

families began to intermarry

churches began to focus more on particular lineage groups rather than the community as a whole
Half-Way Covenant (1662)
made in response to the children failing to give testimony to their own "election" and their desire to still have their own children baptized

allowed the grandchildren of persons in full communion to be baptized even if their parents could not demonstrate conversion.
New England Education
the families responsibilty

parents were to instruct their children on the principals of Christianity

both male and female children must be taught to read

towns with at least fifteen families had to open an elementary school supported by the local taxes

villages with at least a hundred families had to have more elite grammer schools with Latin being taught

most adult males could read and write
The New England Primer
first published in 1690 by Benjamin Harris in Boston

taught children the alphabet and the Lord's Prayer
established in 1638; an all male school

first institution of higher learning in the England mainland colonies

originally meant to train ministers

taught logic, rhetoric, divinity, and several ancient languauges such as Hebrew
established in 1702

also a religious school for males
Women in New England
worked on their family farms

cooked, washed, made clothes, took care of cows, and took care of gardening

raised poultry and sold them to achieve some economic independence

"deputy husbands"

joined churches in larger numbers than their male counterparts

had no control over property; could not sell land; husband could do with it as he pleased

divorce was hard to obtain before the American Revolution; options were to deal with it or run away
New England Social Hierarchy
no noblemen or paupers were attracted to New England in great numbers

it was not unusual for a coloniest to have worked as a servant at one point or another

children were servants that signed a contract for four or five years and were treated more as apprentices rather than servants; both children of the rich and poor worked as servants
Sumptuary Laws
limited the wearing of fine apparel to the wealthy and prominent
Chesapeake Environment
very high death rate due to the muggy and bad water
Chesapeake family life
didn't exist
Emigration to the Chesapeake
single individuals not nuclear families

70-85% were not free whites but were indetured servants under the headright system

most signed contracts for four to five years

Those under 15 usually signed for seven years

most who went to the Chesapeake were white males between 18 and 22


most died after arriving; malaria and other diseases; contaminated drinking water, salt in low lying areas
Death in the Chesapeake
Diseases and contaminated drinking water

life expectancy for a woman was even lower than men; men were about 43 years old

25% of children died in infancy

25% of the remaining children did not see adulthood

those that did survive were too weak and not suited for physical labor
Marriage in the Chesapeake
not enough women, (6 to 1)

women had to finish their terms of servitude before they were able to marry; childbearing years lost

one partner in marriage would usually die within seven years of marriage

only 1 in every 3 marriages lasted for ten years

as servants women were vulnerable to sexual exploitation by their masters

childbearing was extremely dangerous
Chesapeake planting society
class movement hard

tobacco produced an inequality in Chesapeake society

large fortunes were generated in Virginia and Maryland due to the ownership of non-free white labors and slaves
Races in the Chesapeake
black, white, and native american
Great planters of the Viginias and Maryland
were not noblemen; they were sons of merchants and artisans

invested in laborers

obtained huge tracts of the best tobacco-growing land

gave themselves military titles; did not possess titles that could be passed from one generation to the next

directed local church affairs (Anglican) as members of the vestry

gentry families eventually intermarried and created a vast network of cousins
Free men in the Chesapeake
the largest class

traveled to the new world as indentured servants' managed to stay alive until the end of their contracts

lived on the edge of poverty
Indentured servants in the Chesapeake
masters did not worry aobut food and clothing for the workers or if they acquired any trade skills with shuch to surviv after the contract was over; if they survived at all
majority and became the leaders of local Chesapeake governments after the 1680s

political and cultural stability

established William and Mary in 1693

Williamsburg built
Slaves in the Chesapeake
Key to success in Virginia and Maryland

were brought in to harvest rice, sugar, and tobacco after the Native Americans started dieing off and white servants were less and less in coming
Education systems in the Chesapeake
non-existant; sent to England or Scotland, those wealthy and healthy enough to afford it
Towns in the Chesapeake
none were established; traded directly with Europe
Jamestown (Williamsburg) and St. Mary's City (Annapolis)
only villages capable of sustaining a rich community life before the late eighteenth cnetury and were the centers of colonial government
Colonial slave history
most sold in Brazil or the Caribbean

planters preferred young males because of the hard physical labor

brought to America primarily because of economical reasons

first arrived in Virgina in 1619 transported by a Dutch trader, slaves stolen from a Spanish merchant ship in the Caribbean

some slaves were slaves for life, other were only held for a period of time with the ability to purchase their freedom

Some Africans in the seventeenth century became accomplished planters after purchasing their freedom

by the end of the seventeenth century all African slavers were slaves for life, as well as any children there after
Royal African Company (1672)
chartered to meet the colonial planters' demands for black laboreres

1695-1709, more than 11,000 Africans were sold in Virginia alone

British continued ot supply the bulk of slaves even after Americans entered into the slave trade in the eighteenth century

Mulattoes and pure Africans received the smae treatment
Stono Uprising
most serious slave rebellion of the colonial period

September 1739

150 South Carolina black slaves rose up and murdered several white planters with stolen guns and ammunition; marched towards Spanish Florida where freedom was promised to them; local militia overtook the slaves and killed most of them
John Norton
Massachuttess Congregational minister

1661; after 30 years had to be reminded of the political ties that bound them to the mother country
English neglect
colonies were left more or less alone by the Englishsh and their political leaders for they recieved no financial or military assistance from the government

Charles II in 1660 intervened and replaced the prior indifference
Adam Smith
Mercantilist system

Described Great Britain's commercial regulations

argued that it made little sense to exclude commercial competitors from their own colonial markets
Reasons for colonial commerce
king wanted money

English merchants wanted to exclude Dutch rivals from American markets and needed the government to help them do so

Landed gentry who sat in Parliamnet, England needed a stronger navy and they could provide the ships that were required

England should establish a trade balance
Navigation Act
passed by Parliament in 1660

most important piece of imperial legislation created before the American Revolution

no ship could trad ein the colonies unless it had been constructed in England or America and carried a crew that was at least 75% Englishmen (colonists counted as Englishmen in this case)

certain enumerated goods of great value that were not produced in England could be transported from the colonies only to England or another colonial port; tabacco, sugar, cotton, indigo, dye-woods, and ginger

rice and molasses added in 1704

rosins, tars, and turpentines used for shipbuilding were added in 1705

encouraged the development of domestic shipbuilding

prohibited Europena rivals from obtaining enumerated goods anywhere except in England

Americans had to pay import duties in England, this is why colonists did not count as Englishmen, on such things as sugar and tobacco; this legistlation thus provided another source of income for the crown.
Second Navigation Act
Passed by Parliament in 1663

Nothing could be imported into America unless it was first transported through England; with few exceptions

This greatly added to the price of products that colonial consumers could purchase
British reasons for the Navigation Acts
to attempt ot eliminate Dutch traders; with whom England had waged three wars

eliminate the middle man

New England merchant ships in Boston, Salem, and Newport became a new formindable world competitor in maritime commerce
Colonial feelings about the Navigation Acts
did not show enthusiasm

Virginians bitterly portested; hit small planters hard

New Englanders simply ignored the commercial regulations; found loop holes in the system
Navigation Act of 1673
Made by Parliament ot fill in the loop holes that were present in the first two acts

established a plantation duty

extended the jurisdiction of the London Customs Commissioners to America
The Lords of Trade
established by the Privy council in 1675

a powerful subcommitte that monitored colonial affairs
Edward Randolph
head of imperial customs services in New England

Dispateched to Boston in 1676

became the most hated man in Massachusetts during the late seveneenth century
Board of Trade
replaced the ineffective Lords of Trade in 1696 under the order of William III

expected to monitor colonial affairs closely and report back to officials with advice on commercial and other problems
Navigation Act of 1696
last major piece of imperial legislation was passed by Parliament

tightened enforcement procedures

put pressure on the colonial governors to keep the Dutch out of American ports

expanded the American customs service

set up vice-admiralty courts in the colonies
Chesapeake Social and Economical instability due to the Navigational Acts
Virginia's economy had suffered prolong depression due to the Navigation acts and the need to use hard currency (1660)

tabocco returnes had been bad and the acts only increased the problems (1660)

hurricans had destroyed a whole tobacco crop (1660)

dutch warships had captured the tobacco fleet right before it set sail for England (1667)

Sir William Berkely, governor of Virginia, and the House of Burgesses disfranchised all landless freemen; threat of social violence still remained (1670)

Indians attacked several plantations and killed some colonists; Virginias expected the governmor to send troops to retaliate (1675)

Berkeley called for a line of defensive forts; settlers believed the plan was expensive and would do nothing; Bacon stepped forward during this controversial time (1676)
Nathaniel Bacon
arrive din Virginia in 1674; member of a respectable English family; envied the government patronage monopolized by the Green Spring faction; not allowed to enter the fur trade, only friends of the governor could do that
Sir William Berkeley
Governor of Virginia; controversial; part of the Bacon Rebellion problem

Offered to lead a volunteer army against the Indians that attacked in 1675, wanted offical word from Berkeley that he could lead a military and had military command and the right to attack other Indians, not jus those who had attacked the Plantations; he was denied
Bacon's Rebellion
elite viewed it only as a war to gain access to the fur trade, not because people held rational complaints about the governor

Jamestown burned to the ground

Charles II dispatched 1,000 regular soldiers to Jamestown, but governor had already regained control

Bacon died in October 1676 after an illness; followers quickly dissipated
New England's increase in population toward the end of the seventeenth century is attributed to the fact that
New England Puritans apparently lived much longer than other colonists did.

New Englanders had the longest life expectancy in colonial America.
Education of the young during the colonial period was primarily a function of the

The family was the central social unit, particularly in Puritan New England.
In which activities or responsibilities could colonial women most likely take part in?
church activities

Women could and did take part in worship and even church government to some level.
Most farmers in the northern colonies belonged to which group?
yeoman or independent farmer

Most farmers belonged to a sort of "middle class" yeomen farmer class. They were independent farmers of modest means.
Most of the settlers of the Chesapeake region migrated as
indentured servants.
Most slaves brought across the Atlantic from Africa by slave traders were sold in which regions?
Brazil or the West Indies

Sugar cultivation pulled the largest percent of slaves to the West Indies and Brazil.
The British designed the mercantilist system primarily for
establishing commercial regulations throughout the empire.

The several Navigation Acts were intended to regulate the flow of trade in the empire to the benefit of the mother country.
The original response of most New Englanders toward the restrictions under the Navigation Acts was to
work around them as much as possible.

Smuggling became very popular in colonial ports.
The issue that started Bacon's Rebellion in Virginia was the
inability of the governor to control the Indians on the frontier effectively.

Bacon's original action was to raise a frontier militia to deal with a local Indian problem the governor and his council would not address.
To govern the northern colonies, James II created
the Dominion of New England.

The Dominion was an aborted effort to organize the empire after over a half century of settlement had already occurred.
Which of the following factors did not contribute to the hysteria over witchcraft in Salem during the early 1690s?

the refusal of the courts to accept "spectral evidence"

prevalent discrimination against women at the time

economic tensions

the choice of a minister for the parish
the refusal of the courts to accept "spectral evidence"
The main reason for the lack of development of towns in the Chesapeake region seems to have been the
dependence on a one-crop economy.
The uprising of Massachusetts Bay colonials in response to the Glorious Revolution was directed against the
administration of Governor Andros.
Regarding Christianity, most slaves in North America
accepted it as their own, but with their own cultural variations.
Until the middle of the seventeenth century, English political leaders
largely ignored the American colonies.
By the end of the seventeenth century, colonial Americans had become more, not less, English.

(True or False)
Those who came to the Chesapeake region enjoyed a longer life expectancy than those who settled in New England.

(True or False)
The first aristocrats of Virginia were mainly English gentry who immigrated to America.

(True or False)
Former indentured servants formed the largest social class of Chesapeake society.

(True or False)
By the 1660s, there was a significantly greater demand for slave labor in the Chesapeake colonies than there was in New England.

(True or False)
By 1700 at the latest, the status of slaves was determined, undeniably, by skin color.

(True or False)
The British mercantilist system for managing the empire was generally well thought out and organized.

(True or False)
Because of the Navigation Acts, smuggling of goods into America during the eighteenth century increased dramatically.

(True or False)
In the Chesapeake, an economy based almost entirely on the single commodity of __________ created an insatiable demand for indentured servants and Black slaves.
Because most colonists to New England migrated as members of __________, the shock of adjusting to a strange environment was lessened.
The best-selling book of seventeenth-century New England was Reverend Michael Wigglesworth's __________, a 1662 poem describing in terrifying detail the fate of sinners on Judgment Day.
The Day of Doom
The first institution of higher learning founded in England's mainland colonies was __________.
Until the end of the nineteenth century, the Creole language __________, which mixed English and African words, was spoken on some of the Sea Islands along the Georgia-South Carolina coast.
The term mercantilist system was coined by the famous eighteenth-century Scottish economist __________ to describe Great Britain's commercial regulations of her colonies
Adam Smith
To establish a more favorable balance of __________, a nation seeks to export more than it imports.
American colonists were rankled at the establishment in 1696 by England of __________ courts in America to try offenders of the Navigation Acts because such courts required neither juries nor oral cross-examination, both traditional elements of the common law.
In the midst of colonial political troubles, the Wampanoag Chief __________ declared war against the colonists in 1675.
The village of __________ was plunged into terror in the early 1690s when several adolescent girls began to behave in strange ways and announced they were victims of witches.
Leisler's Rebellion
In the aftermath of England's Glorious Revolution in 1688, Jacob Leisler seized control of New York's government. Although Leisler was executed as a traitor, his followers defended his memory against detractors well into the eighteenth century.
Jacob Leisler
seized control of the New York government in 1688; executed as a traitor
Indentured servants
individuals who agreed to serve a master for a set number of years in exchange for the cost of boat transport to America. Indentured servitude was the dominant form of labor in the Chesapeake colonies before slavery.
Parliamentary sovereignty
Principle that emphasized the power of Parliament to govern colonial affairs as the preeminent authority.
In the eighteenth century, the edge of settlement extending from western Pennsylvania to Georgia. This region formed the second frontier as settlers moved westward from the Atlantic coast into the nation's interior.
Throughout the conflict with Great Britain, many colonists sided with the king and Parliament. Also called Tories, these people feared that American liberty might promote social anarchyy.
Stamp Act Congress
Meeting of colonial delegates in New York City in October 1765 to protest the Stamp Act, a law passed by Parliament to raise revenue in America. The delegates drafted petitions denouncing the Stamp Act and other taxes imposed on Americans without colonial consent.
Bacon's Rebellion
An armed rebellion in Virginia (1675-1676) led by Nathaniel Bacon against the colony's royal governor, Sir William Berkeley. Although some of his followers called for an end of special privilege in government, Bacon was chiefly interested in gaining a larger share of the lucrative Indian trade.
Navigation Acts
A series of commercial restrictions passed by Parliament intended to regulate colonial commerce in such a way to favor England's accumulation of wealth.
Seven Year's War
Worldwide conflict (1756-1763) that pitted Britain against France for control of North America. With help from American colonists, the British won the war and eliminated France as a power in the North American continent. Also known in America as the French and Indian War.
Coercive Acts
Also known as the Intolerable Acts, the four pieces of legislation passed by Parliament in 1774 in response to the Boston Tea Party were meant to punish the colonies.
Boston Massacre
A violent confrontation between British troops and a Boston mob on 5 March 1770. Five citizens were killed when troops fired into the crowd. The incident inflamed anti-British sentiment in Massachusetts.
itinerant preachers
Traveling revivalist ministers of the Great Awakening movement. These charismatic preachers spread revivalism throughout America.
Common Sense
Revolutionary tract written by Thomas Paine in January 1776. It called for independence and the establishment of a republican governmnet in America.
virtual representation
Notion that although colonists had not elected members to Parliament, they were nonetheless represented by it. Espoused by British leaders, this claim countered colonists' argument that thye had no voice in Parliament and therefore were being taxed without proper representation.
Albany Plan
Plan of inter-colonial coooperation proposed by prominent colonists including Benjamin Franklin at a conference in Albany, New York, in 1754. The plan envisioned the formation of a Grand Council of elected delegates from the colonies that would have powers to tax and provide for the common defense. It was rejected by the colonial and British governmnets, but was a prototype for colonial union.
Philosophical and intellectual movement that began in Europe during the eighteenth century. It stressed the application of reason to solve social and scientific problems.
Great Awakening
Widespread evangelical religious revival movement of the mid-1700s. The movement divided congregations and weakened the authority of established churches in the colonies.
First Continental Congress
A meeting of delegates from twelve colonies in Philadelphia in 1774, the Congress denied Parliament's authority to legislate for the colonis, condemned British actions toward the colonies, created the Continental Association, and endorsed a call to take up arms.
committee of correspondence
Vast communication netweork formed in Massachusetss and other colonies to communicate grievances and provide colonists with evidence of British oppression.
Second Continental Congress
This meeting took place in Philadelphia in May 1775, in the midst of rapidly unfolding military events. It organized the Contiental Army and commissioned George Washington to lead it, then began requisitioning men and supplies for the war effort.
During their controversy with Britiain over taxation, the colonists devised a strategy of political resistance in which they boycotted a wide range of British imported goods to put economic pressure on Britain. The cooperative effort promoted mutual trust among the colonists and strengthened their resistance to the British measures.
enumerated goods
Certain essential raw materials produced in the North American colonies, such as tobacco, sugar, and rice specified in the Navigation Acts, which stipulated that thses goods could be shipped only to England or its colonies.
spectral evidence
In the Salem witch trial, the court allowed reports of dreams and visions in which the accused appeared as the devil's agent to be introduced as testimony. The accused had no defense against this kind of "evidence." When the judges later disallowed this testimony, the executions for witchcraft ended.
An economic theory that shaped imperial policy throught the colonial period, mercantilism was built on the assumption that the world's wealth was a fixed supply. In order to incrase its wealth, a nation needed to export more goods than it imported. Favorable trade and protective economic policies, as well as new colonial possessions rich in raw materials, were important in achieving this balance.
Most Scots-Irish immigrants to America settled in

Most Scotch-Irish originally settled in Pennsylvania, then many migrated southward into the backcountry of Virginia and the southern colonies.
Most Germans who settled in the Middle Colonies came to America primarily in search of
land of their own.

Like most colonial immigrants, most Germans came hoping to become landowners.
The oldest permanent European settlement in what is now the United States is
St. Augustine, Florida.

The Spanish founded St. Augustine in 1565.
Colonists who clustered along the Atlantic coastal cities in the mid-eighteenth century
were culturally very similar to the English.

were culturally very similar to the English.
The balance of trade between England and the colonies had turned so much to England's favor by the mid-eighteenth century chiefly because
industrialization allowed England to sell a greater quantity of consumer goods at cheaper prices to American buyers.

Mass produced manufactured goods from England sold more cheaply in the colonies than colonial manufactures; the massive import of English goods (more costly than the raw materials colonists sold in return) created the serious imbalance of trade.
As a product of the Enlightenment, Benjamin Franklin
constantly pursued his numerous curiosities until they yielded new and practical ideas that were quite usable.

Use was the vital criteria in Franklin's judgment of the value of an idea.
Jonathan Edwards preached that
God was omnipotent and the eternal fate of helpless individuals was determined at their birth.

Like his Calvinist forebears, Edwards preached a doctrine of predestination.
Royal governors were usually
appointed by the king.

Royal governors served at the will of the monarch.
Members of colonial assemblies perceived it their most important duty to
preserve colonial liberties against any attack or intrusion.

In the tradition of the Commonwealthmen, colonial assemblymen viewed their primary purpose as vigilantly defending colonists' rights and liberties.
Benjamin Franklin's purpose in developing the Albany Plan was to
organize a council of delegates from the separate colonies to coordinate common defense and western expansion.

This was Franklin's purpose, but neither the colonies nor Parliament thought it such a good idea, and it was rejected.
The English constitution
was a cumulative body of laws, statutes, and court decisions.
The Peace of Paris in 1763
gave Britain title to Canada, Florida, and all the land east of the Mississippi River.
Native Americans of the middle ground
sought to maintain a strong, independent role in commercial exchange with Europeans.
Colonial commerce by the mid-eighteenth century
helped to "anglicize" American culture by exposing colonists to large amounts of British products.
Enlightenment philosophers claimed that
humans could achieve perfection in this world through the appeal to reason.

In the eighteenth century, Spain's North American frontier was more sparsely populated than the English colonies along the Atlantic seaboard.

Spain's settlements in what is now the American Southwest never did grow very large and were always vulnerable to Indian attack or intrusion by foreigners.

A much larger percentage of the colonial population lived in cities by 1750 than on isolated farms.

Over 90 percent of American colonists lived on farms in 1750.

Because of the rapid increase in colonial population, the economy could not keep pace and there was a noticeable decline in per capita income throughout the 1700s.

The standard of living measured by per capita income steadily rose throughout the eighteenth century.

One basic assumption shared by most Enlightenment philosophers was that humans by nature were weak and easily corruptible.

These thinkers believed that perfection in the human species was possible.

Although popular among New England Puritans, the Great Awakening failed to attract much support from other denominations.

The Great Awakening enjoyed popular support throughout the colonies and from virtually every denomination.

The Great Awakening produced a renewed respect for traditional figures of authority in the colonies.

One legacy of the Great Awakening was a reduced respect for institutions of authority.

As the names imply, the House of Commons and House of Lords represented people of distinctly different socioeconomic groups in England.

Virtually all members of both houses of Parliament were men of considerable wealth.

Although most colonists assumed that their colonial governments were modeled after Britain's, there were, in reality, very few similarities.

Differences far outnumbered similarities, beginning with the fact that 80 percent of colonial males could vote while only 20 percent of British males could vote.

The royal governors serving in the colonies possessed no real powers other than those bestowed upon them by the colonial assemblies.

Royal governors received their power from the British monarch who appointed them. Assemblies did find ways to limit the exercise of those powers.
After the gentry initiated the American rebellion, the common folk
took for themselves a greater role in public affairs.

Common people became more active in resistance against British policies and remained more active in politics thereafter.
In disputes with the colonies, Parliament demonstrated
ignorance and misunderstanding of American conditions.

Few members of Parliament knew anything about the colonies, nor did most of their affairs deal with colonial issues.
The American moral perspective on government originated in
the Great Awakening and the Commonwealth traditions.

Americans looked to these sources that suggested the legitimacy of resisting authority in defense of one's individual liberties.
When the British left troops in America following the Seven Years' War, colonists
opposed the redcoats for obstructing economic development.

Colonists saw the redcoats as a barrier to their own development of the trans-Appalachian West.
The Sugar Act differed from earlier regulations such as the Navigation Acts in what way?
It taxed for the purpose of collecting revenue from the Americans.

All previous Navigation Acts had been designed to regulate trade only, not to raise revenue in America.
Which of the following did NOT occur as part of the Stamp Act crisis?

A Stamp Act Congress drew together colonial leaders from different regions.

Patrick Henry denounced British taxation with his Virginia Resolves.

Resistance drew many common folk into significant political action, including street violence.

Massachusetts reacted so bitterly that the British imposed the Coercive or Intolerable Acts.

All of the choices occurred as part of the Stamp Act crisis.
Massachusetts reacted so bitterly that the British imposed the Coercive or Intolerable Acts.

This Parliamentary legislation was imposed following resistance to the Tea Act in 1773, not to the 1765 Stamp Act.
While repealing the Townshend duties, Lord North's ministry retained a tax on tea to
symbolize Parliament's power to tax Americans.

Like the Declaratory Act that followed repeal of the Stamp Act, retaining the tax on tea was intended as an expression of Parliament's supremacy over the colonies.
With Common Sense, Thomas Paine persuaded many Americans to
sever their ties with the British.

"Common Sense" called for Americans to seek their independence.
Many of the American Loyalists fled their homeland to settle in London where
they were treated as second-class citizens.

Loyalists fled persecution in America only to be sneered at by the English.
In negotiating the Treaty of Paris (1783) to end the Revolutionary War, the American delegation
proved effective and gained much more than independence.

The three American ministers who negotiated the treaty gained independence and the cession of British territory all the way west to the Mississippi River.
The British southern strategy set off a ferocious conflict between
American troops and Tory raiders.
Washington's wartime strategy was shaped by his decision to
maintain a regular, well-trained army.
The Continental Congress called in response to the Coercive Acts established the Association to
cut off all trade with Great Britain
list events in a correct chronological order Boston Massacre, Coercive Acts, Townshend duties, Boston Tea Party
Townshend duties, Boston Massacre, Boston Tea Party, Coercive Acts
What was not an important military problem for the British?
poorly disciplined and inadequately trained troops