Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

80 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Describe the charge of the neuron during hte resting potential.
Positive Outside
Negative Inside
What is the reuptake?
Sending neuron normally reabsorbs excess neurotransmitter molecules
What does acetylcholine enable?
Muslce action, learning, and memory
What can an undersupply of acetylcholine lead to?
Alzheimer's dsease
What is curare?
Poison used on S. American darts that blocks ACh receptor sites
How does botulin cause paralysis?
Blocks ACh release
What dopamine influence?
Movement, learning, attention, and emotion
What is excess dopaminie linked to?
What does a lack of dopamine lead to?
Tremors and decreased mobility associated with Parkinson's disease
What does serotonin affect?
Mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal
What is an undersupply of seratonin linked to?
What does norepinephrine help control?
Alertness and arousal
Can can an undersupply of norepinephrine lead to?
Depressed mood
What is GABA?
Inhibitory neurotransmitter; undersupply is linked to seizures, tremors, and insomnia
What is glutamate?
Excitatory neurotransmitter; involved in memory; oversuppply can overstimulate he brain, producing migraines or seizures
What do agonist do?
Excite by mimicing neurotransmitters
What do antagonists do?
Inhibit by blocking neurotransmitter receptor sites
What are the two components of the peripheral nervous system?
Somatic and autonomic
What does the symphathetic division of the autonomic nervous system do?
Arouses us for defensive action
What does the parasympathetic division of hte autonomic nervous system do?
Produces a calming effect
What are neural networks?
Interconnected neural cells
What controls the pituitary gland?
What do the parathyroids control?
Help regulate the level of calcium in the blood
What is hte oldest method of stuyding brain-mind connections?
Clinical observation
What is an electroencephalogram, (EEG)?
An amplified recording of waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface; measured by electrodes placed on the scalp
What is a CT, (computed tomography), scan?
Examines the brain by taking a series of x-ray phoographs from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice through the body; can reveal brain damage
What is a PET, (positron emission tomography), scan?
Depicts brain activity by showing each brain area's consumption of glucose
What is an MRI, (magnetic resonance imaging)?
Uses magnetic fields and raido waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissues; allows us to see structures within the brain
What is a functional MRI?
Reveals when things happen, how the brain areas chhange with experience, and what brain areas work together; for example, detects blood rushing to the back fo the brain,w hich processes visual information;
What type of scan shows that different brain areas light up when people silently say the name of an animal than when they say that of a tool?
PET scan
What type of scan reveals larger-than-average neural areas in the left brain of musicians who display perfect pitch?
MRI scans
What type of scan reveals that second languages are represented in the same are aas the first if learned early and in differeing areas if learned late?
MRI scan
What type of scan reveals that during a rhyming task, men's brains have a distinctively active left brain area, whereas women's brains are active on both sides
Functional MRI
What does the medulla control?
Heartbeat and breathing
What is the reticular formation?
Nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal.
What transmits information to the reticular formation?
What does the thalams control?
Coordinates the brain's electrical oscillations, which slow during sleep and speed up to produce waking consciousness; sensory "relay station"
Describe the cerebellum.
"little brain;" enables one type of nonverbal learning and memory; coordinates voluntary movement
Does our brain process most information inside or outside our awareness?
What is the limbic system?
Donut-shaped system of neural structures at te border of the brain stem and cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions, such as fear and aggression and drives those for food and sex; includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus
What organs belong to the limbic system?
Hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus
What does the hippocampus do?
Essential to memory processing
What does the amygdala influence?
Aggression and fear
What does the hypothalamus influence?
Hunger, thirs, body temperature, and sexual behavior; monitors blood chemistry and takes order from other parts of the brain; provides a pleasurable reward, (reward center)
What part of the brain serves as a reward center?
What is one theory on addictive disorders?
Addictive disorders stem from a reward deficiency syndrome - a genetically disposed defficiency in the natural brain systems for pleasure that leads peopel to crave whatever provides that missing pleasure to relieve negative feelings
Describe the frontal lobes.
Involved in speaking, muscle movements, making plans, and judgments
What lobes are involved in speaking, muscle movements, making plans, and judgments?
Front lobes
Describe the pareital lobes.
Includes sensory cortex
What lobes include the sensory cortex?
Pareital lobes
Describe the temporal lobes.
Receives auditory information
Describe the motor cortex.
Located in back of frontal lobe; controls opposite side of the body
Where is the motor cortex located?
In back of the frontal lobe
Describe Broca's area.
Controls language expression, (area in frontal lobe in the left hemisphere that directs muscle movements involved in speech)
Where is Broca's area loctaed
Frontal lobe in the left hemisphere
Describe Wernicke's area.
Controls language reception; usually in left temporal lobe
Where is Wernicke's area located?
Left temporal lobe
Describe the angular gyrus?
Transforms visual representations into an auditory code
Describe the 5 steps of cognition whne you read aloud.
1. Register in visual area; 2. relayed to angular gyrus; 3. received and understood in Wernicke's area; 4. sent to Broca's area, which 5. controls motor cortex as it creates the pronounced word
Describe what happens when split brain patients are shown the word HE-ART.
ART appears in the left visula field an dART in their right field; said they saw ART and pointed to HE
When a picture of a spoon is flashed in the right hemisphere of a split-brained pateitn, how did they respond?
Patients could not say what they had seend, but when asked to identify what they had viewed yb feelin an assortment of hiddne objects iwth their left hand, they selected the spoon
Describe the cognitive interaction in split-brain patients.
Left hemisphere is talking, bewildered by what the nonverbal right hemisphere knows; it is as if an order sent to the right hemisphere as "walk" is interpreted by theh left hemisphere as a ready explanation, "I'm going into the house to get a Coke," so conscious left hemisphere is an interpreter and instantly constructs theories to explain our behavior
What percent of people are right-handed?
What fraction of left-handers process speech in the left hemisphere?
How many nucleotides "letters" are on the smallest chromosome, (Y)?
50 million
How many nucleotide "letters" are on the largest chromosome?
250 million
What are gene complexes?
Many genes acting in concert
Is the average difference between individuals of the same culture greater or less than that between the two different cultures holistically?
Do cultures with gender equality have larger or smaller differences in gender preferences and mating?
Is religion influenced by parenting?
What is temperament?
Person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
Define heritability.
The proportion of variation among individuals that we can atrribute to genes
If the heritability of intelligence is 50%, does that mean that your intelligence is 50% genetic?
No, it means that we can attribute to genetic influence 50% of the observed variation among people; refers to the extent to which difference among people are attributed to genes
As environments become more similar, does heredity as a source of differences become more important or less important?
More important
How does parenting influence a child?
Accounts for less than 10% of a child's personality, but more for beliefs and values
What are norms?
Rules for accepted and expected behavior
What are memes?
Self-replicating cultural mutations; memes may be true or uplifint, (arithmetic, Bach's mucsic), neutral, new pronunciations), or false, (alien abduction reports)
What is the social-learning theory?
Rewards and punishments and observation and imitation of models leads to gender-typed behavior
What is the gender schema theory?
cultural learning of gender --- gender schema, (looking at self and world through a gender "lens" -- gender-organized thinking and gender-typed behavior
What does gender schema mean?
Looking at self and world through a gender "lens"