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440 Cards in this Set

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What are the two layers of the serous membrane? (2)
(1)visceral layer (2)parietal layer
NAME
are made up of two layers:the visceral layer and the parietal layer
serous membrane
What is the visceral layer?
covers the organs
What is the parietal layer?
attaches to and covers the ventral body wall
NAME
covers the organs
visceral layer
NAME
attaches to and covers the ventral body wall
parietal layer
What is the differ btwn the pateital layer and visceral layer?
(1)parietal layer-attaches to and covers the ventral body wall (2)visceral layer-covers the organ
What is serous fluid?
is clear, watery fluid that prevents the friction as the organs move with/in the ventral body cavity
NAME
is clear , watery fluid that prevents the friction as the organs move with/in the ventral body cavity
serous fluid
What are serous membranes named for?
the cavities they surround
What is the pluera?
covers the lungs
NAME
covers the lungs
pleura
What is the peritoneum?
the serous membrane that covers the abdominal organs
NAME
is the serous membrane that covers the abdominal organs
peritoneum
What is the pericardium?
covers the heart
NAME
covers the heart
pericardium
What are the three different thoaracic serous memebranes?
(1)pleura (2)pericardium (3)peritoneum
what is retro mean?
backward
NAME
means backward
retro
What is retroperitoneal?
are a few organs that are located posterior to the peritoneum
NAME
are a few oragns that are located posterior to the peritoneum
retroperitoneal
What is mesentery?
encircles and holds the small intestine to the dorsal body cavity wall
NAME
encircles and holds the small intestine to the dorsal body cavity wall
mesentery
What is greater omentum?
is suspended from the inferior portion of the stomach and covers the intestines
NAME
is suspended from the inferior portion of the stomach and covers the intestines
greater omentum
What is the lesser omentum?
suspends the superior portion of the stomach and liver
NAME
suspends the superior portion of the stomach and liver
lesser omentum
What are the differ parts of the axial skeletion? (10)
(1)skull (2)thoracic cage (3)coccyx (4)sacrum (5)intervertebral discs (6)verterbrae (7)ribs (8)sternum (9)costal cartilages (10)verterbral columumn
the sternum is (1) to the vertebrae
anterior
the orbit is (1) to the oral cavity
superior
the heart is (1) to the lungs
medial
the carpus is (1) to the brachium
distal
the right lung and the right kindey are (1)
lateral
the skin (1) to the bones
superficial
What is the clavicle?
the collar bone
NAME
refers to the collar bone
clavicle
What is the scapula?
refers the bones in your shoulder blade
NAME
refers to the bones in your shoulder blade
scapula
How many bones are in your hands?
27
What is the humerus?
the arm bone
NAME
refers to the arm bone
humerus
What is ulna?
is the medial bone of the forearm
NAME
is the medial bone of the forearm
ulna
What is the radius?
is the lateral bone of the forearm
NAME
is the lateral bone of the forearm
radius
What is the carpus?
refers to the bones in your wrist
NAME
refers to the bones in your wrist
carpus
What is the metacarpus?
refers to the bones in the palm of your hand
NAME
refers to the bones in your palm of your hand
metacarpus
What are the phalanges?
refers to the bones in your fingers
NAME
refers to the bones in your fingers
phalanges
What are the two bones of the pelvis gridle?
(1)Os coxae
What does os coaxe mean?
hip bones
NAME
refers to the hip bones
os coaxe
What is the femur?
is the thigh bone
NAME
is the thigh bone
femur
What is the Patella?
refers to the bones in the knee cap
NAME
refers to the bones in your knee cap
Patella
What is the tibia?
is the weight bearing leg bone
NAME
refers to the weight bearing leg bone
tibia
What is the fibula?
refers to the leg bone
NAME
refers to the leg bone that is important for muscle attachment
fibula
NAME
is the weight bearing bone of the two leg bones
tibia
What is the largest and strongest bone in the human skeleton ?
femur
the femur is the (1) and (2) bone in the human skeleton
(1)largest (2)strongest
What is tarsus?
refers to the bones in ankle
NAME
refers to the bones in the ankle
tarsus
What are the matatarsus?
are the five bones btwn the tarsus and phalanges bones in the foot
NAME
are the five bones btwn the tarsus and phalanges bones in the foot
matatarsus
What are the phalanges?
are the bones in your toes
NAME
are the bones in your toes
phalanges
What is the largest tarsal bone?
calcaneus
Calacaneus is the (1)
largest tarsal bone
What is the calcaneus?
is your heel bone
NAME
is your heel bone
calcaneus
What are the different types of epithelium cells in which the classifaction is based on the number of layers? (2)
(1)simple (2)strafied
Simple and strafied epithelia cells are classfied based on their (1)
number of layers
Squamous, cuboidal, and columnar epithelia cells are classfied on the (1)
basis on thier cell shape
What are the different types of epithelium cells that are classfied acording to thier cell shape? (3)
(1)squamous (2)cuboidal (3)columnar
What is a simple epithelia cell?
has a single layer
What is a strafied epithelia cell?
is composed of 2 or more cell layers stacked on top of the other
NAME THIS TISSUE CELL
is composed of 2 or more cell layers stacked on top of the other
strafied epithelia
NAME THIS TISSUE CELL
has a single layer
simple epithelia cell
What are squamous epithelia cells?
are cells that are flattened and scalelike
NAME THIS TISSUE CELL
are cells that are flattened and scalelike
sqaumous epithelia
What are cubiodal epithelia cells?
are boxlike
NAME THIS TISSUE CELL
these cellsa are boxlike
cubiodal epithelia cells
NAME THIS TISSUE CELL
are tall and columnar shaped
columnar epithelia cells
What are columnar epithelia cells?
are tall and columnar shaped
What do each othe two names of the epithelium mean?

for ex: simple columnar epithelia
(1)first part= the number of cell layers present

(2)secound part= the shape of the cells
What is pseudostrafied epithelia mean?
has single layers of cells of differing hieghts
NAME THIS TISSUE CELL
has a single layer of cells of differing heights
pseudostrafied
What are transitional epithelia cells?
are cells that have both strafied and squamous chartersitcs
NAME THIS TISSUE CELL
are cells that have both strafied and squamous characterics
transitional epithelia cells
What are areolar loose connective tissue proper?
is a gel-like matrix w all 3 types of fibers
NAME TISSUE
is a gel-like matrix w all 3 types of fibers
areolar loose connective tissue
What is adipose connective tissue proper?
is martix that is very sparse and has fat cells
NAME TISSUE
is a matrix that is very sparse and has fat cells
adipose connective tissue proper
What is dense reg connective tissue?
has parellel collagen fibers
NAME TISSUE
has parellel collagen fibers
dense regular connective tissue
NAME TISSUE
this tissue can w/stand great tensile stress when pulling force is applied in one direction
dense regular connective tissue proper
Dense regular connective tissue can w/stand great (1)
tensile stress when pulling force is applied in one direction
NAME TISSUE
has irregularly arranged collagen fibers
dense irregular connective tissue
What is dense irregular connective tissue?
has irregularly arranged collagen fibers
How many bones are in the adult body?
206 bones
NAME TISSUE
can w.stand tension exerted in many directions
dense irregular connective tissue proper
dense irregular connective tissue proper can w/ stand (1)
tensions exerted in many directions
What is the general role of epitehlia tissue?
covering
NAME TISSUE
the general role of this tissue is covering
epithelia
What is the general role of connective tissue?
support
NAME TISSUE
the general role of this tissue is support
connective tissue
What is the general role of muscle tissue?
movement
NAME TISSUE
the general role of this tissue is movement
muscle
NAME TISSUE
the general role of this tissue is control
nervou tissue
What is the general role of nervous tissue?
control
What are the four primary tissues?
(1)epithelial (2)connective (3)muscle (4)nervous
What is a muscle?
a organ
NAME
is a organ
muscle
What is a fasicicle?
a portion of the muscle
NAME
a portion of the muscle
fascicle
What is a muscle fiber?
is muscle cell
NAME
is a muscle cell
muscle fiber
What is a myofibril or fibril?
is a complex organelle composed of bundles of myofilaments
NAME
is a complex organelle composed of bundles of myofilaments
myofibril or fibril
What is sarcomere?
is a segement of myofibril
NAME
is a segement of myofibril
sarcomere
What is myofilament?
exteneded macromolecular structure
NAME
is extended macromolecular structure
myofilament
Muscles are covered externally by the (1)
epimysium
(1) are covered externally by the epimysium
muscles
Fascicle is surrounded by a (1)
perimysium
(1) is surrounded by a perimysium
fascicle
A muscle fiber is surrounded by (1)
endomysium
A (1)is surrounded by endomysium
muscle fiber
NAME MUSCLE
is attached to bone or to the skin
skeletal
NAME MUSCLE
is single very long cylindrical multinucleate cells w very obvisous striations
skeletal
NAME MUSCLE
its three connective tissue components are epimyisum, perimysium, and endmysium
skeletal
NAME MUSCLE
has myofibrils composed of saromeres
skeletal
NAME MUSCLE
can be found in the walls of the heart
cardiac
NAME MUSCLE
has branching of cells, and uni-binucleate and striations
cardiac
NAME MUSCLE
has endomysium attached to fibrous skeletlon of heart
cardiac
NAME MUSCLE
has myofibrils that are of irregular thickness
cardiac
NAME MUSCLE
has no gap junctions
skeletal
NAME MUSCLE (2)
the site of Ca regulation is at the troponin on actin contaning thin filaments
sketeal and cardiac
NAME MUSCLE
the speed of contraction is from slow to fast
skeletal
NAME MUSCLE
the speed of contraction is slow
cardiac
NAME MUSCLE
the speed of contraction is very slow
smooth
NAME MUSCLE
is a single unit muscle in the walls of hollow visercal organs, is also a multiunit muscle in the intrisnic eye muscles
smooth
NAME MUSCLE
is single fusiform, uninucleate,and has no striations
smooth
NAME MUSCLE
its connective tissue components are the endomysium
smooth
NAME MUSCLE
has no T tubules
smooth
NAME MUSCLE
has one tubules in each sarcomere at Z disc
cardiac
NAME MUSCLE
has two tubules in each sarcomere at A-I junctions
skeletal
Skeletal muscles are (1)
voluntary
What are four chracteristic of all muscles? (4)
(1)exictability (2)contractility (3)extensibility (4)elasticity
What are the four functions of muscles?
(1)produce movement (2)maintaining posture (3)stablizing joints (4)generating heat
What are the three connective tissue sheaths of the skeletal muscles/
(1)endomysium (2)perimysium and fascicles (3)epimysium
What is sarocplasm?
part of muscle fiber that is similar to the cytoplasm of other cells but contains large amounts of glycosomes
NAME
is part of muscle fiber that is similar to the cytoplasm of other ells but contains large amounts of glycosomes
sacroplasm
What is myoglobin?
is a pigament that stores oxygen
NAME
is a pigment that stores oxygen
myoglobin
What are striations?
are repeating series of dark A bands and light I bands
NAME
are repeating series of dark A bands and light I bands
striations
A band has lighter stripe in its midsection called (1)
H zone
What is a H zone?
is a ligher stripe in the midsection of the A band
When are H zones visible?
only when the muscle is relaxed
(1) zones are only visible when the muscle is relaxed
H zones
What is the M line?
is a dark line that bisectes the H zone vertically
NAME
is a dark line that biscets the H zone vertically
M line
What is the Z disc?
is a dark area that intterpets the I band in the middle section
NAME
is a dark area that interputs the I band in the middle section
Z disc
What are thick filaments?
extend the entire length of the A band
NAME
extend the lengh of the A band
thick filaments
What are thin filaments?
extend across the I band and partway into the A band
NAME
extend across the I band partway into the A band
thin filaments
What protien makes the Z disc?
nebulin
What is nebulin?
a protien that makes up the Z disc
What are thin filaments made up of?
actin
NAME
are made up of actin
thin filaments
What are G actin?
are subunits of actin
What does G actin stand for?
globular actin
NAME
are subunits of actin
G actin
What is F actin?
are long G actin monomers that are polymerized into long actin filaments
NAME
are long G actin monomer that are polymerized into long actin filaments
F actin
What is tropomyosin?
are rod shaped protiens that spiral about the actin and core and help to stiffin it
NAME
are rod shaped protiens that spiral about the actin and core and help to stiffin it
tropmyosin
What is troponin?
is another major protien of thin filaments
What is troponin?
is a three polypeptide complex that is major protin in a thin filament
NAME
is a three polypeptide complex that is major proien in a thin filament
troponin
What are the (3) polypeptide complexes of troponin?
(1)TnI (2)TnT (3)TnC
NAME
is made up of TnI, TnT,and TnC
troponin
What is TnI?
is an inhibitory subunit that binds to actin
NAME
is an inhibitory subunit that binds to actin
TnI
What is TnT?
binds to tropomyosin and helps to postion actin
NAME
binds to tropmyosin and helps to postion actin
TnT
What is TnC?
binds to Ca
NAME
binds to Ca
TnC
What are elastic filaments?
are composed of titin
NAME
are composed of the protein titin
elastic filaments
What are the two basic functions of titin?
(1)holding the thick filaments in place thus maintaining the organization of the A band (2)assisting the muscle cell to spring back into shape after being streched
NAME
holding the thick filaments in place thus maintaing the organization of the A band and assisting the muscle cell to spring back into shape after being streched
titin
What are T tubules?
is the sarcolemma of the muscle cell penetrates into the cell interior to form an elongated tube that is at each A band-I band junction
NAME
is the sarcolemma of the muscle cell penetrates into the cell interior to form an elongated tube that is at each A band-I band junction
T tubules
What is synaptic cleft?
is a gel-like extracellular substance rich in glycoprotiens
NAME
is a gel-like extracellular substance rich in glycoproteins
synaptic cleft
What are synaptic vesicles?
are small membranous sacs containing the neurotransmitter ACh
NAME
are small memranous sacs containing the neurotransmitter ACh
synaptic vesicles
What does ACh stand for?
acetycholine
What is acetylcholinesterase?
is responsible for after ACh binds to ACh receptors, breaking down its building blocks to acetic acid and choline
NAME
is responsible for after ACh binds to ACh receptors, breaking it down its building blocks to acetic acid and choline
acetylcholinesterse
What does GH stand for?
growth hormone
What does TSH stand for?
thryoid stimulating horomone
What does ACTH stand for?
adrencortiotropic hormone
WHat does FSH stand for?
follicle stimulating hormone
What specfic events stimulates GHRH? (6)
(1) low blood level of GH

as well as by a number of secoundary triggers including

(2)estrogens,(3) hypoglycemia,(4) increases in blood levels of amino acids,(5) excerise (6) other types of stressers
NAME
is stimulated by GHRH releases which is triggered by low blood level of GH as well as by a number of secoundary triggers including estrogens, hypoglycemia, increases in blood levels of amino acids, excerise, and other types of stressers
GH
What inhibits GH? (all cases)(5)
is inhibited by feedback inhibition excereted by GH and IGF's (2)hyperglycemia (3)hyperlipidemia(4) obesity (5)emotional deprivation all of which elicit GHIH release
NAME
is inhibited by feedback inhibition excereted by GH and IGF's and by hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, obesity and emotional deprivation all of which elicit GHIH release
GH
What specifcally stimiulates the release of TSH? include indirectly as well (3)
is stimulated by TRH and indirectly by (2)pregrancy (3) cold temperature
NAME HORMONE
is stimulated by TRH and indirectly by pregrancy and cold temperatures
TSH
What is TSH inhibited by? (specfically) (2)
is inhibited by feedback inhibittion exerted by throid hormones on anterior pituritary and hypothalamus (2)GHIH
NAME
is inhibited by feedback inhibittion exerted by throid hormones on anterior pituritary and hypothalamus and by GHIH
TSH
What specfic events can trigger the release of CRH? (3)
(1)fever (2) hypoglycemia (3)other stressers
NAME
is stimulated by CRH stimuli that increases CRH release include fever, hypoglycemia, and other stressers
ACTH
What inhibits ACTH?
feedback inhibition exerted byglucocorticoids
NAME
is ihhibited by feedback inhibition exerted by glucocorticoids
ACTH
What stimulates FSH?
GnRH
NAME HORMONE
is stimulated by GnRH
FSH
What inhibits FSH? (2)
feedback inhibitation exerted by estrogen in females (2) testosterone and inhibion in males
NAME
is inhibited by feedback inhibition exerted by estrogen in females and testosterone and inhibition in males
FSH
NAME HORMONE
its target organs are liver, muscle, bone, cartilage, and other tissue
GH
What does the GH do? (3)
stimulates somatic (2) growth, moblizes fats, (3)spares glucose
NAME HORMONE
stimulates somatic growth, moblizes fats, and spares glucose
GH
NAME HORMONE
it's target organ is the adrenal cortex
ACTH
What organ does TH target?
thyroid gland
What does ACTH do?
promotes release of glucocorticoids and andregoens
NAME
promotes release of glucocorticoids and androgens
ACTH
What organs do FSH target?
ovaries and testes
NAME HORMONE
target the ovaries and testes
FSH
What does FSH do?
stimulates ovarian follicle maturation and estrogen and estrogen production (2)in males, stimulates sperm production
NAME HORMONE
in females stimulates ovarian follicle maturation and estrogen production and in males, stimulates sperm production
FSH
What does LH stand for?
Lutenizing hormone
What does PRL stand for?
prolactin
What does ADH stand for?
Antidiuretic hormone or vasopressin
What does hyposecretion mean?
not enough secertion of a particular hormone
NAME
means thier is not enough secretion of particular hormone
hyposecretion
What is hypersecretion?
is when thier is to much secretion of a particular hormone
NAME
is when thier is to much secretion of a particular homrone
hypersecretion
NAME HORMONE
hyposecretion of this hormone will result in pitutiary dwarfism in children
GH
What will happen if thier hyposecretion of GH?
pituitary dwarfism in children
NAME HORMONE
if there is hypersecretion of this hormone, it will result in gigantism in childrin
GH
What will happen in their is hyperserection of GH?
it will result in gigantism in children
NAME HORMONE
hyposercetion of this hormone will result in cretinism in children and mysecdema in adults
TSH
What will happen if thier is hyposecretion of TSH?
cretinism in children and mysecdema in adults
What will happen if thier is hypersecretion of TSH?
graves disease
NAME HORMONE
the hypersecretion of this hormone will restult in Grave's disease
TSH
What will result if thier is a hypersecretion of ACTH?
crushing's disease
NAME HORMONE
the hypersecretion of this hormone will result in Crushing's disease
ACTH
What will happen if their is a hyposecretion of FSH?
failure of sexual maturation
NAME HORMONE
if thier is hyposecretion of this hormone, it will result in the failure of sexual maturation
FSH
NAME HORMONE
if thier is a hypersecretion of this hormone, it will result in no important effects
FSH
What will happen if thier is a hypersecretion of FSH?
no important effects
What are erythrocytes?
red blood cells
NAME
are red blood cells
erythocytes
What are leukocytes?
are white blood cells
NAME
transport oxygen and carbon dioxide
leukocytes
NAME
phagocytize bacteria
neutrophil
What are neutrophil?
phagocytize bacteria
What are eosinophil?
kill parastic worms, destroy antigens, antibody complexes, and incativate some inflammatory chemicals of allergy
NAME
kill parastic worms, destroy antigens, antibody complexes,and inactivate some inflammatory chemicals of allergy
eosinophil
NAME
are the rarest of the blood cells
basophils
What is the order of the blood cells?
Never Let Monkeys Eat bananans

N=neutrophil
L=lymphocyte
M=monocyte
E=Eosinophil
B=basophil
What are the agranulocytes?
are lymphcytes and monocytes
NAME
include lymphocytes and monocytes
agranulocytes
NAME
are the most numerous of the white blood cells
neutrophils
NAME
release histamine and other mediators of inflammation, and contain heparin
neutrophils
What are neutrophils?
release histamine and other mediators of inflammation and contain heparin
Which blood type is kidney shaped?
monocyte
Monocytes are (1) shaped
kidney
NAME
mount an immune response by direct cell attack via antibodies
lymphocyte
What are lymphocytes?
mount an immune response by direct cell attacj via antibodes
What are monocytes?
phagocytosis and develop into marcophages in tissues
NAME
phagocytosis and develop into marcophages in tissue
monocytes
What are platelts?
seal small tears in blood vessels and instrumental in blood clotting
NAME
seal small tears in blood vessels and are instrumental in blood clotting
platelts
What are the divsions of the ANS?
(1)parasymathtics (2)sympathetic
NAME
its divisions include the parasympathitics and sympathetic
ANS
NAME
normally exert anatagonistic effects on many of the same target organs
ANS
What is parasympathitic division?
conserves body energy and maintains body activites at basal levels
NAME
conserves body energy and maintains body activites at basal levels
parasympathitic division
What are the effects of the parasympathic nervous system? (4)
include (1)pupillary constriction (2)glandular secretion (3)increased digestive tract mobility (4)smooth muscle activity leading to elimination of feces and urine
NAME
its effect include papillary constriction, grandular secretion, increased digestive tract mobility, and smooth muscle activity leading to elimination of feces and urine
parasympathic division
What is the sympathetic division?
activates the body under conditions of emergency
NAME
activites the body under conidtions of emergency
sympathetic division
NAME
is the flight or fight system
sympathic divsion
What are some sympathetic responses? (6)
(1)ditlated pupils (2)increased heart and respiratory rates (3)incrased blood pressure (4)dilation of the braonchioles and the lungs (5)increased blood glucose levels and sweating
What does the sympathetic division do during exercise?
sympathitic vasoconstriction shunts blood from the skin and digestive viscrea to the heart, brain, and skeletal muscles
What is the ANS?
is the motor division of the PNS that controls the viscreal activites w the goal of maintianing internal homeostasis
NAME
is the motor division of the PNS that controls the viscreal activites w the goal of maintaing internal homeostasis
ANS
What is the differ btwn the somatic and autonomic division?
(1)somatic provides motor fibers to skeletal muscles and is voluntary (2)Ans is involuntary and provides the motor fibers smooth and cardiac muscles and glands
What is the somatic division?
is voluntary and provides motor fibers to skeletal muscles
NAME
is voluntary and provides motor fibers to skeletal muscles
somatic division
What is autonomic division?
is involuntary and provides the motor fibers w smooth and cardiac muscles and glands
NAME
is involuntary and provides the motor fibers w smooth and cardiac muscles and glands
ANS
Describe the efferent pathways of somatic division?
has a single motor neuron forms the efferent pathway from the CNS to the effectors
NAME
has a single motor neuron that forms the efferent pathways from the CNS to the effector
somatic
What is the differ btwn the efferent pathways in the somatic and the ANS?
(1)somatic - has a single motor neuron that form the efferent pathway from the CNS to the effectors (2)ANS-consists of two neuron chain
Describe the efferent pathways of the ANS?
consists of two neuron chain
NAME
consists of two neuron chian
ANS
What are the (2) parts of the ANS's two neuron chain?
(1)the preganglonic neuron in the CNS (2)the ganglionic neuron in the ganglion
NAME
has a preganglonic neuron in the CNS, and the gangolionic neuron in the ganglion
ANS
What is Acetylcholine?(2)
is a neurotransmitter of somatic motor neurons (2)is stimulatroy skeletal muscle fibers
NAME
is a neurotransmitter of somatic motor neuron, is stimulatroy to skeletal muscle fibers
Acetoyglcholine
(1) released by the (1) can cause exiction or inhibition
(1)Neurotransmitters (2)ANS motor neurons
Neurotransmitters released by the An motor neurons can cause (1)
exiction or inhibition
(1) is released by all preganglonic and all parasympathic fibers
ACh
(1) is released by all sympathic postgangilic fibers except those serving the sweat glands of the skin, some blood vessels w/in the skeletal muscles and external genitilia
NE
ACh is releaseed by all (1) and (2)
preganglonic and all parasympathic fibers
NE is released by all (1) except those serving the (1)
(1)sympathic postganglic fibers (2)the sweat gland of the skin, some blood vessels w/in the skeletal muscles and external genitliia
What does effect of a neurotransmitter depend on?
the receptors to which the neurotransmitters bind
ACh receptors are classifed as (1)and (2)
(1)nicotinic (2)muscarinic
NAME
receptors are classifed as nicotonic nad muscarinic
ACh
What does NE stand for?
Adrengeric
NE are classifed as
alpha 1, alpha 2, beta1, beta 2, and beta 3
NAME
can be classifed as aplha 1, alpha 2, beta 1, beta 2, and beta 3
NE receptors
Drugs that mimic, enhance or inhibit the action of ANS neurotransmitters are used to treat conidtions caused by (1)
excessive inadequate ANS functioning
Drugs that (1) are used to treat conditions caused by excessive inadequate ANS functioning
mimic enhance or inhibit the action of the ANS
Explain how Autonomic functions are controled? (3)
(1)reflex activity is mediated by the spinal cord and brain stem (2)the hypothalamus integration centers interact w both higher and lower centers to orchestrate autonomic, somatic, and endocrine responses. (3)cortical centers influence autonomic functioning via connections w the limbic system
What is Hirschsprung's disease?
is when the parasymoathetic innervation of the distal colon fails to develop normally,
NAME
is when the parasympathetic innervation of the distal colon fails to develop normally
Hirschsprung's disease
What is orthostatic hypotension?
is a form of low blood pressure occurs bc the aging sympathetic vasocontricor centers respond more slowly to postion changes
NAME
is a form of low blood perssure that occurs bc the aging sympathetic vasocontricor centers respond more slowly to postion changes
orthstatic hypotension
Most autonomic disorders reflect problems w (1)
smooth muscle control
What stimulates LH?
GnRH
NAME
is stimulated by GnRH
LH
What inhibits LH?
by feedback inhibition exerted by estergen and progesteron in females and males
NAME
is inhibited by feedback inhibition exerted by estergn and progesteron in females and males
LH
What are the target organs that LH effects?
ovaries and testes
NAME
this hormone, targest and effects the ovaries and testes
LH
What are the effects of LH/ what does it do?
in females triggers ovulation and stimulation of ovarian production of estrogen and progesterone (2)in males, promotes tetsosterone production
NAME
this hormone effects in females triggers ovulation and stimulation of ovarian production of estrogen and progesterone, and in males promotes testosterone production
LH
What stimulates PRL?
is stimulated by PRH furthermore, PRH release is enhanced by estrogens, birth control pills, opiates, and breast feeding
NAME
this hormone is stimulated by PRH. Furthermore, PRH release is enhanced by estrogen, birth control pills, opiates, and breat feeding
PRL
What inhibits PRL?
inhibited by PIH
NAME
is inhibited by PIH
PRL
What stimulates Oxytocin?
is stimulated by impulses from hypothalamic neurons in response to cervical/uterine streching and suckling infant at the breast
NAME
is stimulated by impulses from hypothalamic neurons in response to cervical/uterine streching and suckling infant at the breast
oxytocin
What inhibits oxytocin?
lack of approriate neural stimuli
NAME
is inhibted by lack of appropiate neural stimul
oxytocin
What stimulates ADH? (2)

not refering to the hormone that does but the events that triggers the one hormone to trigger ADH
impulses from hypothamlmic neurons in response to increased osmolarity of blood (3)decreased blood volumne and (3)by pain, (4)some drugs, and (5)low blood pressure
NAME
this hormone is stimulated by impulses from hypothamlmic neurons in response to increased osmolarity of blood or decreased blood volumne and (2)by pain, some drugs, and low blood pressure
ADH
What inhibits ADH?
by adquate hydration of the body and alcholol
NAME
this hormone is adquate hydration of the body and alcholol
ADH
What is the target organ that PRL effect?
breast secretory tissue
NAME
this hormone, target;s breast secrteory tissue
PRL
What does PRL do?
promates laction
NAME
this hormone promates laction
PRL
the hyposecretion of PRL would result in?
poor milk production in nursing woman
NAME
the hyposecertion of this hormone, would result in poor milk production in nursing women
PRL
What does the hypersecretion of this hormone result in?
innappropiate milk production in males
NAME
the hypersecretion of this hormone will result in innappropiate milk production in males
PRL
What is the target organ for oxytocin?
the uterus
NAME
the target organ of this hormone is the uterus
oxytocin
What does the oxytocin do?
stimulates uterine contractions and initates labor, and initates milk ejection
NAME
this hormone stimulates uterine contractions, initiates labor and milk ejection
oxytocin
What is the target organ of ADH?
the kidneys
NAME
the target organ of this homrone is the kidneys
ADH
What is does ADH do?
stimulates kidney tubule cells to reabsorb water
NAME
this hormone stimulates kidney tubule cells to reabsorb water
ADH
What will the hyposecretion of ADH result in?
disbates insipdus
NAME
the hyposecretion of this hormone will result in diabats insipdus
ADH
What will the hypersecretion of ADH hormone result in?
syndrom of inapproiate ADH secection
NAME
the hypersecretion of this homrone will result in inapprioate ADH secretion
ADH
What is the hypohyseal portal system?
is the primary and secoundary capillary plexuses and the intervening hypophsyeal portal veins
NAME
refers to the primary and secoundary capillary plexuses and the intervening hypophsyeal veins
hypohyseal portal system
Via the hypohyseal portal system, (1) secreted by neurons in the hypothalamus circulate to the adenohypohysis
releasing and secreting hormones
What is the adenohypophysis?
is where they regulate secretion of hormones
NAME
is where they regulate secretion of its hormones
adenohypophysis
The (1) was traditionally called the master endocrine gland
adenohypophysis
The adenohypophysis was traditionally called the (1)
master endocrine gland
T or F
the adenohypophysis is the master endocrine gland
false
What is the today considered the master endocrine gland? why?
the hypothalamus bc it is known to control the the anterior pituitray activity
NAME
this is known the be the master endocrine gland bc it is known to control the anterior pituitary activity
hypothalamus
The hypothalamus is considered the master (1)
endocrine gland
What does POMC stand for?
pro-opiomelanocortin
What does the POMC stand for?
pro-opiomelanocortin
What is the POMC?
is pro-hormone that is a large precursor molecule that can be into two or more hormones
NAME
is a pro-hormone that is a large precuror molecule that can split into two or more hormones
POMC
What are the two hormones that POMC can split into to? (2)
(1)adrenocorticotropic hormone (2)MSH
NAME
this homrones is large precusor molecule that can split inot adrenocoritcotrioic hormones and MSH
POMC
What does MSH stand for?
melanocyte stimulating hormone
NAME
is the source of adrenocorticotropic hormone and MSH
POMC
What is MSH?
stimulates the melanocytes to increase the synthesis of melanin pigment in reptiles, apmphibians, and other animals
NAME
this hormone stimulates the melanocytes to increase the synthesis of melanin pigment in reptiles, amphibians, and other animals
MSH
T or F
MSH plasma levels are insiginficcant in humans and are more important as neurotrasmitter
true
Tropic hormones are also called (1)
tropins
(1)hormones are also called tropins
tropic
What are the different tropic hormones? (4)
(1)TSH (2)ACTH (3)FSH (4)LH
NAME
include the TSH, ACTH, FSH, and lH
tropic hormones
What are the tropic hormones?
are hormones that regulate the secretory action of other endocrine glands
NAME
are hormones that regulate the secretory action of other endocrine glands
tropic hormones
All of the hypothalamic regulatory hormones are (1) based
amino acid
T or F
all of the hypothalamic regulatory hormones are amino acid based
true
T or F
all of the anterior pituitary hormones target thier cells via cAMP
true
How do all the anterior pituitray hormones target thier cells?
via cAMP
What does GH stand for?
growth hormone
What produces GH?
somatropic cells of the anterior pituitary lobe
NAME
this hormones is produced by the somatropic cells of the anterior pituitray lobe
GH
Although GH stimulates most body cells to increase size and divide, its major targets are the (1) and (2)
(1)bone (2)skeletal muscles
Stimulation of epiphyseal plate leads to (1) growth
lone bone
Stimulation of (1) leads to lone bone growth
epiphyseal plate
Stimulation of skeletal muscles promotes increased (1)
muscle mass
Stimulation of (1) promotes increased muscle mass
skeletal muscles
other than cause cells to increase their size and divide, GH can also promote (1), (2), thus (3)
(1)protien synthesis (2)encourages the use of fats for feul (3)conserving glucose
NAME
this hormone can also promote protien synthesis and encourge the use of fats, thus conserving glucose
GH
Most growth promoting effects of GH are mediated indirectly by (1)
IGFs
What does IGFs stand for?
insulin like growth factors
What does IGFs stand for?
insulin like growth factors
IGFs are also called (1)
somateomedins
(1) are also called somateomadins
IGFs
What are IGFS?
is a family of growth promoting protiens produced by the liver, skeletal mucle, bone, and other tissues
NAME
is a family of growth promoting protiens produced by the liver, skeletal muscle, bone, and other tissues
IGFs
Specfically, what are (2)things that IGFs do?
(1)stimulate uptake of amino acids from the blood and thier incorporation into cellular protiens through out the body (2)stimulate uptake of sulfur into cartilage matrix
NAME
this specifcally stimulates the uptake of amino acids from the blood and thier incorporation into cellular protiens through out of the body and stimulates the uptake of sulfar into cartilage matrix
IGFs
In the liver, what is GH do?
it encourages glycogen breakdown and release of glucose into the blood
NAME
this hormone, when in the liver, encourages glyocogen breakdown and release of glucose into the blood
GH
What is the diabetogenic effect of GH?
refers to the elevation in blood sugar levels that occurs as a result of glucose sparing
NAME
refers to the elevation in blood sugars levels that occurs as a result of glucose sparing
diabetogenic effect of GH
The secretion of GH is regulated by two primary hypothalamic hormones w antagonisitis effects? (2)
(1)GHRH (2)GHIH
What does GHRH stand for?
growth hormone-releasing hormone
What does GHIH stand for?
growth hormone-inhibiting hormone
What is GHRH?
stimulates the release of GH
NAME
this hormone stimulats the release of GH
GHRH
What is GHIH?
inhibits the production of the GH and virtually all gastroinetnstinal and pancreatic secretions
NAME
inhibits the production of GH and virtually all gastrointenstinal and pancreatic secretions
GHIH
GHIH is also called (1)
somatostatin
(1) is also called somatostatin
GHIH
When are the secretion of GH the highest?
during the night
What is kind of cycle does GH have?
a daily cycle in which the total amount secreted daily peaks during adolsence and declines w age
NAME
this hormones has a daily cycle w the highest secretion at night, but the total amount secreted daily peaks during adolsence and declines w age
GH