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89 Cards in this Set

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Taste
- The tongue
Houses the taste buds, enabling the person to taste
Taste
- Fungi Form Papillae
Taste buds located on top of mushroom shaped rises
- also located on side walls of circumvallate
Taste buds
- Characteristics
Made of (3) type of cells
- Taste cells
- Support cells
- basal cells
Taste
- Gustatory hairs
- Project from taste & support cells
- Chemicals dissolve in saliva - then into taste pore to contact hairs
- cause depolarization leading to cranial nerves
Taste
- Participating Cranial Nerves
- what they connect to...
- Glossopharyngeal (IX) & Facial (VII)
- Connect to the Thalamus & Gustatory complex of parietal lobes
Taste
- locations of taste on tongue
- Sweet @ the tip
- Salty @ the sides
- Sour @ the sides (posterior)
- Bitter @ the back
- Umami @ the pharynx *** for strong taste
Taste
- functions of taste buds
- Taste
- Start digestion
-
Taste
- special condition for taste buds to function
Has to be covered in a liquid
Smell
- is what type of receptor
Chemoreceptor
Smell
- Define olfaction
detecting the chemical output from food
Smell
- relationship between taste and smell
- 80% of taste is smell
- w/o smell, food tastes different
Smell
- Anatomy
- Mucous layer
- Cell cilia embedded in mucous
- Support Cells
- Nerve axons go through Ethmoid bone
- Cribiform plate
- Olfactory bulb & tract
Accessory Structures
- Eyelids
Conjunctiva inside, produces lubricating mucus that keeps eye from drying out
Accessory Structures
- Lacrimal Caruncle
Sebaceous and sweat glands
- produce whitish, oily secretions
Accessory Structures
- Lacrimal Glands
- List them (4)
- Tear Ducts
- Lacrimal Sac
- Nasal Lacrimal Ducts
- Lacrimal Fluid
Accessory Structures
- Lacrimal Glands
- Tear Ducts
Outer corners of eye
Accessory Structures
- Lacrimal Glands
- Lacrimal Sac
Nasal
Accessory Structures
- Lacrimal Glands
- Nasal Lacrimal Ducts
Enter Nasal cavity
Accessory Structures
- Lacrimal Glands
- Lacrimal Fluid
- Mucous
- antibodies
- lysozyme = enzyme that destroys bacteria
Anatomy of the Eye
- Pupil
- really a hole into eye
- black b/c of chorid layer inside eye
- Has circular and radial muscles
Anatomy of the Eye
- Pupil
- Circular Muscles
- Controlled by Parasympathetic
- When contracted = closes pupil
- When relaxed = opens pupil
Anatomy of the Eye
- Pupil
- Radial Muscles
- Controlled by Sympathetic
- When contracted = opens pupil
- When relaxed = closes pupil
Anatomy of the Eye
- Iris
- colored structure
- regulates amount of light entering the eye
Anatomy of the Eye
- Lens
- connectios for shape
Ciliary bodies - ciliary muscles - smooth muscles that control shape
Anatomy of the Eye
- Ciliary Processes
- contain capillaries that secrete fluid into anterior segment of eye
- secretes Aqueous Humor
Anatomy of the Eye
- Suspensory ligament
- Holds lens in upright postion
Anatomy of the Eye
- Cornea
- Clear filament that covers front of lens
Anatomy of the Eye
- Sclera
- white portion of eye
- lines back of cornea
Anatomy of the Eye
- Lens
- focuses light, to project into eye
Anatomy of the Eye
- Aqueous Humor
- fluid filling the anterior segment of eye
- secreted by capillaries of the ciliary process
- drains through Scleral Venous Sinus to nasal cavity
Anatomy of the Eye
- Vitreous Humor
- Fluid filling the posterior segment of eye
Anatomy of the Eye
- Choroid Layer
- Highly vascular (lots of blood)
- between Retina and Sclera
- dark brown membrane to absorb light
- Continous w/ Iris
Anatomy of the Eye
- Retina
- in front of choroid layer
- Has yellow spot w/ Fovea Centralis and Macula Lutea
Anatomy of the Eye
- Macula Lutea
- AKA "Yellow Spot"
- location of Fovea Centralis
- Mostly cones
- light travels almost directly to photoreceptors
Anatomy of the Eye
- Fovea Centralis
- Made of entirely cones
- NO RODS
- almost no outer coverings
Retina
- (2) layers
- Pigmented Layer
- Neural Layer
Retina
- Pigmented Layer
The outer layer of retina
Retina
- Neural Layer
- Inner layer of retina
- Rods and cones are the most exterior
- Next is bipolar cells which connect to muliple rods/cones
- next is ganglion cells which have axons that feed into the optic nerve
- this is the sight where the AP is originated
Retina
- Optic Disk
- AKA "Blind Spot"
- has no photoreceptors
- where optic nerve begins
Brain - Image Interpretation
- Definition
When an image reaches the eye, it must then be processed and interpreted before reaching the brain
Brain - Image Interpretation
- Ipsilateral
- information stays on the same side of brain it was received.
- meaning no crossover occurs
Brain - Image Interpretation
- Contralateral
- Information crosses over to the opposite side of the brain
- information passes through Optic Chiasma
Brain - Image Interpretation
- Overlap
- duplicate information received in both eyes
- gives 3D images
Brain - Image Interpretation
- Optic tracts end @...
Lateral Geniculate Nucleus

or LGN for short
Brain - Image Interpretation
- Lateral Geniculate Nucleus
- AKA "LGN"
- Group of cell bodies
- part of the thalamus
- information then goes to the Occipital lobe
Photoreception
- Rhodopsin
- protein in phospholipid bilayer of Rods & Cones
- Used during dark period of cycle
- helps to see shapes and pictures
Photoreception
- (3) wavelengths to see what colors
Red, blue, green
Photoreception
- During the Dark
- Na+ channels open
- Na+ pumped in/out of creates dark current
- channels open at -30 mV
- Neurotransmitters are released to ensure Na+ gates stay open
- GMP to GDP Cycle
Photoreception
- During the light
- Light prevents GMP from cycling
- Na+ gates close, K+ gatse remains the same
- this causes hyperpolarization at -70 mV
- inhibits neurotransmitters
- Rhodopsin changes to opsin and retinal
- Rods are more sensative than cones
Photoreception
- Summary
Dark = Rhodopsin

Light = Opsin + Retinal A
Mechanoreceptor
- Parts of outer ear
- Pina
- exterior auditory canal
- tympanic membrane (ear drum)
Mechanoreceptor
- Parts of Middle Ear
- (3) hearing bones
- Incus - "Anvil"
- Malleous - "Hammer"
- Stapes - "Stirrups"
Mechanoreceptor
- Parts of Middle Ear
- (2) muscles that control loudness of hearing
- Tensor Tympani = attaches to Malleus and is long
- stapedius = attaches to the stapes and is small
Mechanoreceptor
- Parts of middle ear
- auditory tube
- connects middle ear with the nasopharynx
Mechanoreceptor
- Parts of inner ear
- according to my notes - just the cochlea
- The cochlea houses receptors for hearing
Mechanoreceptor
- Cochlea
- (3) parts
- Upper is Scala Vestibuli
- oval window connects here
- Lower is Scala Tympani
- Middle is Scala Median
Mechanoreceptor
- Cochlea
- Bony labryinth is filled w/ ...
- Endolymph
Mechanoreceptor
- Cochlea
- Membranous labryinth is filled w/ ...
- perilymph
Cochlea
- Scala Median
- Characteristics
- Filled w/ endolymph
- Vestibular Membrane @ the top
- Basilar Membrane @ the bottom
- houses the Organ of Corti
Cochlea
- Organ of Corti
- Tectorial Membrane is where hairs touch
- basilar membe
- hair cells embedded in it
- some touch tectorial, some dont
- starts at oval window and leads to round window
- Goes from narrow to wider to catch different frequencies
Cochlea
- Scala Tympani
- filled w/ Perilymph (bony)
Cochlea
- Scala Vestibuli
- filled w/ Perilymph (bony)
Balance
- Vestibule
- Functions in Static Equilibrium
- Bony Labryinth filled w/ perilymph
- (2) membranous sacs
- Saccule & Utricle
Balance
- Vestibule
- Utricle & Saccule
- Contain Maculae
- Otoliths
- Otolithic Membrane
- membranous labryniths filled w/ endolymph
Balance
- Vestibule
- Utricle & Saccule
- Otoliths
Calcium Carbonate rocks on top to give weight to otolithic membrane
Balance
- Vestibule
- Utricle & Saccule
- Otolithic membrane
- Has hair cells with cilia embedded in it
- When membrane moves
- cilia moves
- enables person to know current position
Balance
- Semicircular Canals
- Functions in Direction of Rotational Accel/deceleration
- Dynamic Equilibrium
- Has (3) planes of bony labrinyths
- superior, lateral, posterior
- filled w/ perilymph
- Has Ampulla
Balance
- Semicircular Canals
- Ampulla
- Membranous labrynith filled w/ endolymph
- Crista Ampularis with Cupula
Balance
- Semicircular Canals
- Ampulla
- Crista Ampularis
- Crista contains
- Cupula
- Hair cells
- support cells
- fluid moves and bends hair cells
- creates nerve impulse
- which exits through vestibulocochlear nerve
Balance
- Semicircular Canals
- Ampulla
- Crista Ampularis
- Cupula
- mass of gelatinous material covering hair and support cells
Balance
- Vertigo
- Cupula (gelatinous material) hardens
- can be treated with high frequency to break up material
Balance
- Sea Sickness
- Inputs from Eyes and years dont jive togethre
Endocrine Vs Exocrine
- Endocrine
- secretions directly into blood
- ECF hormones regulate metabolic processes of other cells
- made of organic compounds
- Exocrine
- secretions discharge through duct
- directly onto epithelial surface to lubricate or digest
Endocrine
- Major Glands
- Pituitary
- Thyroid & Parathyroid
- Adrenal
- Isles of Langerhans
- Ovaries & Testes
Hormone Output
- Negative feedback
- most endocrine glands operate on this premise
- Make hormone until you get negative feedback to stop
- makes less waste
Hormone Output
- Gland Stimuli
- 3 ways to stimulate
- Humoral
- Neural
- Hormonal
Hormone Output
- Gland Stimuli
- Humoral
- secrete hormones in direct respone to change in blood levels of nutrients
- ex is insulin
Hormone Output
- Gland Stimuli
- Neural
- Secrete hormone in response to nerve stimuli
- ex is Epinephrine or Norepinephrine
Hormone Output
- Gland Stimuli
- Hormonal
- Secrete hormones in respone to hormones produced by other endocrine glands...
- and i dont know an example
Hormone Receptors
- proteins in plasma membrane
- Located within target cells or cell membranes
- number of receptors change depending on hormone levels
Hormone Receptors
- Up-regulation
Form more receptors in response to rising blood level of hormone
Hormone Receptors
- down-regulation
loss of receptors to prevent target cells from overreacting
Hormone Half-life
- length of time a hormone remains in the blood
- can last from fraction of a min to 30 min
Hormone Classification
- classified vis structure
- NOT VIA FUNCTION***
- 2 types only
Hormone Classification
- Type I
- Steroids = lipids and fats
- fat soluble, shaped like cholesterol
- Can pass through plasma membrane
- activate transcription in nucleus of target cell
- interacts directly with DNA
Hormone Classification
- Type I examples
ex adrenal - aldosterone, corisal
ovaries - estrogen
testes - testosterone
thyroid - thyroxin
Hormone Classification
- Type II
- Peptide Hormones (proteins)
- produced by most endocrine glands
- Cant pass through plasma membrane
- has secondary messengers
Hormone Classification
- Type II
- How it works
- B/C its a protein, cant pass through plasma membrane
- Binds to receptor proteins on target cells surface
- causes cell to produce Intracellular messenger
- 2nd messenger is cAMP and IP3
- Function to stimulate enzyme activity which produces a desired end product
Hormone Classification
- Type II
- how it stops
phosphodiesterase - degrades cAMP
- effectively stops Type II action