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560 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what type of tissue is found on the lung slide?
simple squamous
simple squamous is found on what tissue slide?
the lung slide
simple squamous is found within the walls of the ______
alveoli
the walls of alveoli are lined with what tissue?
simple squamous
what does the name "simple squamous" mean when you break it down into it's 2-part name?
single layer of cells that are flat and pancake-like
how are the nuclei in simple squamous cells shaped?
disc-like
simple squamous tissues contain little cytoplasm-T or F?
true
this type of tissue can resemble a tiled floor or fried eggs, depending on which way it is cut.
simple squamous
T or F
a function of simple squamous is filtration.
true
T of F
a function of simple squamous is exchange of substances by rapid diffusion.
true
T or F
the simple squamous in the alveoli allow for gas exchange.
true
T or F
the simple cuboidal in the kidney is part of the filtration membrane.
true
T or F
the nuclei in simple squamous are speckled throughout the tissue.
true
simple cuboidal tissue is found where?
in the kidney tubules, small gland ducts and ovary surfaces
simple cuboidal can be lamenly termed as _________.
a single layer of cube-like cells
in simple cuboidal, the nuclei are shaped how?
large and spherical
the book says this tissue often appears to be a string of beads.
simple cuboidal
this type of tissue is found in the kidney tubules, ducts and secretory portions of glands and the ovary surface
simple cuboidal
Does simple cuboidal have a basement membrane?
yes
Does simple squamous have a basement membrane?
no
two important functions of simple cuboidal tissues are _____.
secretion and absorption
simple ciliated columnar tissue can be found on what slide?
trachea
this type of tissue is found throughout the respiratory tract, including the trachea.
simple ciliated columnar
simple ciliated columnar can be lamenly worded as ______.
a single layer of column-shaped cells with cilia
where are the nuclei in simple columnar cells typically found?
toward the base of the cell
do simple columnar cells have a basement membrane?
yes
what is the purpose of cilia?
to propel mucus and other substances across tissue surfaces
simple columnar tissues contain a cell that secretes mucin. what is this cell's name?
goblet cell
goblet cells can be found in what two tissue types?
simple ciliated columnar and simple non-ciliated columnar
how to goblet cells appear under a microscope?
as an oval-shaped white/clear cell (think ziplock bag)
another name for simple ciliated columnar tissue is ______.
pseudostratified.
pseudostratified is another name for what type of tissue?
simple ciliated columnar
only the tallest of this tissue type reach the free surface.
pseudostratified or simple ciliated columnar
the nuclei in this tissue rest at different levels, giving it a false appearance of being stratified
pseudostratified or simple ciliated columnar
a function of pseudostratified or simple ciliated columnar tissue is to secrete or absorb substances. T or F
true
T or F
a purpose of mucin or mucus is to be a dust-trapper.
true
this tissues name is translated into: false multiple layers of columns
pseudostratified
T or F
a function of pseudostratified or simple ciliated columnar tissue is propulsion of mucus by ciliary action.
true
pseudostratified can be found in the sperm ducts, the respiratory tract and the trachea. T or F
true
where can pseudostratified tissue be found?
in the trachea, the respiratory tract and the sperm ducts
under a microscope, this tissue can be seen in this order from top to bottom: cilia, goblet cells, simple columnar cells, basement membrane.
pseudostratified or simple ciliated columnar
simple non-ciliated columnar are different from simple ciliated columnar because they lack what?
cilia
simple non-ciliated columnar tissues are found where?
in the digestive tract from stomach to anal canal, the GB, some excretory gland ducts, bronchi
what type of tissue can be found in the bronchi, the GB, and the digestive tract?
simple non-ciliated columnar
are goblet cells found in simple non-ciliated columnar?
yes
does simple non-ciliated columnar have a basement membrane?
yes
the simple non-ciliated columnar is typically found on what slide?
the stomach slide
simple non-ciliated columnar typically has this microscopic, fingerlike projection on it.
microvilli
microvilli can be found on what tissue found in the stomach?
simple non-ciliated columnar
simple non-ciliated columnar functions include secretion and absorption. T or F
true
this substance is known as a lubricating mucus
mucin
the lubricating substance mucin is secreted by what cells and can be found in what two epithelial tissue types?
goblet cells, and found in simple ciliated columnar or pseudostratified and simple non-ciliated columnar
stratified squamous tissue can be found where?
in the esophagus, mouth, vagina and skin
stratified squamous can be lamenly termed as _______.
multiple layers of cells that are flat and pancake-like
do stratified squamous tissues have a basement membrane?
yes
stratified squamous can be found where surfaces are subject to _______, or wear and tear.
abrasion
the tissues subject to continuous abrasion are lined with what tissue?
stratified squamous
this type of tissue is constantly being rubbed away, usually by wear and tear.
stratified squamous
this type of tissue is usually squamous at the surface and cuboidal or columnar at the basement membrane.
stratified squamous
this type of tissue is replaced by cell division at the basement membrane.
stratified squamous
what type of tissue is constantly subject to wear and tear?
stratified squamous
what tissue is replaced by division from basal cells at the basement membrane?
stratified squamous
in this epithelial tissue, the cells at the apical surface are dead and those near the basement membrane are not.
stratified squamous
T or F
a keratinized version of stratified squamous is found in the epidermis.
true
this tissue forms the external skin and extends into every body opening that is continuous with the skin (esophagus, vagina, etc)
stratified squamous
to be keratinized means that ________________________.
the surface cells contain keratin, a tough, protective protein
the presence of this tough, protective protein means that the cells are _______.
keratinized
keratinized cells are typically found only on the surface. T or F
true
examples of keratinized surfaces/items are _______________.
the epidermis, nails
the typical line-up of this tissue under a microscope is: multiple layers of flat pancake shaped cells, their nuclei mixed within, multiple layers of cuboidal or columnar cells, a basement membrane and connective tissue.
stratified squamous
what is the function of stratified squamous tissue?
to protect underlying tissues subject to abrasion
protection of underlying tissues that are subject to abrasion is a function of what tissue?
stratified squamous
transitional tissue can be found where?
in the bladder, ureters, and part of urethra
what type of tissue can be found in the ureters, bladder and urethra?
transitional
transitional tissue can be recognized by it's uppermost layer, that are usually what shape?
dome or bulbous shaped
transitional tissue can be recognized by a color change under a microscope. what is the color change?
dark pink to light pink
in this tissue, from top to bottom, you will find dome shaped cells, cuboidal or columnar cells, a basement membrane and connective tissue.
transitional
does transitional tissue have a basement membrane?
yes
this tissue lines the hollow, urinary organs.
transitional
when transitional tissue is distended, it's epithelium thins from 6 layers to 3. T or F
true
when distended, the transitional cells become squamous-like in shape/appearance. T or F
true
what is the purpose of transitional epithelia?
the stretch and allow distention of urinary organs
to stretch and allow distention is a function of what tissue and can be found in what organs?
transitional, found in urinary organs (ureters, bladder, urethra)
does the stretching of transitional cells allow for a greater volume of urine to flow thru or be contained within urinary organs?
yes
this tissue is spread across the body and is the most abundant and widely distributed primary tissue.
connective tissue
this tissue is mostly wall to wall cells.
epithelial tissue
this tissue contains little background matrix.
epithelial tissue
in a cross section cut, all epithelial tissues have this many sides.
six
this type of tissue resembles a honeycomb under a microscope.
epithelial
the polyhedral shape of epithelial tissues allows them to be closely packed. T or F
true
the nucleus of a squamous cell is shaped how?
flat and disc-like
the nucleus of a cuboidal cell is shaped how?
spherical
the nucleus of a columnar cell is shaped how?
elongated from top to bottom and located close to the cell base
when trying to identify an epithelial cell, it is important to keep _____ shape in mind.
nucleus shape
(flat and disclike, spherical, and elongated)
stratified epithelia contain multiple cell shapes (squamous, columnar, etc)
to avoid confusion, stratified cells are named for the cells in the apical layer. T or F
true
simple epithelia functions are absorption, secretion and filtration. T or F
true
absorption, secretion and filtration are functions of what tissue?
epithelial
stratified tissues generate from below, or the basal cells. T or F
true
the basal cells of this epithelial tissue push upwards, replacing older surface cells.
stratified epithelia
the major role of this tissue is protection (usually against abrasion).
stratified epithelia
what are the four main classes of connective tissues?
connective tissue proper, cartilage, bone tissue and blood
cartilage is a type of this tissue.
connective
bone is a type of this tissue.
connective
blood is a type of this tissue.
connective
this is the only liquid connective tissue
blood
other than "to connect" functions of connective tissue are:
bind and support, protect, insulate and transport substances (blood)
binding and support, protection, insulation and substance transport are functions of what tissue?
connective
bone and cartilage support and protect organs by:
providing the hard underpinnings of the skeleton
by providing the hard underpinnings of the skeleton, these two tissues support and protect organs.
bone and cartilage (connective tissue)
a connective tissue, fat cushions insulate the body, protect by absorbing/dispersing shock and reserve energy. T or F
true
an embryonic tissue, mesenchyme, is the origination of this tissue type
connective
a common origin, degrees of vascularity and a large, nonliving matrix are common properties of what tissue?
connective
cartilage is avascular; T or F
true
dense connective tissue is poorly vascularized; T or F
true
other than cartilage and dense connective tissue, all other connective tissues are richly vascularized; T or F
true
this tissue is mostly nonliving extracellular matrix
connective
another name for extracellular matrix is __________.
background matrix/substance
connective tissue is able to bear weight, great tension and physical trauma/abrasion; T or F
true
no other tissue can tolerate the weight, tension and trauma that connective tissue can. T or F
true
Info: even though it is widespread, connective tissue is found in various amounts of each organ.
skin is primarily connective, brain has very little connective
three main elements of connective tissue:
ground substance, fibers, cells
cells, fibers and ground substance are the three main elements of what tissue?
connective
T or F
connective tissue background varies to perform different functions, like being a soft packing or forming strong, hard ropes
true
unstructured material that fills spaces between cells and contains fibers is known as:
matrix/ground substance
the fibers of connective tissue provide support. T or F
true
the three types of fibers in connective tissue are:
collagen, reticular and elastic
collagen, reticular and elastic are types of fibers in what tissue?
connective
this is a structural protein, three strand braid of fiber.
collagen fiber
this type of fiber is stronger than steel fibers of the same size.
collagen
when fresh, and sometimes under the microscope, these fibers appear white and shiny
collagen fibers
these connective tissue fibers form long, branching networks in the matrix.
reticular fibers
because these fibers contain elastin, they are able to stretch and recoil like rubber.
elatic fibers
elastin is a protein that makes up what type of connective tissue fiber?
elastic fibers
elastic fibers are found where great elasticity is needed. T or F
true
great elasticity is needed in the skin, lungs and blood vessels for expansion and recoil, making this an abundant connective tissue fiber type present.
elastic fibers
sometimes this connective tissue fiber appears yellow.
elastic
short, fine collagenous fibers, continuous with collagen fibers are known as
reticular fibers
reticular fibers are short, fine, and collagenous. T or F
true
these are the branching fibers in connective tissue.
reticular fibers
this fiber in connective tissue surrounds small blood vessels and supports soft tissue of organs.
reticular fibers
name the four primary blast cell types
fibroblast, chondroblast, osteoblast, stem cells
the cell that secretes new fibers:
fibroblast
cell that secretes new bone:
osteoblast
cell that secretes new cartilage:
chondroblast
cyte
a cell
fibro:
fiber
chondro:
cartilage
osteo:
bone
function of a clast
eat away
white blood cells are aka
immunological cells
immunological cells are aka
white blood cells
mast cells and macrophages are types of:
WBCs or immunological cells
WBCs (mast and macrophages) are found in connective tissues and are defensive mechanisms. T or F
true
these immunological cells detect foreign substances and initiate an inflammatory response.
mast cells
mast cells are responsible for detecting 'bugs' and initiating an inflammatory response. T or F
true
phagocytize means to:
engulf and consume/kill pathogens or foreign bodies
these cells phagocytize.
macrophages
macrophages are large cells that consume everything from dust to bacteria. T or F
true
these immunological cells can be attached to connective tissues or migrate freely within the matrix.
macrophages
these 'big eaters' are peppered throughout connective tissue, bone marrow and lymph tissue.
macrophages
during early embryonic development, mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into connective tissue cells. T or F
true
loose connective and dense connective are types of this tissue:
connective tissue proper
connective tissue proper has two types of tissue:
loose connective and dense connective
areolar, adipose and reticular are types of what connective tissue?
loose connective
dense regular, dense irregular and elastic are types of what connective tissue?
dense connective
dense connective has three subtypes of tissue; name them.
dense regular, dense irregular and elastic
loose connective has three subtypes of tissue; name them.
areolar, adipose and reticular
functions of areolar connective tissue are:
support and binding (role of fibers), hold body fluids (role of ground substance), immunity (mast, macrophages), nutrient storage (in fat cells)
to hold body fluids (role of ground substance), support and bind (fibers), immunity (mast and macrophages), and nutrient storage (within fat cells) are functions of what loose connective tissue?
areolar
what blast type is visible in areolar connective tissue?
fibroblasts
areolar is a type of what tissue?
loose connective
three fiber types exist within this tissue type.
areolar
areolar contains how many fiber types within it?
three
what are the three fiber types present in areolar (loose) connective tissue?
collage, reticular, elastic
collagen, reticular and elatic fibers are all present in what loose connective tissue?
areolar
T or F
this is a trick question
LOL
time for a laugh!!
macrophages, mast cells and other WBCs are present in areolar connective tissue. T or F
true
areolar connective tissue is widely distributed under epithelia, forming a soft packing. T or F
true
this tissue is found under epithelia, in mucous membranes and organ packing.
areolar
this loose connective tissue forms a soft packing under epithelial tissue
areolar connective tissue
the thick, dark pink fibers in areolar connective tissue are:
collagen fibers
the lighter pink, branching fibers in areolar connective tissue are:
reticular fibers
the black, squiggly lines throughout areolar connective tissue are:
elastic fibers
areolar connective tissue can be found on what slide:
areolar connective tissue slide
(dumb, i know, but the lab pract. paper says this)
this connective tissue provides a reservoir for water and salts, all body cells obtain their nutrients from and release their wastes into this tissue
areolar
this connective tissue soaks up excess fluids from a condition called edema
areolar
the most widely distributed connective tissue in the body is:
areolar
adipose is another name for
fat
adipocytes account for 90% of this tissue's makeup.
adipose
the matrix of this tissue is scant and cells are tightly packed, giving it a chicken wire appearance.
adipose
adipose and simple squamous appear similar; adipose can be distiguised by it's lack of multinuclei; T or F
true
adipose tissue is found where?
under skin, around kidneys and eyeballs, in abdomen and breasts
this cushioning, nutrient storing tissue is found in the breasts and abdomen, under the skin and around the kidneys and eyeballs.
adipose
the functions of adipose tissue are:
reserve food fuel, insulation against heat loss, support and protect organs
to insulate against heat loss, support and protect organs and reserve food fuel are functions or what loose connective tissue?
adipose
a vacuole that contains a fat globule is found in what slide?
adipose
this loose connective tissue is known for being a shock absorber, and insulator and energy store-er
adipose
more specifically, adipose can be found around the lymph nodes and heart, within some muscles and as individual fat cells within the marrow. T or F
true
reticular connective tissue is a type of loose or dense connective?
loose
this tissue is a network of elastic fibers in loose ground substance with immunological cells present.
reticular
reticular connective tissue can be found on what slide?
lymph node slide
the lymph node slide will display what type of loose connective tissue?
reticular connective tissue
only reticular fibers are present in this loose connective tissue.
reticular connective tissue
reticular tissue forms a 'bed' or labyrinth-like stroma where?
in lymph nodes, spleen and bone marrow
what tissue can be found in the spleen, bone marrow and lymph nodes?
reticular connective tissue
dense regular tissue contains what strong fiber running in one direction?
collagen
what type of fiber runs in a long, continuous pattern, parallel to the pull direction?
collagen
this dense connective tissue runs in a sinusoidal wave.
dense regular
collage is the main fiber in this dense connective tissue.
dense regular
the fibroblast is the major cell type in dense regular tissue. T or F
true
this tissue is found in tendons & ligaments.
dense regular
tendons attach:
muscle to bone
ligaments attach:
bone to bone
the fascia, or fibrous membrane wrapping muscles is a form of what dense connective tissue?
dense regular
ligaments are more stretchy than tendons because they contain more _____ fibers.
elastic
dense irregular connective tissue has thicker bundles of this strong, three strand braid of structural proteins.
collagen fibers
collagen fibers are irregularly placed within this dense connective tissue.
dense irregular
this dense connective tissue is present where tension is exerted in different directions
dense irregular
is dense irregular known for being strong in one or all directions?
all directions
the leathery dermis is a form of this dense connective tissue.
dense irregular
fibrous joint capsules, fibrous organ capsules and dermis are places you will find this dense connective tissue (think about what directions pulling will be)
dense irregular
dense irregular tissue can be found where?
in the dermis, joint capsules and organ capsules
on what slide will you find dense irregular connective tissue?
the skin slide (middle layer)
functions of dense regular include:
attaching muscle to bone, bone to bone and withstanding tension in one direction
to withstand pulling in one direction, attach muscle to bone and bone to bone are functions of what connective tissue?
dense regular
to withstand tension in many directions and provide stuctural strength are functions of what connective tissue?
dense irregular
functions of dense irregular include:
to withstand tension in many directions and provide stuctural strength
this connective tissue appears on the slide as a tangled mess of collagen fibers, pink and white in color, and fibroblast nuclei
dense irregular connective tissue
cartilage can withstand tension and compression. T or F
true
what tissue can withstand tension and compression?
cartilage
tough, but flexible, this tissue lacks nerves and is avascular.
cartilage
is cartilage avascular?
yes
are epithelial tissues mostly avascular?
yes
cartilage receives nutrients via diffusion from blood vessels. T or F
true
cartilage ground substance contains:
hyaluronic acid, collagen fibers and is quite firm
a firm background matrix with hyaluronic acid and collagen fibers present is typical of this avascular tissue:
cartilage
cartilage is 80% water. T or F
true
this is the predominant cell type in cartilage:
chondroblast
these cell types produce new cartilage and matrix
chondroblasts
chondroblasts are typically seen in groups of two, wrapped in a lacuna. T or F
true
three types of cartilage:
hyaline, elastic, fibrocartilage
hyaline, elastic and fibrocartilage are three types of:
cartilage
this is the most abundant type of cartilage:
hyaline
hyaline, aka gristle, contains large amounts of collagen fibers. T or F
true
the background matrix of this connective tissue appears glassy and uniform, with grouped chondrocytes in lacunae.
hyaline cartilage
this cartilage is found on the ends of long bones, the ribs, and trachea.
hyaline
hyaline cartilage can be found where?
the trachea, ends of long bones and the ribs
functions of hyaline cartilage include:
support and reinforcement, cusioning and resisting compressive stress
to support and reinforce, cushion and resist compressive stress are functions of what cartilage?
hyaline
firm background matrix with thin, black squiggly lines around the chondrocytes in lacunae is typical of what cartilage?
elastic
this cartilage is found where great stretchability and strength is needed. (think stretchy)
elastic
this cartilage is found in the ear and epiglottis.
elastic
elastic cartilage is found where?
epiglottis and ear
the epiglottis is made of what cartilage?
elastic
hyaline cartilage can be found on what slide?
trachea
the trachea contains what type of cartilage?
hyaline
elastic cartilage can be found on what slide?
elastic cartilage slide
fibrocartilage can be found on what slide?
fibrocartilage slide
hyaline cartilage contains chondrocytes with nuclei. T or F
true
groups or rows of chondrocytes in lacunae, containing rows of collagen fibers that is compressible and resists tension is found in what cartilage?
fibrocartilage
this cartilage is compressible, resists tension well, and found where strong support and ability to withstand heavy weight.
fibrocartilage
fibrocartilage is found where in the body?
intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis and discs of knee joint
in the discs of the knee, pubic symphysis and intervertebral discs you will find what cartilage?
fibrocartilage
functions of fibrocartilage include:
withstand tension and absorb compressive shock
to withstand tension and absorb compressive shock are functions of what cartilage?
fibrocartilage
osseous tissue is aka
bone
bone is aka
osseous tissue
bones are a storage site for fat and synthesis of blood cells. T or F
true
do bones protect the body?
what areas specifically?
yes, the thoracic cavity, spinal column and hips
calcium salts and collagen fibers make bone hard and rigid. T or F
true
these cell types produce new bone and bone matrix.
osteocytes
these are aka mature bone cells
osteocytes
in bone, osteocytes reside within the lacunae. T or F
true
what are the circular, tree like sections in a bone cross section called?
osteons
osteons are seen in cross section cuts as circular, units with central canals. T or F
true
the central canal in bone houses:
blood vessels and nerves
do blood vessels innervate the entire bone?
yes
lamellae in bone are aka concentric rings, giving it the tree-like appearance. T or F
true
the lines between the rings in bone are called:
canaliculi
the matrix in this tissue is hard and calcified.
bone
this hard, calcified tissue is highly vascularized.
bone
the functions of bone are:
support and protect body (by enclosing), provide levers for muscles to act on, store calcium and minerals, and form blood cells (in bone marrow)
to form blood cells (in marrow), store calcium and minerals, protect and support the body and provide levers for muscles are functions of what tissue?
bone/osseous
the central canal in bone is aka
Haversion canal
the Haversion canal in bone is aka
the central canal
the black ovals in bone are actually the
osteocytes in lacunae
the osteon, or circular unit in bone, is properly called the
Haversion Canal System
the Haversion Canal System is more lamenly known as an ______.
osteon
blood is a form of what tissue?
connective
blood develops or originates from what?
mesenchyme
a nonliving matrix called plasma is characteristic of what connective tissue?
blood
red and white cells within nonliving plasma are characteristic of what tissue?
blood/connective
the function of blood is:
transport gases (O2 and CO2), nutrients, wastes and other substances
to transport nutrients, wastes and respiratory gases is a function of what?
blood
blood is located within:
blood vessels
within the lumens of blood vessels you will find what connective tissue?
blood
a lumen is aka
an open space (inner space of blood vessels, etc)
lymphocytes, monocytes, other WBCs and platelets can be found in what tissue?
blood
platelets are aka
thrombocytes
thrombocytes are aka
platelets
neurons are the functional unit of what tissue?
nervous
osteons are the functional unit of what tissue?
bone
the functional unit of nervous tissue is?
neurons
the functional unit of bone is?
osteon
a neuron is composed of two things:
a cell body and a nucleus
a cell body and a nucleus make up a:
neuron
neurons are branching cells. T or F
true
the black lines extending out from neurons are called:
neuron processes
the functions of nervous tissue include:
transmitting electrical signals, generate and conduct nerve impulses
to generate and conduct nerve impulses and transmit electrical signals is a function of:
nervous tissue
the brain, spinal cord and nerves are components of what tissue?
nervous
nervous tissue includes what body parts?
nerves, spinal cord and brain
a type of nervous helper cell is called:
neuraglia
neuraglia are a form of nervous tissue helper cells. T or F
true
nervous tissue supports, insulates and protects neurons. T or F
true
dendrites allow neurons to respond to stimuli. T or F
true
axons transmit impulses over substantial distances. T or F
true
axons are covered with a fatty sheath that speeds nerve impulse transmission; aka myelinated; T or F
true
are muscles well-vascularized?
yes
skeletal muscles are attached to the _____ of the skeleton.
bones
technical name for skeletal muscle cells:
muscle fibers
the three types of muscles are:
skeletal, cardiac, and smooth
smooth, cardiac and skeletal are types of:
muscles
long, cylindrical cells in one direction, containing striations, are known as what tissue?
skeletal muscle
the bands seen through skeletal and cardiac muscles are known as:
striations
this type of muscle is found only attached to bones.
skeletal
this type of muscle is found only within the heart.
cardiac
cardiac muscle is found only in:
the heart
the purpose of cardiac muscle is to:
propel blood thru the vessels to all the body
to propel blood thru the vessels to the entire body is a function of what tissue?
cardiac muscle
this is the only type of muscle under voluntary control:
skeletal
is skeletal muscle under voluntary or involuntary control?
voluntary
T or F
cardiac muscle is under voluntary control.
false; involuntary
smooth muscle is under voluntary or involutary control?
involuntary
this muscle is multinucleated, contains striations, and is long and cylindrical.
skeletal
is skeletal muscle multinucleated?
yes
functions of skeletal muscle include:
locomotion, manipulation of environment and facial expressions
facial expressions, manipulation of the environment and locomotion are all functions of what tissue?
skeletal muscle
this muscle is striated, branches and is usually uninucleated.
cardiac
cardiac muscle is uninucleated. T or F
true
speicalized junctions within cardiac tissue are called:
intercalated discs
intercalated discs allow fluids and electrical impulses through. T or F
true
what are the junctions called that allow electrical impulses and fluids through the heart?
intercalated discs
in the walls of the heart you will find this tissue:
cardiac muscle
smooth muscle is named because its cells lack ______.
striations
do smooth muscles have striations?
no
this individual muscle cell is spindle shaped and contains one nucleus.
smooth
smooth muscles are uninucleate. T or F
true
this muscle type is found in walls of hollow organs and squeezes substance through them.
smooth muscle
smooth muscle can be found where?
in the walls of hollow organs (digestive, urinary tract organs, uterus, blood vessels)
what are the two types of involuntary muscle?
cardiac and smooth
smooth muscle cells are spindle shaped so they can arrange close together and form sheets; T or F
true
foodstuffs, urine and a baby are examples of things this muscle type can propel.
smooth
another name for red blood cells:
erythrocytes
erythrocytes aka
red blood cells
leukocytes aka
white blood cells
white blood cells aka
leukocytes
spongy bone is surrounded by:
compact bone
compact bone covers what type of bone?
spongy
adipose tissue can be found on what slides?
breast, skin (lowest layer)
on the breast slide and skin slide (lowest layer) you will find this loose connective tissue.
adipose
there are ____ stages of mitosis.
five
IPMAT are the stages of ______.
mitosis
mitosis is found what slide?
whitefish or onion
cell division is aka
mitosis
mitosis is simply defined as
cell division
name the five stages of cell division
IPMAT;
interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
IPMAT is an acronym for what?
stages of mitosis, cell division
in what stage of mitosis is DNA replicating?
interphase (first)
in interphase, DNA is in the form of chromatin. T or F
true
in what phase are the centrioles replicating and the nuclear membrane is intact?
Interphase
In Interphase, is the cell membrane intact?
yes
are the centrioles replicating in Interphase?
yes
what is the first stage of mitosis?
interphase
what is the second stage of mitosis?
prophase
third stage of mitosis
metaphase
fourth stage of mitosis
anaphase
fifth and final stage of mitosis
telophase
in this stage of mitosis, DNA supercoils into chromosomes
prophase
in prophase, DNA supercoils into chromosomes. T or F
true
in prophase, spindle fibers form. T or F
true
in what stage of mitosis do spindle fibers form?
prophase
during this phase, centrioles start to move to opposite poles.
prophase
during prophase, does the nucleus dissolve?
yes
during what stage will you find DNA in the form of chromatin, DNA replicating, a nuclear membrane intact and replicating centrioles?
Interphase
During what stage will you find DNA supercoiled into chromosomes, forming spindle fibers, a dissolving nucleus and centrioles moving to opposite poles?
Prophase
during what stage will you see centrioles at opposite poles with shortened spindle fibers?
metaphase
another way to remember metaphase:
middle (M) (where chromosomes are located--fuzzy in the middle)
in metaphase, the chromosomes are located at the equatorial/metaphase plate. T or F
true
in mitosis, another name for metaphase plate is _____.
equatorial plate
in what mitosis stage will you see chromosomes at the equatorial plate, shortened spindle fibers and centrioles at opposite poles?
metaphase
in what stage will you see daughter cells at opposite poles with clearing in the middle?
anaphase
another way to remember anaphase?
away (A) (daughter cells away from each other at opposite poles)
what is the shortest stage of mitosis?
anaphase
in what phase willl DNA uncoil back into chromatin?
telophase
in what stage does a cleavage furrow forms?
telophase
in what stage does the nuclear membrane reform?
telophase
cytokinesis occurs in this stage of mitosis.
telophase
two daughter cells form in this mitosis stage.
telophase
in what stage will you see DNA uncoiling into chromatin, a cleavage furrow forming, cytokinesis occuring and two daughter cells forming?
telophase
cytokinesis is also known as
division of cytoplasm, occuring in telophase
the division of cytoplasm occuring in telophase is aka
cytokinesis
are there nuclei in blood?
no
blood is composed of mature RBCs with no nuclei. T or F
true
clusters of cells used for clotting are called
platelets or thrombocytes
what part of nervous tissue actually generates electrical impulses?
the cell body
reticular tissue is aka
lymphatic
what finger-like projections increase the surface area of cells?
microvilli
what cell type secretes new elastic, reticular and collagen fibers?
fibroblasts
this is a lining tissue, found throughout the body
epithelial
the shoulder is _______ to the scapula
anterior
the foot is ______ to the knee
inferior
the nose is _______ to the eyeballs
intermediate
the body laying down but facing up is in the _____ position.
supine
the intestines are ____ to the navel.
deep
the phalanges are ______ to the wrist.
distal
name the four quadrants:
RUQ, LUQ, RLQ, LLQ
liver, GB, kidney, small and large intestines are found in this quadrant:
RUQ
stomach, pancreas, kidney, spleen, small and large intestines are found in this quadrant:
LUQ
most of the bladder, the appendix and intestines are found in this quadrant:
RLQ
in this quadrant, you'll find mostly small and large intestines
LLQ
parfocal means it has more than one
lens
to have more than one lens means it is
parfocal
with each magnification increase, depth of view/field of vision will:
decrease
oil immersion involves dropping _____ onto a slide
oil
dropping oil onto a slide during oil immersion focuses the light into one continuous beam. T or F
true
sandwiching a drop of water between a slide and a slide cover creates a ____ _____.
wet prep....i mean wet mount
;)
this plane divides the body into equal right and left halves
midsagittal
this plane divides the body into unequal right and left halves
parasagittal
this plane divides the body into right and left halves anywhere
sagittal
this plane divides the body into anterior and posterior cuts
frontal/coronal
this plane divides the body into superior and inferior cuts
transverse
examples of bilateral body parts include
eyes, ears, arms, hands, breasts, cheeks, etc
ventral body cavities include:
thoracic, abdomen, pelvic, or abdominopelvic
dorsal body cavities include:
cranial cavity and vertebral column
what organs are found in the thoracic cavity?
lungs and heart
what organs are found in the abdominopelvic cavity?
digestive organs, reproductive organs
occiptal refers to the area _______
at the back of the head
antecubital refers to the area in the bend of the _____
elbow
sural refers to the area _________
behind the calf
popliteal refers to the area
behind the knee
what muscle divides the ventral cavities?
diaphragm
bony landmarks of the abdominopelvic cavity are
the lower ribs and pelvis
what serous membrane covers the lungs?
pleural sac
the pleural sac covers what?
the lungs
what serous membrane covers the heart?
pericardial sac
the pericardial sac covers what?
the heart
what membrane surrounds the organs of the abdominopelvic cavity?
the peritoneum
what is the anchoring membrane found in the abdominopelvic cavity?
mesentary
the piece on the microscope that you look through is called the:
lens
the magnification on our microscope's ocular lens is:
10x
the rotating lenses on our microscopes used to increase magnification are called:
objective lenses
what is the ocular lens?
the lens we peer through with our eyes
the objective lens is used to:
increase magnification
if the ocular lens is 10x and the objective is 40x, what is the total magnification?
400x
what large, square area of the microscope holds the slide in place and can move up and down?
the stage
the large, rotating knob on the side of the microscope is called the
coarse adjustment
the small, rotating knob on the side of the microscope is called the
fine adjustment
the numbered, rotating plate under the stage of the microscope is called the
condenser
head, arm and base are three parts of the
microscope
when peering thru a microscope, moving the slide away from you on the stage moves the image:
towards you
when peering thru a microscope, moving a slide to the right on the stage moves the image:
to the left
should you ever pour chemicalsor waste in the sinks or trash cans?
no
when handling preserved specimens, _____ and ______ will be worn in the lab.
gloves and goggles
how do you find total magnification on a microscope?
ocular lens X objective lens
three terms meaning towards the head:
cranial, caudal, cephalic
cephalic, caudal, cranial are all terms meaning:
toward the head
the body laying down, face down is known as
prone
a diagonal cut thru the body is aka
transverse/oblique
a cut along the length of the arm is known as
longitudinal
a cut across the axis is known as
cross cut, cross section (Hotdog!!)
what covers the body, protects it from injury and synthesizes vitamin D?
the integumentary system/skin
this system includes hair, nails, skin
integumentary
this cavity includes the superior mediastinum, the pericardial cavity and the pleural cavities.
thoracic cavity
these organs are found in the dorsal cavities.
brain and spinal cord
the outer two-layered serous membrane is called:
parietal serous membrane
the inner two-layered serous membrane is called:
visceral serous membrane
sweat glands, salivary glands, liver (secretes bile) are examples of what type of gland?
exocrine
what types of cells undergo mitosis?
somatic cells
somatic cells are:
generalized cells of the body, except gametic cells (those that give rise to next generation; those that make eggs/sperm)
cells undergo mitosis when (three examples):
doing cell repair, when changing shape (like caterpiller to butterfly), and growing in size (child to adult)
cell repair, changing shape, and growing in size are all reasons cells undergo:
mitosis
three layers of skin are:
epidermis, dermis, hypodermis
fiver layers of epidermis:
CLGSB (from topmost to bottom)
stratum corneum, lucidum, granulosum, spinosum, basale
CLGSB is an acronym for what?
the five layers of the epidermis
the two layers of the dermis are:
papillary and reticular
the papillary and reticular are layers of what?
the dermis
the dermis is sandwiched between what two layers?
the epi and hypodermis
the papillary (dermis) layer contains what fibers?
collagen and elastic
the papillary (dermis) layer contains phagocytes and immune cells for patrolling. T or F
true
the reticular comprises about ___% of the dermis
80
the network of blood vessels found in the lower dermis is called:
cutaneous plexus
the cutaneous plexus is the network of blood vessels found in the lower _____
dermis
are collagen fibers present in the reticular (dermis) layer?
yes
in this skin layer is where cleavage/tension lines are formed.
dermis
examples of cleavage/tension lines are visible where on the skin surface?
anterior surface of wrist, back of ankle
in this epidermal layer, the cells are dead.
stratum corneum
this is the waterproofing layer of skin.
stratum corneum
this layer desquamates, or sloughs off, when abrasion occurs.
stratum corneum
this layer is 20-30 layers thick
stratum corneum
this is the thin, clear layer of skin
stratum lucidum
this layer contains dying cells that explode
stratum granulosum
in this layer, cells change in shape, fill with soft keratin to make a hard keratin outer shell
stratum spinosum
every 19 days, cells replicate in this layer
stratum basale
the only epidermal layer where cells replicate
stratum basale
the epidermis is composed of what types of cells:
stratified squamous
is the skin highly vascularized?
no
the papillary layer is the upper or lower portion of the dermis?
upper
the _____ layer of the dermis forms the finger-like projections
papillary
what muscle erects the hair in the skin?
arrector pili
this is involved in evaporate cooling.
sweat
acne is an infection of the:
sebaceous (oil/sebum) gland
this structure houses the hair
follicle
this is a sheath formed of both epithelial and connective tissue
follicle
sweat gland that contains proteins, salts and water
eccrine
nails are primarily dead/keratinized cells. T or F
true
secretions from this gland contain cell fragments.
sebaceous gland
what is manufactured in the skin but used elsewhere in the body?
vitamin D
where in the skin do the nerves reside?
in the dermis
this epidermal area undergoes mitosis
stratum basale
these two layers of the epidermis are avascular
stratum corneum and lucidum
the nails and hairs reside in this layer
epidermis
this layer of skin has abundant elastic and collagen fibers
dermis
layer of epidermis where melanocytes (for color) are found
stratum basale
this layer takes up most of the epidermis
stratum corneum
in a cell, this is the site for ATP synthesis; AKA the powerhouse of the cell
mitochondria
the powerhouse of the cell is called
mitochondria
in the cell, these are the sites of protein syntheses
ribosomes
ribosomes are the site for
protein synthesis
mitochodria are the site for
ATP synthesis
rough ER is
a sugar group, binding proteins for transport; synthesizes phospholipids
the site in a cell that synthesizes phospholipids and is a sugar group that binds proteins for transport is
rough ER
smooth ER is
site of lipid and steroid synthesis, lipid metabolism and drug detox
the site in a cell that detoxes drugs, metabolizes lipids and is the site for lipid and steroid synthesis is
smooth ER
the Golgi
packs, changes and segregates proteins for secretion
this cell apparatus packages, changes and segregates proteins for secretion from the cell
the Golgi
lysosomes are the site for
intracellular digestion
intracellular digestion occurs in the (think lyse)
lysosomes (think lyse: lyse = breakdown; digestion/breakdown)
peroxisomes are the site for
detoxing substances
in peroxisomes, this most important enzyme breaks down hydrogen peroxide
catalase
microtubules:
microfilaments:
-give cell shape and support
-involved in muscle contraction and intracellular movement
centrioles
organize microtubule during mitosis to form spindle and base of cilia/flagella
this cell part forms the spindle during mitosis and is the base of cilia/flagella
centrioles
cilia:
flagella:
microvilli:
-move in unison, propel substances
-propel the cell
-increase surface area for absorption
nucleoli
site of ribosome subunit manufacture
the cell site of ribosomal manufacture is
the nucleoli
granular, threadlike material in cells that contains DNA and proteins
chromatin
the chromatin in a cell contains
DNA material and proteins
this cell material separates the nucleoplasm from cytoplasm and regulates substance passage to/from nucleus
nuclear envelope
the nuclear envelope is a material that
separates nucleoplasm from cytoplasm and regulates substance passage to/from nucleus
the cell's plasma membrane acts as/in
an external barrier, transports substances in and out of cell, contains outward-facing proteins acting as receptors in cell-to-cell recognition
this cell part acts as an external barrier, transports substances in and out of cell, and contains outward-facing proteins acting as receptors in cell-to-cell recognition
plasma membrane
this cellular fluid containing cytosol rests between nuclear and plasma membranes
cytoplasm
this cell substance contains the organelles, dissolved solutes and inclusions (nutriends, pigment, etc)
cytoplasm
the cell cytoplasm is
a cellular fluid consisting of cytosol, containing organelles, solutes and inclusions that divides nuclear and plasma membranes
all five epidermal layers are found in this type of skin
thick skin
only four layers are found in this type of skin
thin skin
thick skin can be found where?
on the palms and soles of feet
thin skin can be found where?
everywhere except palms and soles of feet
what are the two types of skin where the four or five layers of epidermis can be found?
thin and thick