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55 Cards in this Set

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1337 - Hundred Year’s War
The war started between England and France. France was beaten down by the English until Joan of Arc came around and saved them, but she was eventually burned. This is the first conflict between France and England, and their animosity will continue for hundreds of years.
1348 - The Bubonic Plague
The Bubonic or Black plague killed almost a third of the population. Entire towns were just wiped out, because the plague was carried by the rats that lived in them.
1400 - Italian Renaissance
Medieval mentalities start to diminish and a more constructive attitude towards the world emerges. Many philosophers not seen since the Roman times come back to write about the world, politics, and economics.
1450 - Printing Press
Finally literature could be produced in mass in a short period of time. Previously to the printing press everything had to be written out by hand, a time consuming and inefficient process. The printing press could put out more literature, pamphlets, and other materials that improved literacy rates and spread new ideas.
1452 - 1519 - Leonardo da Vinci
A universal genius of the Italian Renaissance, an artist, engineer and scientist. He was one of the first people to research human anatomy by dissecting cadavers, something that didn’t make him popular with the church. He also made revolutions many centuries in advance, planes, subs, toxic gasses and such. However, at the time he was simply known just as an artist, who did the Mona Lisa.
1492 - Discovery of the New World
Commissioned by the King of Spain, as it was, Columbus set on his famous voyage to find a passage to India, but instead found the Americas, where he claimed it in the name of Spain, killed the natives, took their gold, spread disease and converted them to Catholicism.
1520 - The Protestant Reformation
Many were resisting the oppressive Catholic church which demanded money, loyalty and conformity, none of which many wanted to give. The solution came in the form of Martin Luther and Calvin, who spun off of Catholicism to form a new version of Christianity that was more practical. Protestantism was popular in such places as England, where the king was tired of following the pope’s rules.
1530 - Spanish Conquistadors
The invasion of the Spanish who wiped out the native Aztecs, Incas and Mayans. Their plundering of the gold and enslavement was disgraceful, as well as the missionaries trying to convert the population. The Spanish decimated South and Central America forever.
1543 - The Structure of the Human Body
Flemish Vesalius published The Structure of the Human Body in 1543, the most accurate and complete guide to the human body. Previously used were the studies by Galen, from 200 AD, which were riddled with inaccuracies. Later William Harvey published On the Movement of the Heart and Blood, which revolutionized the idea of how blood was used in the body.
1543 - On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Orbs
Written by Copernicus and published in 1543 after he died. He threw out the old theories of the fixed orbs on crystalline shells, replacing it with the idea of orbits, and the sun being the center of the solar system with the planets rotating around it, and the stars on a fixed outer shell.
1555 - Peace of Augsburg
Declared that the ruler was in charge of prescribing a religion, and that the country had to be the same religion as its leader. Consequently many of the territories in the Holy Roman Empire were next Protestant, Catholic, and many others, creating tension that would eventually lead to the 30 years war.
1561 - 1650 - Bacon and Descartes
Wrote about new ways of gathering knowledge, with experiments, theories, and not basing science on religion. They laid the groundwork for future scientists to make theories and conclusions based on experimental data. Descartes wrote Discourse on Method in 1637, the book where he said ‘I think, therefore I am’ and Cartesian dualism.
1600 - Mercantilism and the East India Companies
The new concepts of trade and mercantilism appeared with the new world economy. With the invention of superior ships, trade increased between the Americas, Europe and Asia. These gave birth to the Europeans founding East India companies in Asia to bring back to the homelands in Europe. The rulers of the seas were by far the Dutch, whose country was based on shipping.
1609 - Galileo Constructs a Telescope
Galileo constructs what is known as the first telescope, and with it looks to the sky and comes up with his greatest theories. With Copernicus’ theories at hand, Galileo revised them and improved upon them. Agreeing with the helio-centric solar system, he took it a step further saying that the sun was rotating around something larger, and that the stars were other suns. He also proved the theory of gravity, by dropping weights of the Leaning Tower of Pisa. His theories got him in trouble with the Catholic Church, who thought that the Biblical fantasies of Earth-centered universe and the perfect universe created by God were more accurate than his science. He was forced to retract all his work, but later it was revealed that Galileo was indeed correct.
1618 - 1648 - Thirty Years War
The Holy Roman Empire was comprised of a hodgepodge of random stages, neither holy, Roman, or really and empire. Tension that was building over the period since the High Middle Ages was released, in 4 different areas of the Holy Roman Empire and surrounding areas over the span of 30 years.
1630 - 1640 - Puritans Settle in New England
England settled into a civil war among the Protestant groups, prompting several to leave the country and settle elsewhere. One of the groups was that of the Puritans, the fanatic Calvinists. They settled in areas of the New World, and were some of the first settlers to make up the United States. Around the same time the king of England was eliminated.
1643 - Louis XIV Takes Throne of France
Louis XIV came to power and brought France into its golden age. Called the Sun King, he ruled France during its most prosperous time ever up to that point. He had his grotesquely massive palace built in Versailles, outside of Paris. He was a very controlling ruler, keeping all his close subjects in the palace with him, so that they wouldn’t defy him for fear of appearing ungrateful for the lavish living style. Louis XIV’s territorial ambitions prompted the other European countries to maintain the ‘Balance of Power’ concept.
1648 - Peace of Westphalia
Ended the Thirty Years War and allowed the parties to come to agreements. It blocked the counter reformation and declared that Catholicism, Lutheranism and Calvinism were the only acceptable faiths. The Holy Roman Empire was entirely dissolved and split up into hundreds of little sections. Many of the countries were ruled by a Hapsburg, leading to the eventual unified Germany and Austria.
1650 - 1700 - Pre-Imperialism
During this time many of the European powers set up holdings in Africa, Asia, and Central America. The Dutch still ruled the seas when trading with China and Japan, but the other powers were taking a greater role in exports from other nations, especially Africa and Central America. This also began the time of intense slave trade.
1651 - Hobbes and Locke
Hobbes’ Leviathan explored the processes of Absolutism and the sovereignty of the state. It became one of the most famous political theory books of all time. Hobbes supported the kings, and discouraged violence and revolution. Locke believed in self-government and democracy rather than monarchy.
1652 - Liberum Veto
The famous exploding of the Polish Diet was first used here. Because of this useless practice of disbanding the law-making group when one member disagrees set Poland back politically. The government was entirely useless, leaving the door open for it to be partitioned.
1653 - Thomas Pitt
Went to India in 1674 and operated a trading company in defiance to the East India Company. Was elected to the Parliament because he lived in a Rotten Borough, where no elections occurred for a seat. Father of William Pitt, who founded Pittsburg in the United States.
1657 - Formation of Prussia
Prussia came to be as a military state in 1657 with the Great Elector. This army fought a battle as Warsaw, which was the first all Prussian army. It was with this powerful army that Prussian society was based on, and that kept all but Napoleon out of their territory.
1660 - English Restoration
The politics of England reverted back to the pre-civil war days in England with the restoration of the Stuarts. They were restored with more provisions than before, having control over the military and the church, angering Rome. Charles II, the restored king, improved trade relations with European nations and made peace with France, opening a new era for England
1682 - Peter the Great
Peter made it a priority to Westernize Russia by connecting it with the rulers of the West. With this he hoped to bring Russia up to speed with the modern times, and he was somewhat successful. He also led military aggressions towards the Turks to secure a few warm water ports so that shipping could continue year round, instead of only the summer when the northern ports were open.
1687 - Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy
Written by Newton and published in 1687, it was about all of Newton’s mathematical theories. In the book he discussed physics, calculus, universal gravitation, and more. Newton was fundamental in revealing more about the world, and his ideas are still accurate.
1688 - Glorious Revolution
The Restoration did not last long, as 20 years later the people again revolted and threw out the monarch. The power was given to the Parliament, which was only open to rich landowners, but it was progress away from a monarchy to a democracy.
1689 - Montesquieu Born
Born to a rich and noble family, Monty wrote based on class philosophies. His famous work, The Sprit of Laws, explained how governments work based on climate. He also had influence over the writers of the Constitution of the United States.
1694 - Voltaire Born
Voltaire was simply a pen name, but he wrote many books about all sorts of things, including a secular history book, and Elements of the Philosophy of Newton, where he explained Newton’s theories to the general population. He originated from a bourgeoisie class, but became friends with Frederick the Great and other high class nobility.
1712 - Rousseau Born
Like the other two, Voltaire and Monty, Rousseau wrote about philosophy. He came from a poor Protestant family, and was a warped child. Rousseau was a very strange person, paranoid and constantly claiming that he was misunderstood. He wrote several books, including Origin of Inequality Among Men, where he wrote that people’s ability to be kind and generous were a result of nature, not of religion. Consequently he was rejected from both churches.
1713 - War of Spanish Succession and the Peace of Utrecht
Following the War of Spanish Succession, both France under Louis XIV and the Hapsburgs of Austria wanted the newly kingless Spain. The war and conflicts that ensued prompted the peace, which divided up Spain amongst many countries. The end of the war was settled with the Peace of Utrecht, where Spain was ruled by a Hapsburg and England got the straight of Gibraltar.
1713 - Pragmatic Sanction
Stated that in a state currently ruled by a Hapsburg, no other ruler could reign unless they were a descendant from that family. It set up the political monopoly that made the Hapsburgs so famous. This was put into practice when Charles only had a daughter heir, Maria Theresa, who ruled Austria.
1720 - The Breaking of the ‘Bubbles’
The first consumer fraud and investment blunder ever. The Mississippi Company and South Sea Company were both receiving large amounts of investments, but they weren’t actually doing anything. It was the first case of inflated stock, and when the bubble burst many investors lost faith in the investment system.
1733 - 1763 - Austrian Succession, French and Indian War and 7 Years War
This time in Europe was very turbulent. The French and Native Americans united to try to kick the British out of the Americas. The War of Austrian Succession and the 7 Years War were all to determine who had the military power over central Europe and for Brittan and France to fight over colonial influence.
1751 - 1772 - The Encyclopedia
Written by Diderot over the course of 30 years, he attempted to put all knowledge into a book. It was the first through encyclopedia, with many famous people adding to it. But since it was so large and so expensive it was not widely read.
1762 - Catherine the Great
With brilliant military victories, the Russian army took more land around the Baltic and Black Seas, securing more ports and trade routes. She also engaged in humanitarian efforts by trying to improve the conditions that serfs were living in. Like Peter, she opened Russia more to the West, thereby improving its economy and bringing new culture.
1763 - Peace of Paris
This ended all the wars of the previous 30 years. France gave all its territory in America to Brittan, who formed the original 13 colonies. In exchange, the French got all of the West Indies. In continental Europe, Prussia continued to be a country and Poland did not.
1763 - Steam Engine
James Watt made improvements on the earlier models of steam engines allowing them to be used in more practical application. He also demonstrated how the Watt was a form of enter, a joule/second. Watt’s steam engine was put on wheels and called a locomotive by about 1820, contributing to the transportation of goods in the Industrial Revolution.
1772 - Partition of Poland
The first partition occurred when its outer parts were taken away and given to Russia, Austria, and Prussia as a result of the war between Russia and Turkey. Then second partition occurred in 1791 when what was left of Poland became Russian. This occurred because Poland was not proactive enough to prevent the large countries from just dividing it up, and its pitiful political system didn’t help.
1775 - The American Revolution
The ‘Shot Heard Round the World’ starting the American Revolution. The Declaration of Independence in 1776 officially started the war with Brittan. With the assistance of the French, the Americans won, and formed the United States Constitution at the first Continental Congress in 1783. The United States would grow to be the most powerful nation over the next 200 years.
1776 - Wealth of Nations
Written by Adam Smith, he discussed the barriers on economic growth. He talked about the ‘liassez faire’ or hands off policy of the government, starting that there is an invisible hand that guides the economy and doesn’t need the government’s help. He also discussed capitalistic theories, like supply and demand and how it fits into the economy.
1789 - The French Revolution
This phase was when the ‘old regime’ was replaced by the modern society. Over the course of a few years, assembly after constituent assembly formed and was broken up. Finally the political climate stabilized in 1792.
1791 - Declaration of Pillnitz and the Coalitions
Declared that a general alliance against France was impossible, and the Continental European countries were more worried about themselves than France. With the First Coalition eliminated, Napoleon was free to take over the continent. He was never able to go after Brittan, for they had a far superior navy. The British navy was also the defeat of the second coalition.
1792 - The Terror
The Convention, with the Jacobins and Girodines voted to execute Louis XVI, and the people who did not were branded traitors. Following that, France came inwardly paranoid, and sent 40,000 people to the guillotine for being traitors over the next few years. Robespierre was the man behind the terror, and was eventually killed during the revolution that ended The Terror. His death was amusing, by shooting off his jaw in attempted suicide, fell out of a 2nd story window, and was still alive enough to be killed at the guillotine.
1793 - Cotton Gin
With Eli Whitney’s invention of the cotton gin, the production of cotton skyrocketed. Designed to remove the seeds from cotton, it enabled cotton to be more quickly produced and exported. Because of this invention the cotton trade of the southern United States flourished and the slave trade expanded.
1799 - Napoleon Takes Power
Following the overthrow of the Terror, Napoleon took power from seemingly nowhere. He formed the consulate in 1799, and declared himself as emperor. He would become the most notorious leader in France along with Louis XIV.
1800 - 1850 - The Rise of Germanic Nationalism
Napoleon’s invasion force was met with significant resistance from the Germans. His actions worked against him, but making all the tiny Germanic states into one, they had a feeling of unity and fought back Napoleon. Herder wrote a book, Ideas on the Philosophy of the History of Mankind, where he coined the idea of ‘volksgiest’.
1803 - Louisiana Purchase
The United States bought the Louisiana Territory from France for less than a cent an acre. France gave up on any nation in the New World, so concentrated their efforts in the motherland. This also allowed the United States to control the land from the Mississippi to the Atlantic, which was what made up the United States until the 1850s with the wars with Mexico.
1809 - Defeat of Austria
Napoleon and his vast army started moving towards Russia, and passing through Austria took it over. Napoleon placed Metternich in charge and moved on. Metternich would retain power for 40 years until the formation of Germany.
1812 - War of 1812
Brittan tried to reclaim the United States as part of the British Empire, but failed. After that point the British left the United States alone, and instead focused their efforts in Africa and Asia. The United States proved its power, even against just an enemy as Brittan. With their new sense of confidence, they took over the southwest from Mexico later.
1812 - The Defeat of Napoleon
As Napoleon and his army entered Moscow, they found it destroyed and deserted. He was forced to return to France because his troops were under-supplied and spread out all across his path to Moscow. But this was when the anti-Napoleonic forces acted. The Russians smashed his army, driving them all the way back to France. The returned with very few of the original men left.
1814 - The Congress of Vienna
An unprecedented gathering of European representatives to decide what to do with France. The Bourbons were restored to France, with Louis XVIII as king. Napoleon was banned to the island of Elba, and the balance of power in continental Europe was restored.
1815 - The Hundred Days and the Escape of Napoleon
Napoleon escaped from his exile at Elba and returned to France declaring himself again emperor. Again, the countries united against him and he was thrown out for good. Louis XVIII did not put up a fight when Napoleon came back, so the country really did not respect him as a ruler. He would be the last Bourbon to rule France.
1818 - Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle
This congress was of the alliance powers who were occupying France following Napoleon. They claimed that Louis XVIII would never be recognized as an authority if he was always backed by a foreign army, so they pulled out. Almost immediately the French revolted, and settled with the Congress of Trapeau in 1820.
1819 - 1850s - The Isms
The names for ways of thinking and organizing came to be in the early to mid 1800s. The first were liberalism, conservatism, radicalism, and socialism. Followed by individualism, humanitarianism, constitutionalism and monarchism. Only until the 1840s did communism, nationalism, and capitalism come to be.