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375 Cards in this Set

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Perestroika
economic restructing proposed by Gorbachev; failed
permitted freer prices, more independent state enterprises, and personal services.
(in the Soviet Union)
Glasnost
"Openness"
Chernobyl accident
Unheard of meadia openness; government became more open (in the Soviet Union)
"Euro" Currency
Currency put into place in 1993 by the European Union
Slobodan Milosevic
Dictator of Yugoslavia
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1931-present)
Caucasusian
Soviet leader who's reforms led to the U.S.S.R. Era of reform; was trying to save the Soviet Union, not dissolve it. Lawyer turned politican; idealist.
Boris Yeltsin
Popularly elected president of the Russian Federation; rallied for the return of Gorbachev. Declared Russia independent and withdrew from the Soviet Union.
Lech Walesa
(1943-current)
Leader of Solidarity; elected leader of Poland after fall of Communism
Bill Clinton
Ran for president of the United States in 1992; promised lower income taxes, higher for top 1%, and low budget deficits
Helmut Kohl
West German leader, pro-American. Allowed West Germany and U.S. to coordinate military policy toward Soviet bloc
Francois Mitterand
Elected as presdient of France in 1981; led Socialist party and communist allies too; vast program of nationalism and public investment ment to "spend" France out of economic stagnation; failed. Austerity put in palce; kicked out in 1993
OPEC
"Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries"
Controlled most Arab and non-Arab coutnry's oil-prices, united front.
Responsible for oil shocks and economic distrubance on the international level
feminists
caused and crucaded for many "sexist" situation reforms
Oil Shock
left economic "ruin" for many nations; caused by OPEC
Bretton Woods Agreement of 1944
World leaders laid the foundations for a new international monetary system; proved instrumental in the unprecedented post-war boom
International Monetary Fund and World Bank
based off of American dollars/gold. "run on the bank" 35 bucks for 1 oz.of gold. inflation, unsetting of set pricing; selling of U.S. gold stopped by Nixon
Richard Nixon
Watergate scandal; designed American led framework of reducing East-West tension in early '70s to prevent Brandt from underminding US influence in Western Europe and the strength of NATO; withdrew from Vietnam; detente.
American gold
used as the base of World Bank and international monetary fund
Egyptian-Israeli Peace Treaty of 1979
Egypt reconginized Israel's right to exist and established normal diplomatic relations, while Israel agreed to withdrawl from Egyptian territory that was occupied in the six-day war
Anwar (al-)Sadat
(1918-1981)
Successor to Nasser, Yom Kippur War enhanced his power; enabled Sadat to achieve negotiated settlement with Israel.
Jimmy Carter
"misery index," tried to lead AA beyond verbal conmnation of Soviet Union; launched military build up
Menachem Begin
Israeli Prime Minister; aggreed to Egyptian-Israeli Peace Treaty in 1979
Nasser
President of Egypt; argued Arab coutnries should find a way to push up low oil prices in order to incrase their revenues and also strike at Israel and its Western allies, due to Egypt's lack of oil his plan failed
Yom Kippur War
4th Arab-Israeli war in October of 1973. led to peace between the two nations
Misery Index
first used by Jimmy Carter; combined rate of inflation and unemployment in a single number
Common Market
European coutnries created a large unified market; stimulated economy and large European unity
Big Science
Nuclear science and other studies; CERN, etc.
CERN
Nuclear research lab in Europe; atomic physics lab
Margaret Thatcher
Came to power in Britain in 1979. Some success in slowing government spending and privatizing govnerment property and businesses; strong advicate of the Atlantic Alliance
Ronald Reagan
Military build-ups; helped end Communism; cut income tax across the board; failed to cut government spending; large national debt
The Second Sex
written in 1949 by French writer and philosopher Simone de Beauvoir. Spoke of the "oppression" of women
Healthy life styles in the late 20th century
less money available to spend on healthcare resulted in
Atlantic Alliance
Alliance between the US, UK, France, Italy, and West Germany designed to lower East-West tensions and have economic sanctions against the Soviet Union
NOW
"National Organization of Women"
The Feminine Mystique
written by Betty Friedun, "problem that has no name."
Betty Friedan
leader of US women's movement; stressed group action; "the problem with no name;" identity crisis; formed the National Organization of Women in 1966
Jean-Paul Sartre
philiosopher and friend of Simone de Beauvoir
Simone de Beauvoir
French writer and philosopher; spoke agaigst sexism; emphizied French individualism
East-West Tensions
west= freedom
east= communsim
no likey each other
Willy Brandt
(1913-1992)
West German chancellor, polish treaty of reconciliation aimed for comprehensive peace for central europe and a new anser to the "German Question" Bought allies
Poland-West Germany Treat of 1970
Brandt signed to form comprehensive peace in Central Europe
Detente
the progressive relaxation of cold war tensions world wide
NATO
"North Atlantic Trade Oranizaton;" miliatry and political aid
Warsaw Pact
pact between the Soviet Union and its sattilites
Olympe de Gouges
demanded the Rights of women be respected; pioneering feminist leader
Mary Wollstonecraft
demanded the rights of women be respected; pioneering feminist leader
Peter Abelard
man who perceived himself as a unique and produced autobiographic statement
railroads and Aborigines (Australia)
Europeans collected interest and also enabled white settlers to buy European rails and locomotives, developed sources of cheap wheat, and opened still more territory for European settlement. Hurt the Australian aborigines, who were decimated by the diseases, liquor, and weapons of an aggressively expanding Western society.
Abortion
First, Early medieval penitentials and church councils had legislated against abortion; Second, the women’s movement concentrated legalized abortion
Absenteeism of clergy
one person being in control of several religious offices, but not attending to them, church more concerned with moral and administrative reform.
Absolutism
sovereignty is embodied in the person of the ruler. Ruled by claims of divine right; had to respect the fundamental laws of the land. Regulated religious sects; abolished liberties held by different groups. Got nobility
in Western Europe
Baroque
the art in which Louis XIV of France glorified the nobles power and magnificence; especially in architecture
Abstract painting
paintings of real objects, but artist is more concerned with the arrangement of color, line, and form as an end in itself.
Act for the Submission of the Clergy
required churchmen to submit to the king and forbade the publication of ecclesiastical laws without royal permission
Act in Restraint of Appeals
Declared the king to be the supreme sovereign in England and forbade judicial appeals to the papacy, thus establishing the Crown as the highest legal authority in the land.
John Adams
“A Parliament of Great Britain can have no more rights to tax the colonies than a Parliament of Paris.”
Konrad Adenauer
the former mayor of Cologne and a long-time anti-Nazi; held successful democratic rule in West Germany’s government, making the Christian Democrats W.G.’s majority party.
An Admonition to Peace (Luther)
blasted the lords in writing and siding with the peasants in order to prevent rebellion, trying to stop it, it didn’t work
Adrian VI (Pope)
Dutch pope, tried desperately to reform the church and to check the spread of Protestantism
black slave trade
used to replace American and Caribbean natives who died under Columbus’ hand; used to harvest sugar cane, cotton, and other such manual labor
Against the Murderous, Thieving Hordes of the Peasants (Luther)
prompted the lords to crush down the peasant revolts that had occurred due to misinterpretation of his words and writing
Alfonso de Albuquerque
governor of India; laid foundation for Portuguese imperialism
Jean le Rond d’Alembert
edited encyclopedia
Alexander VI (Pope)
had a mistress and children
Anabaptists
to baptize again; believed only adults could choose about spiritual practices; religious freedom; freedom to practice more than one religion; receiving of inner light
Appeal to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation (Luther)
told the nobility that they had to destroy papal power or reform would be impossible
Audiencia
12-15 men on a council who were advisors to the
viceroy and judges; reported directly to the viceroy
Anabaptists
“To baptize again,” believed only adults could choose about spiritual practices; exercised religious freedom; freedom to practice more than one religion; believed in “receiving an inner light.”
Renaissance
the cultural achievements of the 14th – 16th century people. Rest on the economic and political developments of earlier centuries
Oligarchy
many rulers; rule of merchant aristocracies
signori
despots, or one-man rulers
communes
sworn associations of free men seeking complete political and economic independence from local nobles
popolo
Republican middle class; disenfranchised and heavily taxed; bitterly resented their exclusion from power; wanted places in the communal government and equality of taxation. Used armed forces and violence to take over the city government
reconquista
attempts of the northern Christian kingdoms to control the entire peninsula. Effort to religiously persecute non-Christians; Jews and Muslims driven out, converted, or killed in Spain
humanism
literary culture needed by anyone who would be considered educated and civilized
secularism
involves a basic concern with the material world instead of with the eternal world of spirits
Spanish converses
Jews who were lead to convert because of the Anti-Semitic riots and programs in the late 14th century through the mid 15th centuries; many held high positions in Spanish society as financiers, physicians, merchants, tax collectors, and even officials of the church hierarchy
individualism
distinctive personalities who gloried in their uniqueness. They stressed personality, uniqueness, genius, and the fullest development of capabilities and talents. Talents should be stretched until fully realized
materialism
focus on non-spiritual items and objects
hermandades
“brotherhoods” which were popular groups in the towns given the authority to act both as local police forces and as judicial tribunals
Machiavellian
synonym for the politically devious, corrupt, and crafty; indicating actions in which the end justifies the means
Jan Hus
N/A
English Royal Council and Court of Star chamber
English Royal Council :: put “minor nobility/middle class” in more powerful position. Few nobles were placed in the council.

Court of Star chamber :: where nobles were judged away from where they lived in order for rulings to be less corrupt; fur collar crimes
conquest of Granada
(6 January 1492) signaled the end of eight centuries of Spanish struggle against the Arabs in southern Spain and the conclusion of the reconquista
Habsburg-Valois wars
(1522) series of conflicts began; battlefield was often Italy
Brunelleschi’s Foundling Hospital in Florence
developed to help slow the killing and abandoning of children
Pico della Mirandola
Diversity of Man, “man created in god’s image;” no limit to what man can do
Desiderius Erasmus
Dutch humanist; orphaned and forced to enter monastery; education is a means to reform; Christianity is not formalism, special ceremonies, or law; Christ is Christianity
Jan van Eyck
artist; used oil paints; realism and remarkable attention to human personality
Thomas More
Utopia, perfect world; would be killed for his thoughts and beliefs
Donatello
Sculptor with the most influence in Florentine before Michelangelo
Baldassare Castiglione
The Courtier, ultimate gentle man
Niccolo Machiavelli
The Prince, the end justifies the means
Johan Gutenberg
one of the inventors of the printing press; movable type
Lefevre d’Etaples
French priest; of the first to attempt to apply humanistic learning to religious problems; believed that religious knowledge was the road to reform; created an edition of the Psalms and a momentary on Saint Paul’s epistles
Saint John Chrysostom
sexist towards women and preached against homosexuality. Preached against anyone who believed differently than Catholics, mostly the Jews; ignored the facts that the Romans killed Christ and Christ had forgiven his executioners from the cross
Lorenzo Valla
On Pleasure, humanist who defended the pleasures of the senses as the highest good. Study on On the False Donation of Constantine, has been praised and demonstrated that the text letting the papacy claim jurisdiction over vast territories in the western Europe was fake. This weakened the foundations of papal claims to temporal authority. His work exemplifies the application of critical scholarship to old and almost-sacred writings as well as the new secular spirit of the Renaissance
Savonarola
Dominican friar who had predicted the French invasion at Florence. He attacked what he considered the paganism and moral vice of the city during 1491-1494, the undemocratic government of Lorenzo de’ Medici and the corruption of Pope Alexander. Had popular support for a time from ordinary people; became the religious leader of Florence and contributed to the fall of the Medici. Excommunicate by the pope and executed because of his moral denunciations. Common people did not share the worldly outlook of the commercial and intellectual elite. Career illustrates the internal instability of the Italian cities and instability that invited foreign invasion
Jerome Bosch
(pg 426-427 & 445)
Francois Rabelais
(pg 425)
Cesare Borgia
(pg 406)
The German Peasants’ Revolt of 1525
75,000 peasants killed by nobility when they wrongly interpreted Luther’s words, “A Christian man is the most free lord of all and subject to none.” They thought free was freedom from their lords, Luther meant freedom to worship god
Pluralism
one person taking over many jobs; sold to the highest bidder. This led to absenteeism for one man can’t control several areas all at once. At least not effectively; many were not even priests to begin with
Brethren of the Common Life
Lived in stark simplicity and carried out daily Gspel teachings; feed the hungry, cloth the naked, and visit the sick; taught in local schools to prepare devout candidates for the priesthood and monastic life. Personal, inner experience was what they believed religion was
John Knox
(1560-1567) dominated the movement for reform in Scotland. Studied and worked with Clavin; established Presbyterian church, Book of Common Order
Ulrich Zwingli
(1484-1531) humanist of Zurich, influenced by Luther; stimulated reforms in Zurich, a Swiss city, and Bern
Archbishop Crammer
(pg 463)
John Tetzel
Dominican friar; told to sell indulgences; hired by Archbishop Albert. “As soon as coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs”
Martin Luther
German Augustmia friar launched the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century. A miner’s son who became a professor of theology; he would be blamed for the German Peasants’ Revolt, as well as dividing the church and much of Europe; believed that salvation could only be obtained by faith
Transubstantiation/ consubstantiation
transubstantiation :: (pg 447 & 467)

consubstantiation :: (pg 447)
Council of Trent
meetings between 1545 and 1563. Reform of the church and secure reconciliation with protestants was the goal; laid a solid basis for spiritual renewal of the church and enforcement of correction
Holy Office
Made by Pope Paul III; sought out heretics; power through out the Papal States
Elizabethan Settlement
outward conformity to the church of England and making uniform all ceremonies
Benefices
high positions in the Catholic Church
Peace of Augsburg
(1555) Charles V agrees to officially recognize Lutheranism; Princes were allowed to choose which religion/religions of his territory
Ninety-five Theses
(31 October 1517) Church at Whittenber Castle; by Luther
preacherships
(pg ?)
The Imitation of Christ
by Thomas A. Kempis; written in Latin for monks and priests; urges Christians to model after Christ and seek perfection
The Institutes of the Christian Religion
(1536 & 1559) Absolute sovereignty and omnipotence of god; humans were weak; by Calvin
Roman Catholicism
followed pope, corrupt, etc
Lutheranism
“Protestant” officially formulated in the Confession of Augsburg in 1530; Generally meant all non-Catholic Christians
Calvinism
god all powerful; humans suck
Church of England
King Henry VIII wanted a divorce; made himself head of the new church; people fined if they did not attend the church services
Presbyterian Church of Scotland
governed by presbyters/ministers, not bishops; strictly Calvinist in doctrine, simple, dignified service of worship and great emphasis on preaching
French politiques
small group of Catholic moderators who believed that only the restoration of a strong monarchy could reverse the trend towards collapse; they would be what ultimately saved France; that no religious creed was worth the instability of the country; favored accepting Huguenots as an officially recognized and organized group; helped to create and path the way for Henry of Navarre; a politiques, who later became Henry IV
Mercantilism
a collection of governmental policies for the regulation of economic activities, especially of colonies, to benefit the crown
Inflation
(pg 390, 487, & 503)
Ariosto
Italian poet who stated that gunpowder was a coward’s weapon
Amerigo Vespucci
new world was named after him
Mundus Novous
Vespucci; New world (Latin)
Huguenots
Calvinists in France
Michel de Montaigne
skeptic who wrote essays
Christopher Columbus
Tried to sail to India and hit North America; imprisoned by Spain and later released; made four trips to the new world; Genocide?; Genoese mariner; “San Salvador”
Bartholomew Diaz
Sailed to the Cape of Good Hope (1487) had to turn back because of storms and threat of mutiny; later would set up trading posts in India with Cabral
Hernando Cortez
“I have come to win gold, not to plow fields like a peasant.” Mexico City, capital of New Spain; conquered the Aztecs with only 600 men
Habsburg-Valois Wars
ended by the Treaty of Cateau-Camrbesis
Quinto
20% of all metals mined in the New World went to the Spanish crown
Audiencia
12-15 men on a council who were advisors to the viceroy and judges; reported directly to the viceroy
Corregidores
local lords who held judicial and military powers; Spanish
Thirty Years’ War
Phase I [Bohemia] and Phase II [Danish] Catholics won; Phase III and Phase IV Protestants win with the help of France and Sweden; not to mention the English
Defeat of the Spanish Armada
Decay of Spain; 65 of 130 ships returned; bad navigation and weather; excellent English navy
Concordat of Bologna
(1516) Pope head of the church but Francis I could still choose clergy in France; Catholicism official religion; Calvinism became more appealing because of church corruption
Peace of Westphalia
(1648) No unification of the Holy Roman Empire [HRE]; Pope had to stay out of HRE religious business; France and Sweden granted land in the HRE; ended religious wars for the time being
Saint Bartholomew’s Day massacre
Result of religious and political unrest; also the marriage of Margaret de Valois and Henry of Navarre
War of the Three Henrys
King Henry II, Catholic and fights to remain in power; Henry of Navarre, Protestant, fights for political and religious reasons; Henry of Guise, Catholic, fights for political reasons (pg 493)
Edict of Nantes
allowed Protestants to practice religion in 200 fortified forts and gave them the right to defend themselves; Catholicism made the official religion of France
Ogier Gheselin de Busbecq
16th century diplomat; “religion provides the pretext, and gold the motive”
John Cabot
Newfoundland; New England to Delaware
Jacques Cartier
St. Lawrence region of Canada
Francisco Pizarro
crushed Inca empire in Peru; found silver mine; wealth for Spain and Spanish crown
Treaty of Cateau
ended the Habsburg-Valois wars; France had to acknowledge Spainish dominance in Italy
Bourse-exchange
(pg 487)
Vasco da Gavna
(1497-1499) Portuguese; reached India and returned loaded with samples of Indian wares; set up trading posts in India
Pedro Alvares Cabral
set up trading posts in India with Diaz
Fernandez de Oviedos
General History of the Indies
Venetian Marco Polo
Book of Various Experiences; monopoly of spice trade in western Europe
Sovereignty
no system of courts competes with state courts in the delivery of justice; private armies present no threat to royal authority because of the stronger state army’ royal laws touched all people in the country; local lords no longer ruled the areas
Totalitarianism
seeks to direct all facets of a state’s culture in the interest of the state
Absolutism
sovereignty is embodied in the person of the ruler; ruled by claims of divine right; had to respect the fundamental laws of the land’ regulated religious sects’ ablolished liberties held by different groups; got nobility?
Constiutionalsim
limitation of government by law
Cabinet government
leading ministers formulate common policy and conduct business of the country; ministers must have seats in the House of Commons and have a majority of support from the House of Commons
French classicism
principles of absolutism modeled French classicism; was represent of noble actions in a logical and orderly, but non-realistic, way
Quixotic
“idealistic but impractical”
Commonwealth
republican form of government
Buregucracios
composed of career officials appointed and solely accountable to the king
Thomas Becket
reaped profit from public office and position
Thomas Wolsey
reaped profit from public office and position
The French intendants
Ran the 32 districts set up by Cardinal Richelieu
Sully :: Maxiamillion de Bethure
duke of Sully; great minister to Henry IV; laid foundation for French absolutism; financial genius; reduced royal debt and built up the treasury; revived the paulette; assigned specific expenses; over-sea trade- subsidized the Company of Trade for trade with the Indies; countrywide highway systems; dreamed of international peace
Paulette
annual tax revived by Sully; tax on people who purchased judical and financial offices and were not allowed to be taxed in those offices by normal taxes
Fronde
anyone who did not support the government; many were to be killed
Cardinal Richelieu
Ruled in the name of Louis XIII for 18 years; set up the 32 districs of France; ran the Royal Court; became the first minister before his death; tried to make the king of France the absolute power in France; spread absolutism in France
Richelieu’s generalites
32 districts governed by intendents
The French Academy
school started by Richelieu and made a dictionary that standardized French
Versailles
where Louis XIV made the nobility of France stay for part of the at least; allowed him to keep an eye on the nobility
Moliere
theater stage name of Jean-Baptiste Poquelin; plays that exposed hypocrisies and follies of society; comedies
Racine
Jean Racine; analyzed power of love; plays involving good vs. evil ; power of passion in women; simplicity of language; symmetrical structure; calm restraint; tragedies
Poussin
Nicholas Poussin; considered finest example of French classical paintings
Count-Duke of Olivares
able administrator; left to manage Philip IV’s several kingdoms ; devised new sources of revenue; thought Spain could be solved by going to imperial traditions; 30 year war; empty treasury
Dutch Estates General
handled matters of foreign policy; such as wars
Dutch East India Company
founded by regants of Holland as a joint stock company; investors receiving money % of money put in; cut into Portuguese trading in East Asia, Cape of Good Hope, Ceylon, and Malacdca; brought Ducth prodigious wealth; highest standard of living; 35% after 28 years
Peace of Utrecht
made between the grand alliance [English, Dutch, Austrians, and Prussians who untied to keep France from gaining toomuch power] and French and Spain; the French and Spanish crowns could never be one; England gained Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and the Hudson Bay territory; England gained Gibraltar, Minorca, and control of the African slave trade; Austria gained former Spanish Netherlands; set limits on power able to be gained; balance of power; completed decline of Spain; expanded the British empire; prepared Europe for alliances against France in later times
Grand alliance
English, Dutch, Austrians, and Prussians to insure the balance of power in Europe and to keep France equal with everyone else
Cabal of Charles II
(pg 547)
Serfdom
peasants who belonged to the land and the lord; mostly unpaid, forced laborers
Prussian Junkers
Nobility and landowning classes who dominated the Estates of Brandenburg and Prussia
Hohenzollern
Prussian family leaders. Ruled electorate of Brandenburg, but had little real power. Largest land owners in landlord society. Consolidated absolutist rule after 30 Years’ War
Kholops
people slaves to prince. Russia. Time of Troubles
Romanov
Anastasia, wife of Ivan Terrible. Michael Romanov, grandnephew of Ivan IV, elected tsar by nobles and reestablished tsarist autocracy. Romanovs brought about total enserfment of people, while military obligations on nobility were relaxed considerably
Boyar
nobles of Russia. Struggled with tsars over control of Russia. Tsars won and boyars were turned into service nobility. Held tsar’s land on condition of serving in his army. Powers reduced by Ivan the Terrible. Many murdered by him. Elected Michael Romanov to end Time of Troubles. Military requirement relaxed under Michael Romanov. Forced to serve for life under Peter the Great. Forced to attend schools to train for army for five years
Habsburgs
Austrian leaders turn inward and eastward to unify their holdings. Replaced Bohemian Czech nobility with their own warriors. Eastward turn made them enter war with Turks over Hungary and Transylvania. Defeated them with help from Protestant nobles in Hungary and France. Austria, Bohemia, and Hungary became Habsburg possessions and fragile unity
Mongols
Conquered Russia before brought down after Genghis’ death. Ruled 200 years. Unified E. Slavs. Used Russian aristocrats as servants and tax collectors
Pragmatic Sanction
Charles VI. Austria. Bohemia, Austria, and Hungary should never be divided, and throne might be given to a female
Cossacks
peasants who fled Ivan the Terrible’ s rule and fled to newly conquered territories. Caused Ivan the Terrible to turn to serfdom and high taxes to prevent formation of more Cossacks
Prince Francis Rakoczy
Hungarian. Revolted against Habsburg rule for privileges. Protestant. Had powerful allies in Turkey. Attached to national ideal. Rose up during war of Spanish Succession. Allowed privileges for accepted rule
Suleiman the Magnificent
King of Ottoman Turks. Most powerful empire in the world, including part of central Europe. Foes of Catholic Habsburgs. Apostles of Islam. Sultan was absolute head of state
Jenghiz Khan
Commanded Mongol army, or Golden Horde. Slaughtered and burned cities in Russia
Ivan the Terrible
autocratic tsar who expanded Muscovy and further reduced the power of the boyars. Married Anastasia of Romanov family. All nobles had to serve in army to hold any land. Added vast land to Russia. Murdered leading boyars and confiscated their estates. Left Russia depopulated. Made many peasants leave rule to newly conquered territories. Turned to serfdom to prevent Cossacks, and taxed heavily. Middle class did not develop as businessmen and artisans were tied to their jobs and towns. Had a secret police that killed boyars
Great Prince Iaroslav the Wise
Russian. Converted E. Slavs to Greek Christianity. Political unification of Slav territories. Single prince and single dynasty. Feudal division
Ivan III
acquired territory around Moscow, including Novgorad. Stopped acknowledging Mongol Khan as supreme ruler and assumed headship of Orthodox Christianity
Peter the Great
Russian tsar reformer. Forced nobles to serve in army for life. Made schools and universities. Conquered Azov and toured Western Europe. Warred against Sweden and won the Great Northern War. Reformed army and forced nobility to serve in bureaucracy for life. Expanded army with more peasants. Required nobles to attend school for five years. Peasant life made harsher. Taxes increased. People replaced land as unit of taxation. Serfs assigned to work in mines and factories. Made Russia become a European Great Power. Borrowed many Western ideas. Baroque style
Ivan Bolotnikov
Cossack who believed Russia needed a tsar. Killed nobles and officials during Time of Troubles
Bartolomeo Rastrelli
Italian architect. Worked with tsarina Elizabeth of Russia, who was daughter of Peter the Great. Crowned city with great palaces
Builing of the Winter Palace of St. Petersburg
Russia by Peter the Great. Tie between architecture, politics, and urban development. Made a city for himself to rule Russia from. Modern and baroque. Paid by Russian nobility and built by peasants. Broad, straight avenues. Houses in uniform lines. Parks, canals, streetlights. Each social group was to live in specific section
Siege of Vienna 1683
Ottomans attempt to take Vienna, Austria, but turned back and Habsburgs were able to take from them Transylvania and Hungary. Made through support of Protestant nobles of Hungary and Louis XIV of France
War of the Austrian Succession
Maria Theresa of Austria against Prussia’s Frederick. Forced to cede almost all of Silesia to Prussia, letting Prussia double population to six million. Made Prussia a European Great Power
Time of Troubles
period characterized by internal struggles and invasions of Russia, when Ivan IV’s son died. No heir, as relatives of tsar fought against each other. Swedish and Polish armies invaded. Cossack bands, led by Ivan Bolotnikov, slaughtered many nobles and officials
Battle of Poltava
Peter the Great of Russia wins against Sweden in Great Northern War at this decisive battle. Gained control of Baltic Sea
Copernican hypothesis
heliocentric, circular paths. Polish clergyman and astronomer. Claimed that earth revolved around sun and sun was at center of universe. Created doubts about traditional Christianity. Stars at rest. Huge universe. Earth just another planet Destroyed Aristotelian physics. Attacks from Protestants, Lutherans and Calvinists, and later Catholic Church
Law of inertia
Developed by Italian astronomer Galileo. Object in motion remains in motion unless acted upon by an outside force
Aristotelian world-view
Greek philosopher. 4th century BC. Motionless earth at center of universe surrounded by 10 crystal spheres: moon, sun, five planets, stars. Angels pushed them around. Beyond spheres was heaven. Christian way of thinking because it set humans as center of universe and provided a place for God. Science primarily branch of theology then. Light, Air, and Fire went upwards, while Water and Earth were downwards. Quintessence view
Empirical method
English Bacon. Experimental research. Combined with deductive reasoning to make scientific method
Deductive reasoning
French Descartes. Mathematical rationalism. Combined with empirical method to form scientific method
Rationalism
logical thought processes
General will
people’s wants
Tabula rasa
blank slate. Essay Concerning Human Understanding. Made by English Locke. All ideas derived from experience. Against Descartes, who believed everyone was born with certain traits
Parlement of Paris
13 judges court in France. Defenders of liberty. Won to decisive victories against taxation in France. Abolished by Louis XV. Louis XVI reinstated but bad decision as country went into financial and political crisis
Enlighenment
Secular. Urban middle classes. Aristocracy. Poor resented attack on traditional beliefs. Intellectual and cultural movement that tied together certain key ideas and was the link between scientific revolution and new world-view. Natural science and reason can explain all aspects of life. Not faith. The scientific method can explain the laws of human society and those of nature. Social science. Progress- the creation of better societies and better people- is possible. Western Europe
Enlightened absolutism
Benevolent absolutism needed to improve society according to philosophes. French. Rulers sought their advice. Philosophes distrusted masses and believed change had to come from above. Most influential turned out to be Prussia, Austria, and Russia
Philosophes
French philosophers. Brought Enlightenment ideas to the ignorant people and brought the enlightenment to its highest stage of development in France. Committed to bringing new thinking to the public, but not necessarily the masses. Public = upper and middle classes. People = poor. Poor were superstitious and confused while lacking money and leisure to care. Philosophes used satire and double meanings to spread messages to public in plays, histories, novels, dictionaries, and encyclopedias
Diderot
Edited encyclopedia with D’Alembert. French philosophe. Examined all of human knowledge and attempted to teach people how to think critically and rationally. 17 volumes
Bayle
open mindedness. Everything can be doubted. Skeptic. French Huguenot. Hated Louis XIV and went Dutch. Historical and Critical Dictionary
Kepler
Used math equations to prove theories. Assistant to Brahe. German noble. Made three laws of planetary motion that proved relationships among planets in sun-centered universe. Lutheran. Extensive math skills. Elliptical orbits. No uniform planet speed. Time to complete an orbit has to do with distance from the sun
Galileo
Italian astronomer. Discovered the laws of motion using experimental method, which was the cornerstone of modern science. Nobleman. Knew mathematics. Came up with inertia, which is that an object in motion unless acted on by outside force. Believed in Copernican theory. Employed by Medici family in Florence. Tried by Inquisition for heresy and made to recant his views. Made Two New Sciences and Siderus Nuneius. Dialogue on the Two Chief Systems of the World
Bacon
English politician and writer. Advocated empirical, experimental research. Said knowledge would make people rich and nations powerful
Descartes
French. Dutch. Stressed mathematics and deductive reasoning. Related geometry and algebra. Cartesian Dualism. Matter and mind. Believed all people were born with certain traits. Against English Locke
D’Holbach
German enlightened writer. Humans completely controlled by outside forces. Atheism. System of Nature
Newton
Lower English gentry. Alchemist. Made synthesis: single explanatory system comprehended motion on Earth and skies. Wrote Principia: integrated astronomy of Copernicus and Kepler with physics of Galileo. Formulated set of math laws to explain motion and mechanics. Law of universal Gravitation: every body attracts every other body in precise mathematical relation. Force of attraction is proportional to mass and inverse to square of distance between. Explained universe through mathematics
Montesquieu
French philosophe. Theory of separation of powers was extremely influential. The Persian Letters. The Spirit of Laws
Voltaire
French philosophe. Challenged traditional Catholic theology and exhibited a characteristic philosophe belief in a distant God who let human affairs take their own course. Age of Louis XIV. Dignified. Opposed legal injustice. And unequal treatment before the law. Influenced by Madame du Chatelet, scientist, but discriminated against because of her sex. Skeptical of social and economic equality. Hated religious intolerance. Wanted good monarch. People shouldn’t govern selves. Believed in rights of law
Copernicus
Polish clergyman and astronomer claimed that earth revolved around sun and sun was at center of universe. Wrote On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres before death. Created doubts about traditional Christianity. Stars at rest. Huge universe. Earth just another planet. Destroyed Aristotelian physics. Attacked by Protestants and Catholics
Brahe
Danish noble. Gold and silver alloy nose. Mass of data collected. Built an observatory using King’s money. Limited math understanding
Madam du Chatelet
French scientist discriminated against because of her sex. Friend of French philosophe Voltaire. Translated Principia to French
Madame Geoffrin
French. Famous salons, or informal schools for women. Women’s rights. Enlightenment ideas. Unofficial Godmother of Encyclopedia. Corresponded with King of Sweden and Catherine the Great of Russia. Christian
On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres
published by Polish clergyman and astronomer Copernicus. Heliocentric universe with earth orbiting sun. Published just before his death in East Prussia
Maria Theresa
(pg 529)
Two New Sciences
written by Galileo, Italian astronomer
Principia
English Newton wrote Principia: integrated astronomy of Copernicus and Kepler with physics of Galileo. Formulated set of math laws to explain motion and mechanics. Law of universal Gravitation: every body attracts every other body in precise mathematical relation. Force of attraction is proportional to mass and inverse to square of distance between. Explained universe through mathematics
Conversations on the Plurality of Worlds of 1686
Written by French Enlightened writer Fontenelle. Stressed progress. Made science witty and entertaining. Cynical of organized religion and absolute religious truth
Historical and Critical Dictionary
French Huguenot Bayle. Skeptic
The Spirit of the Laws
Montesquieu, French philosophe. Wanted separation of powers in government
Essay Concerning Human Understanding
English Locke insists all ideas are derived from experience- human mind at birth is like a blank tablet. Against Descartes
Encyclopedia: The Rational Dictionary of the Sciences, the Arts, and the Crafts
Examined all of human knowledge and attempted to teach people how to think critically and rationally. 17 volumes. Edited by D’Alembert and Diderot, French philosophes. Madame Geoffrin was unofficial Godmother of it
Economic liberalism
Adam Smith wanted free trade, no monopoly. Against mercantilism
Agrarian economy
economy depends on farmed goods being imported and exported. Very fragile as it depends on weather and drought and rainfall. Western Europe up until 1700’s
Famine foods
foods that were eaten in times of famine, such as grass, nuts, and undigested kernels of food found in animal manure. Western Europe
Common land
land that was free for all to use to farm goods. Hay and natural pasture. Taken away with the Enclosure movements. Western Europe
Open-field system
Developed by peasants of Middle Ages in Western Europe. Land divided into few large fields, which are then cut up into long, narrow strips. Farmed jointly by community, but large portion of arable land left fallow to let nitrogen back in. Fertilizer limited. Rotated field crops
Enclosure
Done during the Agricultural Revolution in Western Europe. Needed to get rid of common lands for crop rotation and more food. Opposed by many peasants and some noble landowners. Slow movement. Widespread only in England and Low Countries
Cottage industry
Peasants manufacture at home. Started in England after enclosing lands meant a landless rural proletariat. Population growth also led to it. Challenged monopoly of urban craft industry
Putting-out system
Rural workers producing cloth in homes for merchant-capitalists, who supplied raw materials and paid for finished goods. England
Fallow fields
Western Europe. Fields left alone and unfarmed to let nitrogen back in soil. Done in open field system
Agricultural revolution
Western Europe. Started with crop rotation. Alternate grain crops with nitrogen-storing crops, such as peas and beans, root crops, and grasses, and potatoes, turnips, and clovers. More food. Necessitated enclosing fields
Crop rotation
introduced in the Agricultural Revolution in Western Europe. Good use of fallow land, so crops could be rotated and some would leave soil tired while others would replenish them. More food. Alternate grain crops with nitrogen-storing crops, such as peas and beans, root crops, and grasses, and potatoes, turnips, and clovers. More scientific farming. Necessitated enclosing fields
Asiento
Black slave trade. Spanish had to give it up to England in the Peace of Utrecht after losing the War of Spanish Succession
Mestizos
of Indian mothers and Spanish fathers. Lowest on social ladder of Spain
Creole elite
Spanish blood born in America. Had more power than Mestizos, but were lower in social ladder than pure Spanish people born in Spain. Landowners that dominated economy and Indian population through debt peonage. Agricultural serfdom
Adam Smith
Scottish professor. Founded modern economics through general idea of freedom of enterprise in foreign trade. Wanted economic liberalism. Wrote Wealth of Nations. Claimed that mercantilism stifled economic growth. Free competition. Self-interest. Unregulated capitalism. Government has three duties. Building of public works, maintain civil order, and defense against invasion
Marquies de Montcalm
New France officer. Defeated by British at Quebec
Jethro Tull
Englishman. Advocated the use of horses for plowing instead of oxen and made drilling equipment for sowing seeds in a more uniform manner. Empirical research. Selective breeding. Aristocrat
Charles Townsend
Englishman. Ambassador to Holland. Turnip Townsend
Cornelius Vermuyden
Dutch engineer. Helped England drain its marshes to create more arable land
Bubonic plague
Hurt agriculture in western and eastern Europe, but eastern Europe handled it worse and enserfed its people when nobles ran into economic qualms. Stricter quarantine methods
Asiatic brown rat
killed off the black rats that carried the fleas that were infected with the black plague. Fleas did not like Asiatic brown rat, so bubonic plague subsided eventually
British Navigation Acts
Started by Cromwell and Charles II. Form of economic warfare. Mercantilist acts. English desire to increase military power against Dutch and private wealth. Most goods exported to England must be carried in British ships, or their colonies. Trade monopoly with its colonies. Helped American shipping industry
Treaty of Paris
Ended Seven Years’ War, which was decisive struggle in French-British competition for colonial empire; France ended up losing North America but still had Haiti. Louisiana was given to Spain
Turnips
Replenished soil. Used by Holland, taken by Townsend of England and turned into Turnip Townsend. Nitrogen restored back into soil
Potatoes
Replenished soil. Found in New World. Used widespread in Ireland. Nitrogen restored back into soil
Blood sports
Commercialized leisure activity after industrial revolution. Bullbaiting popular among lower classes. Nobles resented it. Wedge driven between commoners and educated public
Preindustrial childhood
Boys sent to work as craftsman or laborers. Plowed and wove. 7-14 years needed to learn. Could not marry during that time. Girls worked as servants. Physically or sexually mistreated. Spun and tended cows. Turned to prostitution and petty thievery when pregnant. Dangerous because of adult indifference, neglect, and even abuse. Infant mortality very high
Extended family
Most common in Eastern nations, where farming needed use of as many hands as possible. Consisted of three generations or more
Smallpox inoculaton
Developed by Ottomans by immunizing selves by scraping it against skin. Jenner, English country doctor, inoculated it by using cowpox on hands
Nuclear family
Mother, father, and children. Most common in preindustrial Western and Central Europe. Many women and men never married at all because usually only married when each was economically secure. Self reliant and independent. Married at 27. Waited for father to die so son could inherit farm. Woman needed dowry built up
Illegitimacy explosion
Pre-marital sex always common. Marriage usually followed in pre-industrial Europe because of town elders’ pressures. Open field system was a check on it too. Fewer marriages during and after industrial revolution. Growth of cottage industry made people marry earlier and for love. No longer subject to village controls
Methodists
John Wesley: Englishman. Troubled by religious corruption, decline, and uncertainty. Methodist movement rejected Calvinist idea of predestination and stressed salvation through faith. Religious awakening among lower classes
Coitus interruptus
preindustrial revolution ideas of birth control. Men withdrew just before ejaculation
“killing nurses”
greedy women who killed and moved onto next victim. Not suspected because of high infant mortality rates
Lady Mary Montague
English aristocrat who saw Ottoman methods of inoculation and spread it to England. Still dangerous though
Edward Jenner
English country doctor who inoculated smallpox using cowpox
John Wesley
Englishman. Troubled by religious corruption, decline, and uncertainty. Methodist movement rejected Calvinist idea of predestination and stressed salvation through faith. Religious awakening among lower classes
Henry Kissinger
US Secretary of State under Nixon
Roy Medveder
distinguished, Russian dissident historiean who studied the difference in terror tactics
Colonel Muammar Khadafy
Colonel form Libya who won important concessions from Western nations and oil companies in the early 1970s, and his example activated the OPEC countries. OPEC presented a united front against multi-national oil companies and obtain a solid price increase
de-Nazification
undoing the affects of Nazi Germany
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
celebrated non-conformist in the Soviet Union who was permanently expelled from the country
Resa Gorbachev
wife of Gorbachev; dedicated professor of Marxist-Leninist thought; supporter of communinist leadership and Soviet Union
Afghanistan Invasion
Bad choice by the Soviet Union; withdrew under Gorbachev
Watergate
Nixon, spying, phone tapping, etc.
Karol Wojtyla
Pope John Paul II; helped bring down communism, esspecially in Poland; Polish
Christian Democrats
Moderate Catholic party that emerged after WWII; played important part in WE renaissance
Fall of Communism
25 December 1991
Nikita Khrushchev
offical of the communist party; leader in de-Stanlinization
Czechoslovakia
Liberty in 1989
"Velvet Revolution" led by Constitutional democracy
Partition (1993) peacefully done
Czech Republic (Germanic/Sudation lands)
Slovakia (Slavs)
Great Russians
Concentrated in the central Russian heartland and in Siberia and who also held through the Communist Party the commanding leadership positions in the non-Russian republics. Constituated less than half of the total Soviet population.
Feared greater freedom and open political competition
Vaclav Havel
Czech playwrite turned president
Andrei Gromyko
Soviet foreign prime minister
Conference on Security & Cooperation in Europe
35 nation summit opened deliberations in Helsink, Finland in 1973; after long negotiations, concluded a Final Agreement in 1975:
- political frontiers could not be changed by force
- Soviet Union had to agree to civil, human, and political rights for its people; ignored later
Janos Kadar
Hungary's communist boss, permitted liberalization of the rigid planned ecnomy after uprisings in exchange for the political obedience and continued communist control
Federal Republic of Germany
West Germany = democracy; largest of the two Germanies
German Democratic Republic
East German = Communist; smaller
Helmut Schmidt
Brandt's successor; agreed NATO forces had to be strengthened and medium-range missiles had to be deployed in Western Europe by NATO
Wojciech Jarvzelski
Communist leader Gerneral, struck Poland in the dead of night, in the dead of winter, in December 1981. proclaimed martial law, cut all communication, arrested Solidarity leaders and saved the nation from Soviet anger and danger
Lenin Shipyard Strikes
Gdansk Agreement = Solidarity
Roman Catholic Church
Pope John-Paul II supported freedom and democracy; Poland especially
Rumania
bloody liberty
Poland
1988
Lech Walesa
Joined NATO
Georgian Conflict of 1989
April; Gorbachev drew back from repression; nationalists' demands continued to grow in the non-Russian Soviet republics
Democratization
the introduction of democracy to former communistic countries
liberal democracy
?
re-Stalinization
re-implication of Stalin's hard line rule
Leonid Brezhnev
Leader of the Soviet Union; discouraged personal initiative and economic efficiency; it was also ill-suited to secure effective cooperation of the rapidly growing class of well-educated urban experts
Yuri Andropov
(1914-1984)
Successor to Brezhnev; chief of police, tried to invigorate the system. introducted modest reforms to improve economic performance and campaigned against worker absenteeism and high-level corrupiton; mostly failed, but pathed the way for Gorbachev
Brezhnev Doctrine
proclaimed the right of the Soviet Union and its allies to intervene at will in Eastern Europe
Commonwealth of Independent States
established in 1992
Kidnapping of Gorby
drove communism down even further instead of saving it
Alliance of Germany
Conservative-liberal; defeated East German Democrats in the East German elections; quickly negotiated an economic alliance on favorable terms with Kohl
Polish parliament
Solidarity won all minority seats; 460 members
Hungary
1988
Free elections (Janos Kadar = multiparty)
Conservative democracy
Joined NATO
Maastricht Treaty of 1990
Euro created
Single European Act of 1986
Ground rules for European Union
Single market in 1993
Gdansk Agreement of 1980
Strikers in the Lenin shipyard demanded:
- the right to form free trade unions
- the right to strike
- freedom of speech
- release of political prisoners
- economic reforms
government gave into demands
Nicolae Ceausescu
(1918-1989)
Rumanian dictator who refused to step down from power during the collapse of communism. wife and self executed by a military court; replaced by a coalition government
Vladimir Zhirinovsky
captured large amounts of Russian votes, communist
Paris Accord of 1990
accepted territorial boundries
"Polish Miracle" of 1980
- the answered demands of the Solidarity by the communist party government in poland
- Pope John-Paul II
Solidarity
Free, democratic Polish trade union led by Lech Walesa; supported by the Catholic Church and Pope personally
Warsaw Ghetto memorial
Brandt "begged for forgiveness
unemployment
oil shock, contributed to international and national debts
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization, military and political aid
National/International Debt
rised sharply during the post-war ara due to oil shock and military build ups, welfare, unemployment, and healthcare
Henry Kissinger
U.S. Secrety of State under Nixon
Roy Medveder
distingushed, Russian dissident historian who studied the difference in terror tactics
Colonel Muammar Khadafy
Colonel from Libya who won important concessions from Western nations and oil companies in the early 1970s. His example activated the OPEC countries. OPEC presented a united front against multi-national oil companies and obtained a solid price increase
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
celectreated non-conformist in the Soviet Union who was permanently expelled from the country
Resa Gorbachev
wife of Gorby; dedicated professor of Marxist-Leninist thought, supporter of communist leadership and the Soviet Union
Konrad Adenauer
sought genuine peace and reconciliation with France and the West in the 1950s
Afghanistan Invasion
soviet union, bad idea, withdrew during Gorbachev
Watergate
Nixon, spying, etc.
Karol Wojtyla
Pope John Paul II; helped bring down communism, especially in Poland, Polish
Christian Democrats
moderate Catholic party that emerged after World War II; played imporatnt part in Western European renaissance
Fall of Communism
25 Dec 1991
Nikita Khrushchev
offical of communist party, leader in de-stalinization
Czechoslovakie
Liberty in 1989

-"velvet revolution"

lead by constiutional democracy

partition (1993) peaceful

-Czech Republic
Germanic/sudation lands

-Slovakia
Slovs
Great Russians
concentrated in the central Russian heartland and in Siberia and who also held through the communist party the commanding leadership positions in the non-Russian republics, constituted less than half of the total Soviet population

feared greater freedom and open political competition
Vaclav Havel
Czech playwright turned president
Andrei Gromyko
soviet foreign prime minister
Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe
35 nation summit opened deliberations in Helsinki, Finland in 1973. After long negotiations, concluded a Final Agreement in 1975

- political frontiers could not be changed by force

- Soviet Union had to agree to civil, human, and political rights for its people; ignored by the Soviet Union later
Janos Kadar
Hungary's communist boss, permitted liberalization of the rigid planned economy after uprising in exhcnage for the political obedience and continued communist control
Federal Republic of Germany
West Germany = democracy; largest of two Germanies
German Democratic Republic
East = Communist

smaller
Helmut Schmidt
Bandt's successor. Agreed NATO forces had to be strengthened and medium-range missiles had to be deployed in Western Europe by NATO
Wojciech Jaruzelski
Communist leader General, struck Poland in the dead of night, in the dead of winter, in December 1981. Proclaimed martial law, cut all communication, arrested solidarity leaders, and "saved" the nation
Lenin Shipyard Strikes
Gdansk Agreement = Solidarity
Roman Catholic Church
Pope JP II

supported freedom and democracy, in Poland especially
Rumania
bloody liberty
Poland
1988

- Lech Walesa
joined NATO
Georgian Conflict of 1989
April; Gorbachev drew back from repression; nationalists demands continued to growin the non-Russian soviet republics
Democratization
duh
liberal democracy
duh
re-stalinization
reimplication of Stalin's hard line rule
Leonid Brezhnev
Leader of the Soviet Union; discouraged personal initiative and economic efficiency; it was also ill-suited to secure effective cooperation of the rapidly growing class of well-educated urban experts
Yuri Andropov
(1914-1984)

Successor to Brezhnev; Cheif of Police, tried to invigorate the system. Introduced modest reforms to improve economic performance and campaigned against worker absenteeism and high-level corruption. Mostly failed, but pared the pathed the path for Gorbachev
Brezhner Doctrine
proclaimed the right of the Soviet Union and its allies to intervene at will in Eastern Europe
Commonwealth of Independent States
established in 1992
Kidnapping of Gorby
drove communism down even further instead of saving it
Alliance for Germany
Conservative-liberal; defeated East German Democrates in the east Germany elections; quickly negotiated an economic alliance on favorable terms with Kohl
Polish Parliament
solidarity won all minority seats; 460 members
Hungary
1988

- Free elections (Janos Kadar = multi-party)

- Constitutional democracy

- joined NATO
Maastrict Treaty of 1990
Euro established
Single European Act of 1986
Ground rules for European Union

- Single market (1993)
Gdansk Agreement of 1980
Strikers in the Lenin Shipyards demanded:

- the right to form free trade unions

- the right to strike

- Freedom of speech

- release of political prisoners

- economic reforms

Government gave into demands
Nicolae Ceausescu
(1918-1989)

Rumanian dictator who refused to step down from power during the collapse of communism. Wife and self executed by a military court; replaced by a coalition government
Vladimir Zhirinovsky
Captured large amounts of Russina votes, communist
Paris Accord of 1990
accepted territorial boundries
"Polish Miracle" of 1980
The answered demands of the Solidarity by the communist polish government and Pope JP II becoming pope
Solidarity
Free, democratic Polish trade union led by Lech Walesa; supported by Catholic Church