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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Political Party
a group that seeks to elect candidates to public office by supplying them with a label- a "party identification"- by which they are known to the electorate
3 political "arenas" in which parties may be found
1. LABEL (in the minds of voters)
2. ORGANIZATION (recruits and campaigns for candidates)
3. SET OF LEADERS (try to organize and control the legislative and executive branches of government
Political parties in Europe can count on more voter _____ than can candidates in the US
loyalty (to a party)
Why are the parties in Europe so different than the US?
-the US federal system decentralizes all types of authority
-USparties are regulated closely by state and federal laws
-we have primaries, depending on the people to select candidates. In europe there are no primaries and you need the support of your party leader
-In Europe, if a party has the majority they have the right to select their chief executive
Unlike Europeans, Americans want to keep partisan politics completely _______ from their personal lives
separate --> we want to be nonpartisan at home and at work
4 broad periods of party history
1. creation (founding to 1820s)
2. 2 party system emerged (Pres. Jackson to Civil War)
3. comprehensive organizational form and appeal (Civil War to 1930s)
4. party "reform" (1900s to present)
The founding fathers _______ parties
disliked, hated, loathed, etc.
the first political party in the US was ________
the Jeffersonian Republicans
(whose enemies became the federalists)
Why is Jefferson's first party system seen as weak?
it was the first! nobody was born a federalist or republican and there was no ancestral party loyalty to defend
during the second party system, ________ were abandoned and replaced by the ____________
caucuses; party convention
Republican control of the White House in the 3rd period was largely due to these 2 events:
1. the Civil War (Lincoln)
2. the presidential candidacy of William Jennings Bryan (alienated many voters)
The two factions that emerged within the Republican party
1. party regulars AKA professional politicians, stalwarts, the Old Guard
great interest= winning
2. Mugwumps AKA progressives, reformers
great interest= actual issues
National Convention
meets every 4 years to nominate a presidential candidate
national committee
a committee of delegates from each state and territory that runs party affairs between national conventions
congressional campaign committee
helps members of congress who are running for reelection or would-be members running for an open seat or challenging a candidate from the opposition party
national chairman
manages the day-to-day work of the party as a full-time, paid worker elected by the committee
the first 3 rules commissions were aimed at
weakening the influence of leaders w/in the party...not the party

they advocated intraparty democracy as well as interparty
party leaders and elected officials who become delegates to the national convention w/o having to run in primaries or caucuses. Party rules determine the % of delegate seats reserved for party officials
political machine
a party organization that recruits its members by the use of tangible incentives- money, jobs, favors- and that is characterized by a high degree of leadership control over member acivity
Idealogical party
a party that values principled stands on issues above all else, including winning. It claims to have a comprehensive view of society and government radically different from that of the established parties
solidary incentives
the social rewards that lead people to join local or state political organizations. People who find politics fun and want to meet others who share their interests are said to respond to solidary incentives
Sponsored party
a local or state political party that is largely staffed and funded by another organization w/ established networks in the community
personal following
the political support provided to a candidate on the basis of personality popularity and networks
two-party system
an electoral system with two dominant parties that compete in state or national elections. Third parties have little chance of winning.
plurality system
an electoral system, used in almost all American elections, in which the winner is the person who gets the most votes, even if he or she doesn't get a majority of the votes

winner-take-all method
the minor parties that have endured have been the _______ ones
one-issue parties
parties seeking a single policy usually revealed by their names, and avoiding other issues
economic protest parties
parties, usu. based in a particular region, especially involving farmers, that protest against depressed economic conditions. These tend to disappear as conditions improve (ex/ populist)
factional parties
parties that are created by a split in a major party, usually over the identity and philosophy of the major party's presidential candidate (ex/ dixiecrats, bull moose)
an association of members of congress created to advocate a political ideology or a regional, ethnic, or economic interest
In politics today far fewer delegates are in it for the _______, concentrating instead on _________
money; issues