Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

262 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
3 muscle types
Skeletal/Somatic Muscle
1) voluntary- indiv controls musc contrxns 2) innervation-1 nerve ending from CNS supplies 1 muscle cell @ connection: neuromuscular joint
how musc receives nerve supply
Cardiac Muscle
1)involuntary-automatic, no willful control; heart 2)innervation-1 nerve ending from ANS supplies several cardiac musc cells
Smooth/Visceral Muscle
1)involuntary 2)innervation-from ANS 3)variances, a. 1 nerve ending supplies 1 smooth musc cell where precise/fast contrxn needed OR b. 1 nerve ending supplies several cells where gross/slow contrxn needed
ex variances:
a. intrinsic muscles of the eye, aorta
b. stomach, ureters associated w/ kidneys
Location of Musc in body: Skeletal association w/ bones for purpose of mvmt&stabilization (maintain posture) 2. surrounding body cavities 3. bulk of extremeties 4. all of tongue 5. diaphragm-sep thoracic from abdom cavity 6. extrinsic musc of eye
Location of Musc in body: Cardiac
heart only
Location of Musc in body: Smooth
1. walls of hollow organs:
gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, excretory tract, reproductive tract, walls of bv's
2. capsule of spleen 3. arrector pilli (hair follicles in skin) 4. intrinsic eye musc/ciliary musc
1.musc cells elongated along line of contrxn
when contract, contractile forces towards center of cell & elastic forces in opposing direction
c2.ells that move during contrxn
overall length shortens
diameter increases
3.all musc cells use __ as source of energy
4.all musc cells have a __ & __
sarcoplasm- cytoplasm of musc cells & sarcolema
equivalent to cell membrane/plasma memb; conducts electrical impulse/action potential/wave of depolarization stimulating musc cells to contract
2/3 kinds of cells contain __
myofibrils (skeletal & cardiac): made of protein myofilaments
protein myofilaments
include pr: actin, myosin
fxnal pr: tropomyosin, troponin
Skeletal Musc cells/muscle fibers
longest in length
long cylinders
cross striations (banded)
contain up to 1000 nuclei
syncytium: common cytoplasm sharing many nuclei
cardiac musc cells
shortest in length
cells are branched/cylindrical
cross striated
1 nucleus/cell
intercalated discs b/w cells where connect
smooth musc cells
intermediate in length
spindle shaped w/ blunt ends
no cross striations
1 nucleus/cell
general fxns of muscle
1.mvmt/propulsion regulation in BP 3.posture 4.body heat production
mvmt/propulsion: skeletal
1.locomotion: walking/running 2.other body mvmts: mvmt eyes, breathing, grasping w/ hands, initial aspect of swallowing, turning head
mvmt/propulsion: cardiac
propulsion of blood in cardiovascular system
mvmt/propulsion: smooth
peristalsis 1.moves food thru GI tract 2. moves urine thru urinary tract: kidneys to bladder thru ureters 3.micturation: urination 4.parturation: childbirth 5.defecation
direct regulation in BP
brought about by smooth musc contrxns & relaxations primarily in BV's-arterioles
1.skeletal musc contrxn 2. muscle tonus: few, but continual contrxns creating tension in specific musc- antigravity musc
antigravity muscles
located largely in trunk & legs; resist & maintain posture
body heat production
1.skeletal musc makes up 40%body mass-major contributor to body heat thru contrxns 2. catabolism of glucose 3.actual contrxns prod heat
gross structure of Skeletal muscle
1. epimysium 2.perimysium 3. endomysium
made of WFCT
found around/outer border cell
gives off components of itself extending into the musc itself
made of WFCT sheets
surround groups of musc cells (single group encapsulated=fascicle)
also give off pieces of itself
made of WFCT
encapsulates indiv musc cells
fxns: 1.organization of musc 2. pathway for bv's/nerves to move from outside to inside cell
organization of musc
1. epimysium holds fascicles together 2.perimysium holds musc cells together 3.endomysium attaches musc cells to each other
ultrastructure of skeletal musc
1.sarcolemma 2.many peripheral nuclei 3.sarcoplasm
plasma membrane
found @ surface of any musc
many peripheral nuclei
just underneath membrane; ~1000
ctyoplasm; 1.mitochondria 2.myofibrils 3. transverse system 4.sarcoplasmic reticulum 5. triads
sarcoplasm: mitochondria
found w/in cytoplasm
required for ATP energy
found b/w myofibrils
sarcoplasm: myofibrils
in cytoplasm
basic contractile units of musc cells
100s in cells
composed of: myofilaments & sarcomere
make up myofibrils
highly specific arrangement: cross striations/bands of pr
myofilament arrangement
A band-anisotropic, dark; I band-isotropic, light; 2 filaments: thick-cross bridges, myosin & thin-actin, tropomyosin, troponin
molecular unit of musc contrxn
all of sub located b/w 2 Z lines: complete A band & 1/2 I band on each side
Z line, I band, A band, H zone
Z line
made of pr alpha actinin: holds thin filaments in place, divides I band into 2 equal halves
I band
divided in half by Z lines, contains only thin filaments
A band
2, contain thin/thick: myosin, tropomyosin, troponin
H zone
in middle of A band, lighter in density than A band, does not contain any thin myofilaments in it
sarcoplasm: transverse system (T system)
1.series of many tubules cotinuous w/ sarcolemma, extend into sarcoplasm & interweave w/ myofibrils; "dead end tubules" 2.fxn: conduction of action potentials from sarcolemma to interior of cell where myofibrils located
sarcoplasm: Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
1.series/closed system of tubules & sacs 2.fxn: regulates Ca ion concentration in sarcoplasm & how much available for myofibrils
SR closed system:
sarcotubules run longitudinally down length of myofibril; expand into terminal cisternae/lateral sacs @ ends of sarotubules; form reticular network b/w sarcotubules & lateral sacs
sarcoplasm: triads
made of 1 central T tubule w/ lateral sac of sarcoplasmic reticulum flanked on either side
Micromechanics-condition of sarcomere: Relaxed musc
I band, A band & H zone @ resting dimensions
Micromechanics-condition of sarcomere: Partially contracted musc
I band & H zone partial, A band no change
Micromechanics-condition of sarcomere: Maximally contracted
I band disappears
H zone dimensions greatly reduced
A band no change
sliding filament theory
myofilaments don't change length, so only way banding patterns change is when filaments slide past one another
Excitation of skeletal muscle
neurogenic: requires stimulus to come to it from the nervous sys ...action potential passes down axon & arrives @ myoneural junction
Myoneural/Neuromuscular Junction
1.axon terminal (end foot) 2.synaptic cleft-space b/w axon terminal & end plate 3. end plate-part of sarcolemma of nerve cell; specialized portion of musc cell
sequence of events for stimulation
contrxn & relaxation of musc cells
"all of none" principal: contracts completely (appropriately stimulated) or not at all (inappropriately stimulated)
Biomechanical rxns of musc contrxn
1. conditions in resting musc cell 2. conditions causing contrxn of musc cells 3. conditions causing relaxation of musc cells
conditions in resting musc cells
low Ca in sarcoplasm; thick&thin filaments @ resting position; tropomyosin covers actin so myosin cross bridges cant make contact; troponin not combined w/ Ca; myosin cross bridges have reacted w/ ATP & in activated state
conditions causing contrxn of musc cells
action potential arrives @ myofibrils by Ttubules; stimulates later sacs to release Ca into myofibrils; Ca combines w/ troponin; causes tropomyosin to change position allowing myosin cross bridges to make contact w/ actin; myosin cross bridges cause thin filament to slide across thick fil; causes 2 Z lines to move closer
conditions causing relaxation of musc cells
Ca absorbed back into SR reducing Ca levels in myofibrils; Ca come off troponin; causes tropomyosin to return back to resting position preventing myosin cross bridges from contacting actin; ATP comes in & reacts w/ myosin cross bridges helping get them from thin fil & back to resting position
contrxn=__ process & relaxation=__ process
active (uses ATP); passive
__ filaments always move while __ filaments stay in place w/ contrxn&relax
thin; thick
Muscle physiology
motor unit
1 nerve fiber/axon of a nerve cll and all muscle fibers/cells it innervates; 1.nerve (made of many nerve fibers 2.enters musc fiber & distributes; each nerve fiber divides into axon terminals (2-2000 term) 3. each axon term associates w/ muscle fiber @ neuromuscular junction
1 nerve fiber stimulates
all musc fibers to contract @ the same exact time
Isolated musc preperations
types: isotonic, isometric, simple isotonic twitch, treppe effect, summation of twitches, tetanus, bioenergetics of musc activity, fatigue
one end doenst move, one end freely moveable; musc shortens, changes shape, has capability to move; moving end allows musc's to do work
both ends fixed, no moveable; no shortening, no change in shape, no mvmt; with no mvmt, do no work; tension increases w/in musc
simple isotonic twitch
need stimulus of proper magnitude, causing single musc contrxn/twitch
simple isotonic twitch: characteristics
stimulus->twitch(Shortening of musc->musc relaxes back to norm length
simple isotonic twitch: periods
1.refractory period(.005s)-no other stim than the 1 can cause contrxn 2.latent period(.01s)-from beginning of stim to beginning of contrxn; no mvmt in musc 3.contrxn period(.04s)-from beg of contrxn to max amount of contrxn 4.relaxation period(.05s)-max contrxn back to resting length
simple isotonic twitch: duration of twitches
1.medial rectus(White musc) .004 s 2.gastrocnemius (mixed) .008s 3.soleus (red musc) .100s
simple isotonic twitch: effect of stimulus intensity
quantal summation: inc stimulus intensity->inc musc contrxn; subliminal stimuli, threshold stimulus, max stimulus
simple isotonic twitch: "all or none principal" & variation fo contrxn strength
1.applies only to musc cells, not entire musc-musc cell responds to appr stim given, @ norm temp & no fatigue sub are present; contracts completely or not at all
w/ quantal summation ...
all cells contracting follow "all or none" principal; up to max stim, then all musc cells are follwing "all or none" prin & contracting completely
Treppe effect
1max stim/sec; 1st 5-6twitches show inc degrees of contrxn & then become constant; Ca ions inc for 1st 5-6twitches & temp inc inside musc cells slightly w/ 1st 5-6 twitches ...basis for warm-ups
summation of twitches
wave/temporal summation-2 rapid stim applied to musc w/ 2nd stim applied b/w latent & relaxation periods from 1st stim; result-contrxn caused by 2nd stim is greater than 1st b/c 100%/80% elastic forces to overcome
significance of summation
1.shows refractory period in musc is very short & 2. is the basis for tetanic contrxns
tetanus/tetanic musc contrxns
rate @ which stimuli applied to musc
tetanus: conditions
isolated, rapid & constant succession of max stimulus applied
tetanus: results
musc undergoes steady contrxn; no complete relaxation
tetanus: types
1.incomplete tetanus 2.complete tetanus
incomplete tetanus
steady contrxn w/ partial relaxations; wave/temporal summation ... result dependent on rate stim applied
complete tetanus
rate of stim applied so fast musc undergoes steady contrxn w/o any relaxations at all
significance of tetanic contrxns
1.its the way musc in the body contract 2.motor units begin contrxn asynchronously & begin relaxation asynchronously 3.allow for even musc contrxns, rather than instantaneous
bioenergetics of muscular activity: source of energy
conversion of energy in musc cells
1.normal metabolism during resting/mild exercise 2.creatine phosphate reservoir 3.metabolism during vigorous exercise
normal metabolism in musc cells during resting/mild exercise
glycolysis & anaerobic respiration; muscle cells provide 2 sources of glucose:from blood & glycogen; glycolysis: breaks down glucose to pyruvic acid; anaerobic resp: breaks down pyruvic acid to H2O&CO2
creatine phosphate reservoir
ATP->musc contrxn->ADP+Pi -> CP +ADP -> ATP + C; short term biomechanic metabolism
metabolism during vigorous exercise
(O2 debt)1.cell resp occurs very quickly, O2 levels used faster than supplied; O2 levels in cell dec 2. cells use ATP faster than prod, ATP levels dec & ADP levels inc 3.CP being used up, CP levels dec & C levels inc 4. dominating effect:
dominating effect:
1.pasteur effect:glycolysis occurring faster than cellular resp; ADP levels inc & O2levels dec 2.pyruvic acid levels inc, change to lactic acid, sent to blood, then liver, liver changes lactic acid back to pyruvic acid
result of prolonged stimulus musc contrxn, musc begins to loose properties; vivo 2. in isolated musc
in the body, fatigue does not occur; reversible b/c connected to BV's
isolated muscle
no BV's connected, all rxns headed to fatigue; apply max stim 1/sec for long period of time 2. contracture 3.incomplete fatigue 4. complete fatigue
stationary attachment of musc; less moveable end
opposite of origin; more moveable end of musc
description of what musc does when it contracts
agonist/prime mover
most important one action; causes primary movement in contrxn
assists primary mover
opposes the action of a prime mover; 1.provides resistance to action of PM 2.resistance provided allows for even musc movements/contrxns
decreases angle of a joint
increases the angle of a joint
moving away from the midline
moving toward the midline
part moved around central axis
related to arms/legs; end of limb makes circle & length of limb describes sides of cone
raises body part
lowers body part
circular musc that decrease the size of an opening
increase rigidity of a part
turm palm of hand upward
turn palm of hand downward
sole of foot moved toward midline @ ankle
sole of foot moved away from midline @ ankle
Fxnal grp of skeletal muscles: Extrinsic musc of the eye
superior/inferior/lateral/medial rectus, superior/inferior oblique
superior rectus
rolls eye upward towards forehead when contracts
inferior rectus
rolls eye downward
lateral rectus
rolls eye laterally
medial rectus
rolls eye medially toward nose
superior oblique
rolls eye downward & medially
inferior oblique
rolls eye upward and laterally
1.frontalis 2.galea aponeurotica 3.occipitalis
1.platysma 2.triangularis
action:draw corner of mouth/lower lip downward, control facial expressions
face musc
orbicularis oris, orbicularis oculi, zygomaticus major/minor
orbicularis oris
voluntary sphincter; compresses & closes lips
zygomaticus major/minor
pulls corners mouth upward & backward
orbicularis oculi
voluntary sphincter; compresses & closes eyelids
mastication/chewing musc
masseter, temporalis, lateral pterygoid, medial pterygoid, buccanator
zygomatic arch->(angle&ramus of mandible)
PM in raising madible
temporalis fossa(parietal&frontal bones)->(coronoid process of mandible)
raises & retracts mandible
lateral pterygoid
pterygoid process sphenoid & great wing sphenoid ->(mandibular condyle)
lowers mandible
medial pterygoid
pterygoid process sphenoid->(angle&ramus mandible)
raises madible
alveolar processes of max/mand->(orbicularis oris)
compress cheeks together
mvmt of head
sternocleidomastoid & splenius capitus
sternum&clavicle->(mastoid proc temporal bone)
1.contrxn one:flex of cervical vert laterally toward side contracted 2.contrxn both:flex of cerv vert anteriorly; pulls head toward feet
splenius capitus
spinous proc 7th cervical, 1-4th thor vert, nuchal lig->(occipital bone & mastoid proc)
1.contrxn 1side:head rotated toward side contracted 2.contrxn both:flex cervical vert posteriorly & extends head
mvmt of shoulder girdle
levator scapulae, rhombodeus major/minor, pectoralis minor, serratus anterior, trapezius
levator scapulae
1-4 cerv vert->(superior angle scapula)
PM elevation of scapula
rhomboideus major
2-5th thor vert->(vertebral border scapula)
syn for elevation
rhomboideus minor
7th cerv & 1st thor vert->(vertebral border of scapula @ spine)
syn for elevation
both rhomb major/minor
elevate scapula, adduct & laterally rotate scapula
pectoralis minor
antagonist of levator scp/rhomb's; 3-5th ribs->(coracoid proc scapula)
depress/move inferiorly scapula
serratus anterior
1-8th ribs->(vertebral border scapula)
adducts scapula and moves toward chest
3 regions; occipital bone, nuchal lig, 7th cerv vert & all thor vert->(clavicle, acromion & spine scapula)
whole body of trapezius contrxn
adducts scapula & pulls toward midline
upper region contrxn of trapezius
extends head
middle region contrxn of trapezius
elevates scapula
lower region contrxn of trapezius
depresses scapula
flexion of humerus
coracobrachialis, pectoralis major
coracoid proc->(middle humerus)
PM flexion humerus
pectoralis major
clavicle, sternum, costal cartilages->(greater tubercle humerus)
synergist flexion humerus
extension of humerus
teres major, latissimus dorsi
teres major
inferior angle scapula->(lesser tubercle humerus)
PM extension humerus
latissimus dorsi
6-12th thor vert, lumbo-dorsal fascia, iliac crest->(occipital groove humerus)
synergist ext humerus
abduction of humerus
deltoideus, supraspinatus
clavicle, acromion & spine scapula->(deltoid tuberosity humerus)
PM abduction
supraspinous fossa->(greater tubercle humerus, posterior side)
synergist abduction
adduction of humerus
pectoralis major (PM), syn:coracobrachialis, teres major, latissimus dorsi, teres minor
teres minor
axillary border scapula->(greater tubercle humerus, posterior side)
syn adduction
lateral rotation of humerus
infraspinatus, teres minor (syn)
infraspinous fossa->(greater tubercle humerus, posterior side)
PM lateral rotation
medial rotation of humerus
latissimus dorsi (PM), pectoralis major, teres major
flexion of forearm
biceps brachii, brachialis, brachioradialis (when one PM, others are the syn)
biceps brachii
coracoid proc scapula, upper border glenoid cavity->(radial tuberosity)
PM flexion when hand supinated
mid humerus->(coronoid proc ulna)
PM flexion when hand pronated
distal humerus->(styloid proc radius)
PM flexion when hand semi-supinated
flexion of leg/extension of thigh
biceps femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus
biceps femoris:long head
ischial tuberosity->(head of fibula)
lateral side of thigh
biceps femoris: short head
linea aspera of femur->(head of fibula)
biceps femoris action
long head PM (lat side); pull leg upward & backward
ischial tuberosity->(prox & medial tibia)
PM (medial side) flexion leg/ext thigh
ischial tuberosity->(medial condyle tibia)
syn flex leg/ext thigh
flexion of leg/adduction thigh
pubic symphysis->(proximal medial tibia)
PM medial side of thigh
flexion leg/flexion thigh
anterior superior iliac spine->(prox medial tibia)
PM flex leg/thigh
extension leg/flex thigh
quadriceps femoris: rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermedialis
retus femoris
anterior inferior iliac spine->(quadricpes tendon encapsulating patella w/ patellar lig leading to final insertion, tibial tuberosity)
vastus lateralis
linea aspera & greater trochanter->(quadricpes tendon encapsulating patella w/ patellar lig leading to final insertion, tibial tuberosity)
vastus medialis
linea aspera->(quadricpes tendon encapsulating patella w/ patellar lig leading to final insertion, tibial tuberosity)
vastus intermedialis
anterior femur->(quadricpes tendon encapsulating patella w/ patellar lig leading to final insertion, tibial tuberosity)
plantar flex foot/flex leg
lateral medial condyles femur->calcaneal/achilles tendon->(calcaneus)
PM plantar flex foot/flex leg
plantar flex foot only
proximal tibia & fibula->calcaneal tendon->(calcaneus)
syn plantar flex foot
dorsiflexion foot
tibialis anterior, peroneus tertius
tibialis anterior
lateral condyle tibia->(1st tarsal & 1st metatarsal)
dorsiflex's medial side
peroneus tertius
distal fibula->(5th metatarsal)
dorsiflex's lateral side
eversion of foot
peroneus longus
peroneus longus
head of fibula(lat side)->(1st metatarsal & 2nd tarsal)
PM eversion foot
eversion (syn) foot/plantar flex (syn) foot
peroneus brevis
peroneus brevis
middle fibula->(5th metatarsal)
inversion (PM) & plantar flex foot (syn)
tibialis posterior, tibialis anterior
tibialis posterior
porximal tibia & fibula->(prox tarsals, 2-4th metatarsals)
flexion of small toes
flexor digitorum longus, flexor digitorum brevis
flexor digitorum longus
proximal tibia->4 sperate tendons->(distal phalanges of 4 small toes)
PM flex small toes
flexor digitorum brevis
calcaneus->4 smaller tendons->(middle phalanges of 4 small toes)
syn flex small toes
flexion of big toe
flexor hallicis longus, flexor hallicis brevis
flexor hallicic longus
proximal fibula->(distal phalange big toe)
PM flexion big toe
flexor hallicis brevis
tarsals->(prox phalange big toe)
syn flex big toe
extension of small toes
extensor digitorum longus, extensor digitorum brevis
extensor digitorum longus
lateral condyle tibia, proximal fibula->4tendons->(middle & distal phalanges small toes)
PM ext small toes
extensor digitorum brevis
calcaneus->4 tendons->(middle and distal phalanges small toes)
syn ext small toes
extension big toe
extensor hallicis longus, extensor hallicis brevis
extensor hallicis longus
middle fibula->(distal phalange of big toe)
PM ext big toe
extensor hallicis brevis
calcaneus->(prox phalange big toe)
syn ext big toe
muscles of respiration
diaphragm, external intercostal muscles, internal intercostal cartilage muscles
contrxn causes inhalation of air pulled into lungs
external intercostal muscles
1.found in intercostal spaces connecting ribs together 2.contrxn assists diaphragm in inhalation of air
internal intercostal muscles
1.only fxn during functional exercise 2.contrxn causes forced exhalation out of lungs
abdominal wall muscles (4)
external obliques, internal obliques, transversus abdominis, rectus abdominis
external obliques
most superficial layer
transversus abdominis
run horizontally
rectus abdominis
run vertically
actions of all abdominal wall muscles
compress abdomen to assist in forced expiration, tension in trunk (posture), urination/micturation, childbirth/parturation, vomitting, defecation
extension forearm
triceps brachii: lateral, long, and medial heads
triceps brachii
a) origin: long head of the axillary border of the scapula
b) insertion: olecranon process of the ulna
mvmt of hand @ wrist
flexor carpi radialis, palmaris longus, flexor carpi ulnaris
flexor carpi radialis- lateral side of wrist
1) origin: medial epicondyle of the humerus
2) insertion: 2nd metacarpal
palmaris longus
1) origin- medial epicondyle humerus
2) insertion- flexor retinaculum of wrist
flexor caarpi ulnaris- medial side
) origin- medial edpicondyle of humerus; olecranon of ulna
2) insertion- 5th metacarpal
extension of hand @ wrist
extensor carpi radialis longus (PM)
extensor carpi radialis brevis (SYN)
extensor carpi ulnaris
extensor digitorum communis
extensor carpi radialis longus
a) origin- distal humerus
b) insertion- 2nd metacarpal
extensor carpi radialis brevis
a) origin- lateral epicondyle humerus
b) insertion- 3rd metacarpal
extensor carpi ulnaris
a) origin- lateral epicondyle of the humerus
b) insertion- 5th metacarpal
extensor digitorum communis
a) origin- lateral epicondyle of the humerus
b) insertion- distal phalanges of fingers
abduction of hand
1) extensor carpis radialis (PM)- lateral side of wrist
2) extensor carpi radialis brevis (SYN)
3) flexor carpi radialis (SYN)
adduction of hand
1) extensor carpi ulnaris (PM)
2) flexor carpi ulnaris (SYN)
supination of hand
supinator: lateral epicondyle humerus
i. Origin- proximal ulna
ii. Insertion- anterior proximal radius
pronation of hand
pronator teres, medial epicondyle humerus, pronator quadratus
medial epicondyle humerus
i. Origin- coronoid proc. Ulna
ii. Insertion- med. radius lateral edge
pronator quadratus
i. Origin- distal ulna
ii. Insertion- distal radius
flexion of fingers
flexor digitorum profundus
flexor digitorum profundus
1) origin- proximal ulna > common tendon>
2) insertion- 4 tendons: one to each- distal phalange of the fingers
extension of fingers
extensor digitorum communis
flexion of thumb
flexor pollicis longus (PM), flexor pollicus brevis (SYN)
flexor pollicis longus (PM
1) origin- proximal to mid radius
2) insertion- distal phalange thumb
flexor pollicus brevis (SYN)
1) origin- flexor retinaculum: 1st carpal
2) insertion- proximal phlange thumb; pull thumb forward and upward
extension of thumb
extensor pollicis longus: pM, extensor pollicis brevis (SYN)
extensor pollicis longus: pM
1) origin- mid ulna
2) insertion- distal phalange thumb
extensor pollicis brevis (SYN)
1) origin- mid RADIUS
2) insertion- proximal phalange thumb
abduction of thumb
abductor pollicis longus (PM)
abductor pollicis brevis (SYN)
abductor pollicis longus (PM)
1) origin- mid radius and ulna
2) insertion- 1st metacarpal- on side, instead on anterior of phalanges
abductor pollicis brevis (SYN)
1) origin- flexor retinaculum
2) insertion- proximal phalange thumb
adduction of thumb
adductor pollicis
adductor pollicis
1) origin- 1st carpal, 2nd and 3 rd metacarpals
2) insertion- proximal phalange thumb
flexion of thigh/femur
psoas major, iliacus
psoas major
1) origin- transves processes of all lumbar vertebrae (L1-L5)
2) insertion- lesser trochanter of femur
1) origin- iliac crest
2) insertion- lesser trochanter of femur
extension of thigh/femur
gluteus maximus
gluteus maximus
1) origin- iliac crest, sacrum, coccyx
2) insertion- posterior fermus, fascia lata, iliotibial tract
abduction of femur/thigh
gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, tensor fascia lata
gluteus medius
1) origin- laeral surgace ilium
2) insertion- lateral surface greater trochanter of femur
gluteus minimus
1) origin- lateral surface ilium
2) insertion- greater trochanter femur
tensor fascia lata
1) origin- lateral liac crest
2) insertion- fascia lata, iliotibial tract, lateral condyle of tibia
3) produces tension in thigh with some abduction
adduction of thigh/femur
adductor magnus, adductor longus, adductor brevis, pectineus
adductor magnus
1) origin- inferior pubic ramus, iscial ramus, ischial tuberosity
2) insertion- linea aspera femur
adductor longus
1) origin- pubic crest, pubic symphis
2) insertion- linea aspera ferumr
adductor brevis
1) origin- inferior pubic ramus
2) insertion- posterior medial fermur
1) origin- superior pubic ramus
2) insertion- linea aspera femur