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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Nicolaus Copernicus
-Introduced heliocentric view of the universe
-He waited before he died before he published his book On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres
-Afraid he'd get prosecuted by the church
Tycho Brahe
-Built the most sophisticated observatory of his day
-Strongly opposed Copernicus
Johannes Kepler
Formed three laws of planetary motion:
-Planet orbit is elliptical
-Planets do not move at the same speed
-The time it takes to orbit the sun relates to its distance from the sun

Those ideas were published in his book: On the Motion of Mars.
-Opposed Aristotle and Ptolemy
-said that objects hit the ground at the same time if dropped from the same height
-He made an improved telescope
-He discovered Jupiter's four moons
-Wrote Dialogues on the Two Chief Systems of the World
Isaac Newton
-Invented Calculus
-Came up with gravity
Created three laws of motion:
-Everything has inertia
-Force= mass * acceleration
-Every action has an equal and opposite reaction
-Said that science and faith are compatible
-Wrote Principia Mathematica
Miguel de Cervantes
-Wrote Don Quixote
*Explained how chivalry and knighthood are dead, basically said that medieval culture is gone
-one of the greatest english writers
John Milton
-Poet, second best writer next to Shakespeare
-Wrote Paradise Lost (on rebellion of Adam and Eve)

-Wrote Paradise Regained
John Bunyan
-lived most of his life in jail
-Wrote Pilgrim's Progress
*book on Puritan piety
Francis Bacon
-Politician and writer
-"Knowledge is Power"
-Wrote The Advancement of Learning
*explained the empirical formula (scientific)
Renee Descartes
"I think therefore I am."
-Wrote Discourses on Method
*book on analytical geometry
Wrote Ethics which explained Pantheism
John Locke
Created the rights of life, liberty, and property.

-Famous work was Two Treatises on Government which explained that government should give and utilize these rights
Samuel Johnson
Wrote the first English Dictionary
Francois Marie Arquet-Voltaire
Wrote Candide
*took three days, satire of French Government and Society
Danis Diderot
-Came up with 1st Encyclopedia
-Volume 1 released in 1751
-Volume 28 released 19 yrs. later
Edward Gibbon
-Wrote The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
Cesare Beccaria
Wrote On Crimes and Punishments
Francois Quesnay
Led Physiocrats and believe gov't. should remove all restrains on trade.
Adam Smith
Wrote The Wealth of Nations
*About supply-and-demand
Wrote The Spirit of Laws. Created blueprint for US gov.
Wrote Discourse on the Moral Effects of the Arts and Sciences
Frederick the Great
King of Prussia
-great tactician
-Enlighted Monarch
-called himself "First Servant of the state"
Joseph II
-Abolished serfdom and death penalty
-Abolish Robot
Catherine the Great
-Empress of Russia
-Overthrew husband and let him die in prison
-Sponsored Philsophes and tried to westernize Russia
-Supported Serfs until they had a rebellion against her