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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Atlantic Charter
Put forward by President Roosevelt in 1941 advocating the establishment of an international oragnization to replace the ineffective League of Nations
United Nations
In 1945 delegates from 50 nations met in San Francisco to created the United Nations which would be based in New York to ensure U.S. participation.
Cold War
The Cold War was the extended geopolitical, ideological, and economic struggle that emerged after World War II between capitalism and communism, centering around the global superpowers of the United States and the Soviet Union, and their military alliance partners. It lasted from about 1947 to the period leading to the collapse of the Soviet Union on December 25, 1991.
Yalta Conference
After WWII the Big Three agreed to temporarily divide Germany in to four zones (Great Britain insisted that France recieved a zone)
George Kennan, "Long Telegem", and Containment
Kennan was an officail in the U.s. State Department and in 1947 he wrote the "Long Telegem" which indicated that the Soviets viewed us as an ideological enemy and would never seek coexistence. Kennan became the architect of the Containment policy which was that the US need to be vigilent and patient in containing Russia's expanding tendancies.
Truman Doctrine
to answer to the threat imposed by the Communist insurgents in Greece attacking the new Greek government, President Truman went before congress on March 12, 1947 and stated that "it must be the policy of the US to support free peoples who are resisting attemped subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures"
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
The US established NATO in 1949 to counter the threat posed by millions of Soviet solders in Eastern Europe. NATO involved the U.S, G.B, France, Canada, Denmark, Belgium, Iceland, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Norway. Greece and Turkey joined in 1952
iron curtain
A metaphor used by Winston Churchill used to describe Soviet Influence over Eastern Europe.
Poland, Soviet Communism, and Katyn
The Soviet Union saw to it that Poland had a Cummunist government and once that was achieved they had to use force to maintain Communist Control over Poland. This was because the Polish people hated Communism, especially after it was revealed that the Soviets played a part in the Murder of 15,000 Polish officers in the forests of Katyn.
Marshall Plan
The Marshall Plan was the primary plan of the United States for rebuilding the allied countries of Europe and repelling communism after World War II. The initiative was named for United States Secretary of State George Marshall and was largely the creation of State Department officials
Yugoslavia and Marshal (Josip) Tito
Tito Led a cival war of the partisan groups (such as the Communists) and the royalist Chetniks. Tito's Comunists emerged victorious but his Communist government was not aided by the Soviets like the other Communist nations due to the fact that Stalin didn't trust him.
Aspects of Decolonization
Began on August 15, 1947 when India declared independance from Great Britain initating a domino effect throughout the colonies; as well as Indonesia breaking away from the Netherlands. And France lost Vietnam and Algeria
Organization for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC)
was established to handle the money given to Europe by the United States through the Marshall Plan
European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)
Created in 1951 to administer the steel and coal resources of its member states:France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxemburg.
European Economic Community (EEC)- ie Common Market
Established in 1957 when the founders of the ECSC signed the Treaty of Rome. They were joined by Britain, Ireland, and Denmark in 1973
Maastricht Treaty/ European Union
The treaty introduced new areas in the EEC such as defense, justice and environmental affairs, creating the European Union. It also established a common currency:the Euro, which was adopted by all counrties except Denmark, Sweden, and the UK
Clement Attlee & Labour Party
In Great Britan after the war, Clement Attlee of the Labour Party was elected Prime Minister
England's National Health Service
part of Englands new welfare program- it provided for a comprehensive system of free health care
Bloody Sunday & Irish Republican Army
On January 30,1972, 13 Irish Catholic were killed by British soldiers during a civil rights march. This led to an increase in violence from groups such as the Irish Republican Army.
Margaret Thatcher
Britain's first female Prime Minister
Fourth Republic of France
replaced the Vichy government after WWII was over
Fifth Republic of France
establishe by de Gaulle who served as a powerful president
France's independent foreign policy in 1960s
France withdrawed from NATO in 1966 and recognized the Communist Government of China
France's 1968 Student Revolts
Young people though that French life had become lacking in emotional or intellectual quality. They also were angry about the crowded classrooms, libraries, and labs; which led to many student revolts at every major French university.
Francois Mitterrand
a moderate Socialist who was elected president of France in 1981 and the again in 1988. He focused on social reform programs and reducing unemployment.
Italy's Christian Democrats and Communists
In 1946 italy was established as a republic with the Christian Democrats being the party of government. Unlike the rest of Western Europe, Communism remained a significant opposition party.
Berlin Blockade and Airlift
When the US and UK introduced a new form of currency in their zones in Germany stalin blockaded the cirty of Berlin; cutting it off from the west. The US began dropping supplies for 10.5 months until Stalin lifted the blockade.
Federal Republic of Germany & German Democratic Republic
In 1949 the US,GB and France combined all their zones to create the Federal Republic of Germany with the city of Bonn as its capital. The Soviet Union responded by turning its zone into the Communist-dominated German Democratic Republic.
Berlin Wall
A wall of barbed wire and concrete set up by East Germany on August 13, 1961 to prevent people from crossing into West Germany.
Konrad Adenauer (Christian Democratic Union)
Adenauer was a member of the Christian Democratic Union party who served as chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany from 1949-1962.
Willy Brandt (Social Democrat)
Became chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1969.
Brandts policy of reaching out to the Soviets and their satellite states; led to treaties between West Germany and Poland, Czechoslovakia, and the Soviet Union
Helmut Schmidt (Social Democrat)
Brandt's successor as chancellor
Helmut Kohl (Christian Democratic Union)
Chancellor who's speed and determination brought about German reunification in 1990.
Warsaw Pact & COMENCON
Part of the Soviet Union's plan to set up a system of satellite states; the Warsaw Pact established military ties and COMENCON linked their economies.
Nikita & de-Stalinization
Khrushchev was Stalin's successor after he died and attacked Stalin's former government. He said the Stalin strayed too far for Marxist-Leninism and Khrushchev sought to fall back into the guidelines of Marxist-Leninism.
Prague Spring
A reform movement in Czechoslovakia in 1968 to bring about a more humanistic socialism.
Brezhnev Doctrine
Declared the the Soviet Union would support with all the means at its diposal any established communist state in Eastern Europe that was threatened by internal strife.
Solidarity & Lech Walesa
In Poland, Lech Walesa led a massives strike at the Lenin shipyard in Gdansk. The strikers demanded to form an independant trade union which later came to be known as Solidarity.
Mikhail Gorbachev
When the reform-minded Mikhail Gorbachev came to power, he opposed the Brezhnev Doctrine. And in 1989 Communist regimes peacfully fell in Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria and Albania.
A city in the Ukrain territory of the Soviet Union where a major nuclear accident occured.
openness in debate
an economic restructuring of the Soviet Union
Boris Yeltsin
Served as chairman of the Russian Parliament, and led the resistance that led to the fall of the Soviet Union
Slobodan Milosevic & Ethnic Cleansing
Milosevic helped Bosnia's Serbs in forcing the removal and sometimes execution of Muslims in the Bosnia-known as "ethinic cleansing"
Dayton Accords of 1995
General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina