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35 Cards in this Set

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Events leading to the Scientific Revolution
Discovery of the New World, Invention of the Printing Press, Rivalry among Nation-States, Reformation,and Renaissance Humanism
Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274)
Took the works of Aristotle and harmonized them with the teachings of the church
Aristotle
ancient Greek philosopher
Ptolemy (c.85-165 A.D) and the Medieval view of the universe
Ptolemy was a Greek astronomer, whos system of the Universe was followed by the medieval peoples; The Ptolemaic system had Earth as a stationary object which heavenly bodies moved around
Nicholas Copernicus (1473-1543)
a Polish mathematician and astronomer who wrote "Concerning the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres" which countered the Ptolemaic system
Tycho Brahe (1546-1601)
&
Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)
Tycho Brahe developed a system where the moon and sun revolved around the earth and the other planets revolved around the sun;
Johannes Kepler developed system off of Copernicus' where the planets orbited the sun in eliptical motion
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
Made many advanced discoveries about the moon, the planets and their moons, with his invention of the telescope; Wrote "Dialogues on the Two Chief Systems of the World"; condemmed by the Church
Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727)
Wanted to solve the problem of how to explain the orderly manner in which the planets revolve around the sun. worked for 2 decades until he published "Principia"; also father calculus and the idea that light is made up of different rays
Francis Bacon (1561-1626)
One of the philosophers affercted by the new science of the Scientific Revolution wrote 3 major works:The Advancement of Learning, Novum Organum, and New Atlantis; which all attacked medieval scholasticism
Rene Descartes (1596-1650)
French philosopher who was seen as the anti-Bacon; Famous Quote: "I think, therefore I am"
Blaise Pascal (1623-16662)
A Jansenist Catholic, who wrote "Pensees"
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) and absolutism
Hobbes personally knew Galileo, Bacon and Descartes, and applied their experimental methods toward the natural world to politics. Wrote "Leviathan" and proposed the necessity for absolutism.
John Locke (1632-1704)
Wrote "Two Treaties on Government" which served to be critical for the intellectual development of the founders of the U.S.A.
the basic ideas: that man has certain liberties that cannot be taken away by a government
philosophes
the thinkers of the Enlightenment age
Voltaire (1694-1778)
French philosophes who moved to England, wrote "Candide", and became a Erupe-wide celebrity with his involvement in the case of Jean Calas
Montesquieu (1689-1755)
Fully known as Charles Louis de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu, wrote to what is said to be the most influential work of the Enlightenment:"Spirit of the Laws".
Denis Diderot (1713-1784)
was the father of the Encyclopedia; example of the 18th century belief that all knowledge could be organized and presented in a scientific manner
Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)
Most radical of the philosophes; wrote "The Social Contract"; his ideals helped set the stage for the Romantic Movement
Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)
Greatest figure in the German
Enlightenment; wrote
"Critique of Pure Reason"
Cesare Beccaria (1738-1794)
Italian philosophes who wrote "Crime and Punishment" which called for a complete overhaul in the area of jurisprudence.
David Hume (1711-1776)
Scottish philosopher, who pushed his thinking father than that of the French philosophes and into atheism; wrote "Inquiry into Human Nature"
Edward Gibbon (1737-1794)
Scottish author who reflected the growing interest in history during the Enlightenment. With
"Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire" he criticized the rise of Christianity in the Empire
Adam Smith (1723-1790)
A professor at the University of Glasgow; published "Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations" in which he argues agains mercantilism
Marquise de Pompadour
Louis XV's mistress who helped Diderot publish the Encyclopedia and avoid censorship
Mary Wollstonecraft
first woman to openly publish the ideas of women voting and holding office in "Vindication of the Rights of Women"
enlightened absolutists
a.k.a. despots
Rluers such as Catherine the Great, Joseph II, and Frederick II who could safely toy with the ideas of the philosophes without threatening their own power
Frederick William "the Great Elector" (r. 1640-1688)
ruler of Brandenburg, and served as one of the electors of the Holy Roman Emperor. Made an agreement with the Prussian nobles (Junkers)inorder to create an army: Junkers got control over the serfs
Frederick the Great (r. 1740-1786)
Prussian King freed the serfs on royal estates, but to keep the Junkers happy, did not free serfs on private estates. Brought an end to capital punishment.
Maria Theresa
Empress of Austria who pushed a series of reforms that removed some hardships off the serf population.
Pragmatic Sanction
allowed the assorted Habsburg lands to remain intact under one ruler, and granted the right for a female to succeed the throne of Austria because there was no direct male heir
Diplomatic Revolution
Maria Theresa worked out an alliance with France and eventually Sweden and Russia; led to the Seven Years War
Peter the Great (r. 1682-1725)
Russian tsar who did the most to westernize Russia and turn it into a major european power.
Catherine the Great (r. 1762-1796)
Toyed with ways to apply the ideas of Montequieu and Voltaire to her still smei-barbaric state. Began the process of revising and codifying Russian law
Robert Walpole
Was Chancellor of the Exchequerfrom 1721 to 1741 and became known as Great Britain's first "Prime Minister"
Jansenists
a Catholic sect that held beliefs on predestination that were similar to Calvinist views