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239 Cards in this Set

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Benvenuto Cellini
A goldsmith and sulptor who wrote an autobiography, famous for its arrogance and immodest self-praise.
Renaissance
Condottiere
A mercenary soldier of a political ruler
Renaissance
Humanism
The recovery and study of classical authors and writings
Renaissance
Individualism
The emphasis on the unique and creative personally
Renaissance
New Monarchs
The term applied to Louis XI of France, Henry VII of England, and Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, who strenghthened their monarchical authority often by Machiavellian means.
Renaissance
Rationalsim
The application and use of reason in understanding and explaining events
Renaissance
Renaissance
The period from 1400 to 1600 that witnessed a transformation of cultural and intellectual values from primarily Christain to classical or secular ones.
Renaissance
Secularism
The emphasis on the here and now rather than on the spiritual and otherworldly
Renaissance
Lorenzo Valla
Hummanist who used historical criticism to discredit 8th-cent. document giving papacy jurisdiction over Western lands.
Renaissance
Virtu
the striving for personal excellence
Renaissance
Baroque
The sensuous and dynamic style of art of the Counter Reformation
Reformation
Brethren of the Common Life
Pious laypeople, 16th-cent. Holland who initiated religious revival in their model of Christian living
Reformation
John Calvin
French thelogian, established theocracy in Geneva and best known for his theory of predestination
Reformation
Charles V
Hapsburg dynastic ruler of the Holy Roman Empire and of extensice territories in Spain and the Netherlands.
Reformation
Council of Trent
The congress of learned Roman Catholic authorities that met intermittnetly from 1545 to 1563 to reform abusive church practices and recouncil with the Protestants
Reformation.
Index
A list of books that Catholics were forbidden to read
reformation
indulgence
Papal pardon for remission of sins
Reformation
Inquisition
A religious committee of six Roman cardinals that tried heretics and punished the guilty by imprisonment and excecution
Reformation
Jesuits
known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola(1491-1556) as teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism.
reformation
John Knox
Calvinist leader in 16th-cent. Scotland
reformation
Martin Luther
German theologian who challenged the church's practice of selling indulgences, a challenge that ultimately led to the destruction of the unity of the Roman Catholic world
reformation
Sir Thomas More
Renaissance humanist and chancellor of England, executed by Henry VII for his unwillingness to recognize publicy his king as Supreme Head of the church and clergy of England
reformation
Depotism
The practice of rewarding relatives with church positions
reformation
Peace of Augsburg
Document in which Charles V recognized Lutheranism as a legal religion in the Holy Roman Empire. The faith of the prince determined the religion of his subjects.
reformation
Pluralism
the holding of several benifices, or church offices
reformation
Simony
the selling of church offices
reformation
theocracy
a communitty, such as Calvin's Geneva, in which the state is subordinate to the church
reformation
Usury
the practice of lending money for interest
reformation
Gustvus Adolphus
Swedish Lutheran who won victories for the German Prostestants in Thirty Years' War and lost his life in one of the battles
religious war and age of expansion
Duke of Alva
Military leader sent by Philip to pacify the Low Countries
religious war and age of expansion
Armada
Spanish vessels defeated in the English Channel by an English fleet, thus preventing Philip II's invasion of England
religious war and age of expansion
Vasco de Balboa
First European to reach the Pacific Ocean, 1513
religious war and age of expansion
Catherin de Medici
the wife of Henry II of France, who exercised political influence after the death of her husband and during the rule of her weak sons
religious war and age of expansion
Christopher Columbus
First European to sail to the West Indies, 1492
religious war and age of expansion
Concardat of Bologna
Treaty under which the French Crown recognized the supremacy of the pope over a council and obtained the right to appoint all French bishops and abbots
religious war and age of expansion
Fernando Cortez
Conqueror of the Aztects, 1519-1521
religious war and age of expansion
Defenestration of Prague
The hurling, by Protesants, of Catholic officails from a castle window in Prague, setting off the Thirty Years' War
religious war and age of expansion
Bartholomew Diaz
First European to reach the southern tip of Africa, 1487-1488.
religious war and age of expansion
Dutch East India Company
Government-chartered joint- stock company that controlled the spice trade in the East Indies
religious war and age of expansion
Edict of Nates
The edict of Henry IV that granted Huguenots the rights of public worship and religious toleration in France
religious war and age of expansion
Elizabeth I
Protestant ruler-England- helped stablize religious tensions by subordinating theological issues to political considerations.
religious war and age of expansion
Henry IV
Formerly Henry of Navarre, ascended the French throne as a convert to Catholiscism
religious war and age of expansion
Huguenots
French Calvinists
religious war and age of expansion
Ferdinand Magellan
Circumnavigator of the globe, 1519-1522.
religious war and age of expansion
Peace of Westphalia
The treaty ending the Thirty Years' WEar in Germany, it allowed each prince- whether Lutheran, Catholic, or Calvinist- to choose the established creed of his terriotry
religious war and age of expansion
Philip II
Son and sucessor of Charles V, ruling Spain and the Low Countries
religious war and age of expansion
Francisco Pizarro
Conqueror of Peru, 1532-1533
religious war and age of expansion
St. Bartholemew's Day
August 24, 1572- Catholic attack on Clavinists on marriage day of Margarer of Valois to Henry of Navarre (later Henry IV)
religious war and age of expansion
Prince William of Orange
leader of the seventeen provinces of the Netherlands
religious war and age of expansion
absolutism
the theory that the monarch is supreme and can exercise full and complete power unilaternally
constitutionalism
Bill of Rights - 1689
English document declaring that sovereignty resided with Parliment
constitutionalism
Charles I (1625-1649)
Stuart king who brought conflict with Parliment to a head and was subsequently executed
constitutionalism
The Italian Renaissance had as one of its central components
glorification of individual genius
Among the hypotheses offered by scholars to explain the great witch hunts of the 16th and 17th centuries are all the following except…
a deliberate papal conspiracy to smear protestants with charges of witchcraft
At the end of the century, the commercial capital of the world was?
Amsterdam
All of the following were factors in Elizabeth’s I’s decision to intervene in the Dutch Revolt except:
the impact of inflation on the Spanish economy
Consequences of the 100 Years’ war except: the
Development of French National Assembly
16 cent. Critics of church attacked all of the following except
academic pursuits of the clergy
A3T many European intellectuals see Europe’s mission in 21st cent.:
promoting human rights, democracy, and prosperity outside Europe
Subjugation of the Italian peninsula by outside invaders was
result of the Italians failure to coordinate a common defense
The Star Chamber
dealt w/ noble threats to royal power in England
Regard to divorce in 16th and 17th cent.:
Catholic didn’t accept, Prostestant did, however adultery and irreconcilable differences
Martin Luther wrote his letter entitled “95 theses” to ArchBishop Albert in response too:
a new campaign to sell indulgences
New Religious order for women that emerged in the 16th century
Ursuline Order
According to Laura Cereta, inferiority of woman was a consequence of their
own failure to live up to their potential
In the absense of the papacy during the Babylonian Captivity, rome
was left poverty stricken
France supported the Protestant princes of Germany in order too:
keep Germany politically fragmented
Luther & Zwingli disagreed on what?
the Eucharist
The Leaders of the Catholic Church?
readily adopted the Renaissance spirit, esp., when it came to art
A3T the Calvinists doctrine of predestination led too.
confidence among Calvinist in their own salvation
Mechanical clock became a common place:
14th century
The Inquisition was an attempt to
root out and destroy heresy
The population losses caused by the B.D. & 100 Years’ War:
resulted in the virtual disappearance of serfdom in France
Defeat in the Spanish Aramda:
prevented Philip II from reuniting western Europe under Catholic rule
During the 100 Year War, English kings were supported by some French barons because
Wanted to stop the French Monarchy’s centralizing efforts
European kingdon that took the lead in overseas exploration was:
Portugal
Charles II (1660-1685)
Stuart kind during the Restoration, following Cromwell's Interregnum
constitutionalism
Colbert(1619-1683)
The financial ministerunder the French king Louis XIV who promoted mercantilist policies
constitutionalism
Constitutionalism
the theory that power should be shared between rulers and their subjects and the state governed according to laws
constitutionalism
Oliver Cromwell (1559-1658)
The principal leader and a gentry member of the Puritans in Parliament
constitutionalism
Diggers and Levellers
Radical groups in England in the 1650's who called for the abolition of private ownership and extension of the franchise
constitutionalism
Divine Right monarchy
the belief that a monarch's power derives from God and represents Him on earth
constitutionalism
Frederick the Great (1740-1786)
Prussian ruler who expanded territory by invading the duchy of Silesia and defeatingMaeia Theresa of Austria.
constitutionalism
Frederick William(1640-1688)
The "Great Elector", who built a strong Prussian army and infused military values into Prussian society.
constitutionalism
French Classicism
the style in 17th-cent. art and literature resembling the arts in the ancient world and in the Renaissance-e.g., the works of Poussin, Moliere, and Racine
constitutionalism
Fronde
the last aristoctic revolt against a French monarch
constitutionalism
Glorius Revoulution
a reference to the political events of 1688-1689, when James II abdicaed his throne and was replaced by his daughter Mar and her husband, Prince William of Orange
constitutionalism
Habeas corpus
the legal protection that prohibits the imprisonment of a subject without demonstrated cause
constitutionalism
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)
Political theorist advocating absolute monarchy based on his concept of an anarchic state of nature
constitutionalism
Interregnum
the period of Cromwellian rule (1649-1659), between the Stuart dynastic rules of Charles I and Charles II
constitutionalism
James I
Stuart monarch who ignored constitutional principles and asserted the divine right of kings.
constitutionalism
James II (1685-1688)
Final Stuart ruler; he was forced to abdicate in favor of William and Mary, who agreed to the Bil of Rights, guaranteeing parliamentary supremacy
constitutionalism
John Locke (1632-1704)
Political theorist advocating absolute monarchy based on his concept of an anarchich state of nature.
constitutionalism
Louis XIV (1643-1715)
Also known as the "Sun King"; the ruler of France who established the supremacy of absolutism in the 17th-cent. Europe
constitutionalism
Maria Theresa (1740-1780)
Archduchess of Austria, queen of Hungary, who lost the Hapsburg possession of Silesia to Frederick the Great but was able to keep her other Austria territories
constitutionalism
Mercantillism
Governmental policies by which the state regulates the economy, through taxes, tariffs, subsidies, and laws
constitutionalism
New Model Army
The disciplined fighting force of Protestants led by Oliver Cromwell in the English Civil War
constitutionalism
Peace of Utrecht(1713)
The pact concluding the War of the Spanish Succession, forbidding the union of France with Spain, and conferring control of Gibraltar on England
constitutionalism
Peter the Great (1682-1725)
The Romanov czar who initiated the westernization of Russian society by traveling to the West and incorporating techniques of manufacturing as well as manners and dress
constitutionalism
Petition of Right (1628)
Parliamentary document that restricted the king's power. Most notably, it called for recognition of the writ of habeas corpas and held that only Parliament could impose new taxes.
constitutionalism
Puritan Revolution
reference to the English civil war (1642-1646), waged to determine whether sovereignity would reside in monarch or Parliament.
constitutionalism
Puritans
Prostestant section in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization.
constitutionalism
Restoration
the return of the Stuart monarchy(1660) after the period of republican government under Cromwell-in fact, a military dictatorship.
constitutionalism
Test Act (1673)
law prohibiting Catholics and dissenters to hold politcal office
constitutionalism
Versalles
Palace constructed by Louis XIV outside of Paris to glorify his rule and subdue the nobility
constitutionalism
War of the Spanish Sucession (1701-1713)
The last of Louis XIV's wars involving the issue of succesion to the Spanish throne
constitutionalism
William of Orange (1672-1702)
Dutch prince and foe of Louis XIV who becam king of England n 1689
constitutionalism
Aristotelian-Ptolemic cosmology
the geocentric view of theuniverse that prevailed from the fourth cent. BC, to the 16th &17th cent. and accored with church teachings and Scriptures
Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment
Francis Bacon (1561-1626)
inductice thinker who stressed experimentation in arriving at truth
Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)
Polish astronomer who posited a heliocentric universe in place of a geocentric universe
Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment
Deism
the belief that God has created the universe and set it in motion to operate like clockwork. God is literally in the wings watching the show go on as humans forge their own destiny
Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment
Rene Descarte (1596-1650)
deductive thinker whose famous saying cogito, ergo sum ("I think, therefore I am") challenged the notion of truth as being derived from tradition and Scriptures
Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment
Enlighttenment
the intellectual revolution of the 18cent in which the philosophes stressed reason, natural law, and progress in their criticism of prevailing social injustices.
Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment
Galileo (1564-1642)
Italian scientist, formulated terrestrial lwas and modern law of Inertia; he also provided edvidence for the Copernican hypothesis.
Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment
Laissez-Faire
economic concet of Scottish philosophe Adam Smith (1723-1790). In opposition to mercantilism, Smith urged governments to keep hands off the operation of the economy. He believed the role of the government was analogous to the night watchman, guarding and protecting but not intervening in the operation of the economy, which muct be left to run in accord with natural laws of supply and demand
Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment
Issac Newton (1642-1727)
English scientist who formulated the law of gravitation that posited an universe operating in accord with natural law
Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment
Philosophes
Social critics of the 18th cent. who subjected social institutions and practices to the test of reason
Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment
Royal Society of London and French Academy of Sciences
Organized bodies for scientific study
Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment
Tabula rasa
John Locke's concept of the mind as a blank sheet ultimately bombarded by sense impressions that, aided by human reasoning, formulate ideas.
Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment
Casare Beccaria
Crime and Punishment
Authors and their works
Condorcet
Sketch of the Progress of the Human Mind
Authors and their works
Denis Diderot
Encyclopedia
Authors and their works
David Hume
An Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding
Authors and their works
John Locke
Two Treatises of Government; Essay on Human Understanding
Authors and their works
Montesquieu
Spirit of Laws; Persian Letters
Authors and their works
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
The Social Contract; Emile
Authors and their works
Adam Smith
Wealth of Nations
Authors and their works
Voltaire
Philosophical Letters; Candide
Authors and their works
Mary Wollstonecraft
A Vindication of the Rights of Woman
Authors and their works
Ancie regime (Old Regime)
France prior to the French Revolution
French Revolution and Napoleon
Banalities
Fees that peasants were obligated to pay landlords for the use of the village mill, bakeshop and winepress
French Revolution and Napoleon
Bastille
political prison and armory stormed on July 14, 1789, by Parisian city workers alarmed by the king's concentration of troops at Versaille
French Revolution and Napoleon
Cahier de dolances
List of grievaces that each Estate drew up in preparation for the summoning of the Estates-General in 1789
French Revolution and Napoleon
Code Napoleon
The codification and condensation of laws assuring legal equality and uniformity in France
French Revolution and Napoleon
Committee of Public Safety
The leaders under Robespi3443 who organized the defenses of France, conducted foreign policy, and centralized authority by the government
French Revolution and Napoleon
Concordat (1801)
Napoleon's arrangement with Pope Pius VII to heal religious division in France with a united Catholic church under bishops appointed by the government
French Revolution and Napoleon
Continental System
Napoleon's efforts to block foreign trade with Enfland by forbidding Importation of British goods Into Europe
French Revolution and Napoleon
Corvees
Roadwork; an obligation of peasants to landowners
French Revolution and Napoleon
Coup d'etat
overthrow of those in power
French Revolution and Napoleon
Declaration of Pillnitz(1791)
Austria and Prussia agreed to intervene in France to end revolution w/ the unanimous agreement of the great powers
French Revolution and Napoleon
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (August 27, 1789)
Document that embodied the liberal revolutionary ideals and general principles of the philosophes' writings
French Revolution and Napoleon
Directory (1795-1799)
The 5-men executive committee that ruled France in its own interests as a republic after Robespierre's exceution and prior to Napoleon's coming to power
French Revolution and Napoleon
Estates General
The French National Assembly summoned in 1789 to remdy the financial crisis and correct abuses of the ancien regime
French Revolution and Napoleon
Great Fear
panic & insecurity that strck French peasants in summer of 1789 and led to their widespread destruction of manor houses and archives.
French Revolution and Napoleon
Jacobins
The dominant group in the National Convention in 1793 who replaced he Girondist. It was headed by Robespierre.
French Revolution and Napoleon
Law of the Maximum
the fixing of prices on bread and other essentials under Robespierre's rule
French Revolution and Napoleon
Levee en masse
The creation under the Jacobins, of a citizen army with support from young and old, heralding the emergence of modern warfare
French Revolution and Napoleon
Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821)
Consul and later emperor of France (1799-1815), who established several of the reforms (Code Napoleon) of the French Revolution during his dictorial rule
French Revolution and Napoleon
Night of August 4, 1789
date of declaration by liberal noblemen of the National Assembly at a secret meeting to abolish to feudal regime in France
French Revolution and Napoleon
Parlement
Law court staffed by nobles that could register of refuse to register a king's edict.
French Revolution and Napoleon
Peninsular War (1808-1813)
Napoleon's long drawn-out war with Spain
French Revolution and Napoleon
Robespierre (1758-1794)
Jacobin leader during the Reign of Terror (1793-1794)
French Revolution and Napoleon
Sans-culottes
A reference to Parisian workers who wore loose-fitting trousers rather than tight-fitting breeches wornby aristocratic men
French Revolution and Napoleon
Taille
A direct tax from which most French Nobles were exempt
French Revolution and Napoleon
Tennis Court Oath
Declaration mainly by members of Third Estate not to disband until they had drafted a constitution for France (June 20, 1789)
French Revolution and Napoleon
Treaty of Tilsit (1807)
Agreement between Napoleon and Czar Alexander I in which Russia became an ally of France and Napoleon took over the lands of Prussia west of the Elbe as well as the Polish provinces
French Revolution and Napoleon
Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832)
British theorist and philosopher who proposed utilitarianism, the principle that governments should operate on basis of utility, or the greatest good for the greatest number
Revolutions of 1848
Edmund Burke (1729-1797)
Member of British Parliament and author of Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790, which criticized the underlying principles of the French Revolution and argued conservative thought.
Revolutions of 1848
Burschenschaften
Politcaly active students around 1815, in the German states proposing unification and democratic principles
Revolutions of 1848
Carbonari
Italian secret societies calling for a unified Italy and republicanism after 1815
Revolutions of 1848
Carlsbad Decrees (1819)
Repressive laws in the German states limiting freedom of speech and deissemination of liberal ideas in the universities
Revolutions of 1848
Decembrist
Russian revolutionaries calling for constitutional reform in the early 19th cent.
Revolutions of 1848
Frederick William IV (1840-1861)
King of Prussia who promised and later reneged on his promises for constitutional reforms in 1848
Revolutions of 1848
Francois Guizot (1787-1874)
Chief minister under Louis Philippe. Guizot's repesssion led to the revolution of 1848
Revolutions of 1848
Holy Alliance
an alliance envisioned by Alexander I of Russia by which those in power were asked to rule in accord with Christian principles
Revolutions of 1848
Louie Napoleon Bonaparte (1808-1861)
Nephew of Napoleon I; he came into power as president of the Second French Republic in 1848
Revolutions of 1848
Prince Clemens von Metternich (1773-1859)
Austrian member of the nobility and chief architect of conservative policy at the Congress of Vienna
Revolutions of 1848
John Stuart Mill (1806-1873)
British philosopher who published On Liberty(1859), advocating indivdual rights against overnment intrusion, and The Subjection of Women (1869), on the cause of women's rights
Revolutions of 1848
Poor Law of 1834
Legislation that restricted the number of poverty-stricken eligible for aid
Revolutions of 1848
Quadruple Alliance
Organization, made up of Austria, Britain, Prussia, and Russia, to preserve the peace settlement of 1815; Frnace joined in 1818.
Revolutions of 1848
Rotten boroughs
depopulated areas of England that nevertheless sent representatives to Parliament
Revolutions of 1848
Zollverein
Economic customs union of German states established in 1818 by Prussia & including almost all German speaking states except Austria by 1844
Revolutions of 1848
Repeal of Test Act (1828)
Allowed Prtestants who were not members of the Church of England to hold public office
Revolutions of 1848
Catholic Emancipation Bill (1829)
Enabled Catholics to hold public office for the first time
Revolutions of 1848
Reform Bill of 1832
Gave vote to all men who paid ten pounds of rent a year; eliminated the rotten boroughs
Revolutions of 1848
Slavery
Abolished in the British Empire, 1833
Revolutions of 1848
Factory Act
limited children's and adolescents workweek in textile factories
Revolutions of 1848
Corn Laws
Repealed in 1846. The had imposed a tariff on imported grain and were a symbolic protection of aristoctatic landholdings
Revolutions of 1848
Micheal Bakunin (1814-1876)
Radical Russian, advocated revolutionary violence. He believed that revolutionary movements should be lead by secret societies who would seize powe, destroy the state and create a new social order.
Industrialization
Henry Bessemer (1813-1898)
Englishman who developed the Bessemer converter,the first efficient methed for the mass production of steel
Industrialization
Louis Blanc (1811-1882)
Wrote the Organization of Work (1840) which proposed the use of competition to eliminate competition. It was the step toward future socialist society. Advocated the principle, "from each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs."
Industrialization
Classical liberalism
Middle class (bourgeois) doctrine indebted to the writings of the philosphes, the French Revolution, and the popularization of the Scientific Revolution. Its political goals were self government(concept of general will); a written constitution; natural rights (speech, religion, press, property, mobility); limited suffrage; its economic goals were laissez-faire(free trade-no government interference in the workings of the economy)
Industrialization
Dialectial materialism
the idea, according Karl Marx, that change and developement in history results from the conflict between social classes. Economic forces impel human beings to behave in socially determined ways
Industrialization
Domestic System
the manufacture of goods in the household setting, a production system that gave way to the factory system
Industrialization
Friedrich Engels (1820-1895)
Collaborator with Karl Marx. Engels was a textile factory owner and supplied Marx with the hard data for his economic writings, most notably Das Kapital (1867)
Industrialization
Roger Fenton
Battlefield photographer of the Crimean War
Industrialization
J.G. Fichte (1762-1814)
German writer who believed that the German spirit was nobler and purer than that of other peoples.
Industrialization
Charles Fourier (1772-1837)
A leading utopian socialist ho envisaged small communal societies in which men and women cooperated in agriculture and industry, abolishing private property and monogamous marriage as well.
Industrialization
Hegelian Dialectic
The idea, accoring to G.W.F. Hegel (1770-1831), a German philosopher, that social change results from the conflict of opposite ideas. The thesis is confronted by antithesis, resulting in a synthesis, which then becomes a new thesis. The process is evolutionary. Marx turned Hegel "upside down" and made class conflict, not ideas, is the force driving history foward.
Industrialization
J.G. Herder (1774-1803)
Forerunner of the German Romantic movement who believed that each people shared a national character, or Volksgeist.
Industrialization
Thomas Malthus (1776-1834)
English parson whose Essay on Population (1798) argued population would always increase faster that food supply.
Industrialization
Karl Marx (1818-1883)
German philosopher and founder of Marxism--theory that class conflict is motor force driving historical change and development
Industrialization
Robert Owen (1771-1858)
Utopian socialist who improved health and safety conditions in mills, increased workers wages and reduced hours. Dreamed of establishing socialist communities the most notable was New Harmony (1826) which failed
Industrialization
David Ricardo (1772-1823)
English economist who formulated to "iron law of wages," according to which wages would always remain at the subsistece level for workers because of population growth
Industrialization
William Russell
British journalist who reported the events of the Crimean War first hand for the people at home.
Industrialization
Hebert Spencer (1820-1903)
English philospher who argued that in the difficult economic struggle for evistence, only the "fittest" would survive
Industrialization
Flora Tristan (1803-1844)
Socialist and feminist who called for working women's social and political rights.
Industrialization
Otto von Bismark (1815-1898)
Prussian chancellor who engineered a series of wars to unify Germany under his authoritarian rule
Age of Nationalism
Bundesrat
The upper house, or Federal Council, of the German Diet (legislature)
Age of Nationalism
Count Cavour (1810-1861)
Italian statesman from Sardinia who used diplomacy to help achieve unification of Italy
Age of Nationalism
Francis Deak (1803-1876)
Magyar, forced Franz Joseph to agree to Compromise of 1867 which created Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary
Age of Nationalism
Ems Telegram
The carefully edited dispatch by Bismark to the French ambassador Bendetti that appeared to be insulting and thus requiring retaliation by France for the seeming affront to French honor
Age of Nationalism
Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807-1882)
Soldier of fortune who amassed his "Red Shirt" army to bring Naples and Sicily into a unified Italy
Age of Nationalism
Home of Savoy
The Italian dynasty ruling independent state of Piedmont-Sardinia. Its head was King Victor Emmanuel II.
Age of Nationalism
Indemnity Bill (1867)
bill passed by German Reichstag that legitimated Bismark's unconstitutional collection of taxes to modernize army in 1863
Age of Nationalism
Kulturkampf
Bismark's anticlerical campaign to expel Jesuits from Germany and break off relations with Vatican. Eventuallt, after little success, Bismark halted these policies
Age of Nationalism
Ferdinand Lassalle (1825-1864)
Leader of the revisionist socialist, who hoped to achieve socialism through the ballot rather than the bullet. They agreed to work within the framework of the existing government
Age of Nationalism
Giuseppe Mazzini (1805-1872)
Idealistis patriot devoted for the principle of united and republican Italy in a world of free states
Age of Nationalism
Napoleon III (1852-1870)
the former Louis Napoleon, who became president of the Second Republic of France in 1848 and engineered a coup d'etat, ultimately making himself head of the Second Empire
Age of Nationalism
Daniel O'Connell (1775-1847)
Irish advocate for the Penal Laws against Catholics. Tried to have repealed the Act of Union of 1800, which limked Britain and Ireland legislatively. His election to Parliament for the passage of the 1829 Catholic Emancipation Act which declared Catholics were eligible for Public Office.
Age of Nationalism
Charles Stewart Parnell (1846-1891)
elected to Parliament in 1875 he came to prominence by obstructing other legislation to gain a hearing for home rule for Ireland. In 1885 Parnell's party won 86 seat, exactly the number of votes separting the Liberals (335) from th Conservatives (249). This forced Gladstone to announce his support for a Home Rule Bill
Age of Nationalism
Realpolitik
The "politics of reality," i.e., the use of practical means to achieve ends. Bismark was a practitioner.
Age of Nationalism
"Red Shirt"
Volunteers in Garibaldi's army
Age of Nationalism
Reichstag
the lower house of the German Diet, or legislature.
Age of Nationalism
Risorgimento
Itailaian drived and desire for unity
Age of Nationalism
Siege of Paris
the four month Prussain assult on the French capital after Napoleon III's surrender in 1870
Age of Nationalism
Treaty of Frankfurt
The end of the Franco-Prussian War, which ceded the territories of Alsace and most of Lorraine to Germany
Age of Nationalism
Young Italy
An assciation under the leadership of Mazzini that urger the unification of the country
Age of Nationalism
Alexander II (1855-1881)
Reforming czar who emancipated the serfs and introduced some measure of representative local government
Russia
Alexander III (1881-1894)
Politically reactionary czar who promoted economic modernization of Russia. Boyar-Russian noble
Russia
Catherine the Great (1762-1796)
An "enlightened despot" of Russia whose policies of reform wre aborted under pressure of rebellion by serfs
Russia
Church Statute of 1721
A Holy Synod that replaced the office of patriarch. All of its members(lay and religious) had to swear allegiance to czar
Russia
Crimean War (1853-1856)
Conflict ostensible wafed to protect Othodox Christians in the Ottoman Empire, in actuality to gain a foothold in the Black Sea. Turks, Britain, and France forced Russia to sue for peace. The Treaty of Paris(1856) forfeited Russia's right to maintain a war fleet in the Black Sea. Russia also lost the principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia
Russia
Decembrist Revolt (1825)
plot by Liberals (upper-class intelligentsia) to set up constitutional monarchy or republic. Plot failed, but ideals remained
Russia
duma
Russian national legislature
Russia
Emancipation Edict (1861)
The imperial law that abolished serfdom in Russia and, on paper, freed the peasants. In actuality they were collectiely responsible for redemption payments to the government for a number of years
Russia
Father Gapon
Leader of the factory workers who assmbled before th czar's palace to petition him on January 1950 (Bloody Sunday)
Russia
Ivan the Great (1462-1505)
The Slavic Grand Duke of Moscow, he ended nearly 200 years of Mongol domination of his dukedom. From then on he worked at extending his territories, subduing his nobles and attaing absolute power
Russia
Ivan the Terrible (1533-1584)
earned his nickname for hs great acts of cruelty directed towards all those with whom he disagreed. He became the first rler to assume the titile Czar of all Russia
Russia
Kulak
an independent and propertied Russian Farmer
Russia
Mir
village commune where the emancipated serfs lived and worked collectively in order to meet redemption payements to the government
Russia
Nicolas II (1894-1917)
the last czar of the Romanov dynasty, whose government collapsed under the pressure of WWI
Russia
Sofia Perovkial
First women excecuted for political crime in Russia; was a member of militant movement that assassignated Czar Alexander II
Russia
Pugechev (1726-1775)
Head of bloody peasant revolt in 1773 that convince Cathering the Great to throw her suppore to the nobles and cease internal reforms
Russia
Micheal Romanov
in 1613 an assembly of nobles chose Michael as new czar. For the next 300 years the Romanov family ruled in Russia.
Russia
Peter Stolypin (1862-1911)
Russian minister under Nicolas II who encouraged the growth of private farmers and improved edcation for enterprising peasants.
Russia
Sergei Witte (1849-1915)
Finance minister under whom Russia industrialized and began a program of economic modernization, founder ot the Tran Siberian Railroad
Russia
Zemstovo
a type of local government with powers to tv and make laws; essentially, a training ground for democracy, dominated by the property-owning class when established in 1864
Russia
Eduard Bernstein(1850-1932)
Revisionist German Social Democrat who favored socialist revolution by the ballot rather than the bullet-i.e., by cooperating with the bourgeois members of Parliment and securing electoral victories for his party (the SDP)