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35 Cards in this Set

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Employs logical reasoning, combining a clear idea (or multiple ideas) with well-thought-out and appropriate example and details. These supports are logically presented and rationally reach the author's conclusion.
logos
Establishes credibility in the speaker. This appeal sets up believability in the writer. He/she is perceived as someone who can be trusted and is concerned with the reader's best interests.
ethos
Plays on the reader's emotions and interests. A sympathetic audience is more likely to accept a writer's assertions, so this appeal draws up that understanding and uses it to the writer's advantage.
pathos
_____ writing explains and analyzes information by presenting an idea, relevant evidence, and appropriate discussion.
expository
Proves the validity of an idea, or point of view, by presenting sound reasoning, thoughtful discussion, and insightful argument that thoroughly convinces the reader. Persuasive writing is a type of _______ having the additional aim of urging some form of action.
argumentation
Recreates, invents, or visually presents a person, place, event, or action so that the reader can picture that being described. Sometimes an author engages in all five senses of _______; good ______ writing can be sensuous and picturesque. _____ may be straightforward and objective or highly emotional and subjective.
description
Tells a story or narrates an event or series of events. This writing mode frequently uses the tools of descriptive writing.
narration
A comparison of seemingly unlike things or substitution of one for the other, suggesting some similarity. (Whether something *is* something else.)
metaphor
direct: uses a form of the verb to be to make comparison:
This is your brain on drugs.
implied: suggest the comparison:
The fog comes on little cat feet.
A metaphor developed at great length, occurring frequently in or throughout a work.
extended metaphor
An explicit comparison of unlike things using "like" or "as". (When something is *like* something else.)
simile
"O, my love is lake a red, red rose/That's newly sprung in June./O, my love is like a melody,/That's sweetly played in tune."
A term from the Greek meaning "changed label" or "substitute name", ______ is a figure of speech in which the name of one object is substituted for that of another closely associated with it.
metonymy
"The White House declared..."
"The suits on Wall Street walked off with most of our savings."
Using part of a physical object to represent the whole object of the whole object to represent part.
synedoche
"All hands on deck!"
"Leigh won the game."
A ___ twists the meaning of works, often to create a humorous effect.
pun
homonymic: "Johnny B. Goode" "Ima Goodkidd"
sound similarities: "It's not bad as a hole." "Ask for me tomorrow and you shall find me a grave man."
Artfully using one verb with two or more objects. If this changes the verb's initial meaning, the ____ is sometime called a syllepsis.
zeugma
"If we don't hang together, we shall hang separately."
"She exhausted both her audience and her repertoire."
"He lost his train of thought and his heart when she walked across the room."
The author presents or describes concepts, animals, or inanimate objects by endowing them with human attributes or emotions.
personification
The wind whispered under the door.
Personification in which an object gains the ability to speak and the story is told from its point of view.
prosopopeia
Addresses an absent or imaginary person or personified abstraction, such as freedom or love.
apostrophe
"Milton, thou shouldst be living at this hour; England hath need of thee."
"Oh, Death, be not proud."
Words that sound like what they mean.
onomatopoeia
"Snap"
"Crackle"
"Pop"
A deliberate exaggeration or overstatement. ______ often have a comic effect; however, a serious effect is also possible. Often, ______ produces irony at the same time.
hyperbole
"Yo mama's so fat..."
"It's a million degrees outside."
Understatement (opposite of hyperbole).
meiosis
"I was somewhat worried when I saw my wheel exit the freeway before I did."
A type of meiosis in which the writer uses a statement in a negative to create the effect.
litotes
"Shakespeare is not a bad writer."
Using a different part of speech to act as another, such as verb for a noun, or a noun for a verb.
anthimeria
"Gift him with Sports Illustrated this holiday."
"He sang his didn't, he danced his did."
A completely impossible figure of speech.
catachresis
"The tears falling from her eyes were so sad that they too began to cry with her."
"Clarence will have a cow when hears this."
Mixing one type of sensory input with another in an impossible way, such as describing how a color sounds or how a smell looks.
synesthesia
"I caressed the darkness with cool fingers."
"The scent of the rose rang through the garden."
Talking about not being able to talk about something.
aporia
"It is impossible for me to describe the carnage of the accident."
"I can't tell you how many times I've heard that excuse before."
Breaking off as if unable to continue.
aposiopesis
"The Slithergadee has crawled out of the sea
He may catch all the others, but he won't catch me.
No you won't catch me, old Slithergadee,
You may catch all the others, but won-"
A statement that appears to be self-contradictory or opposed to common sense, but upon closer inspection contains some degree of truth or validity.
paradox
"Fair is foul, foul is fair..."
From the Greek for "pointedly foolish", an ______ is a figure of speech wherein the author groups apparently contradictory terms to suggest a paradox.
oxymoron
"jumbo shrimp"
"cruel kindness"
The multiple meanings, either intentional or unintentional, of a word, phrase, sentence, or passage.
ambiguity
"I'll give you a ring tomorrow."
The device of using character and/or story elements symbolically to represent an abstraction in addition to the literal meaning.
allegory
Animal Farm
A similarity or comparison between two different things or the relationship between them. An _____ can explain something unfamiliar by associating it with, or pointing out its similarity to, something more familiar.
analogy
"Writing a book of poetry is like dropping a rose petal down the Grand Canyon and waiting for the echo."
A representation, especially pictorial or literary, in which the subjects' distinctive features or peculiarities deliberately exaggerated to create a comic or grotesque imitation or representation. Synonymous words include burlesque, travesty, satire, and lampoon.
caricature
A fanciful expression, usually in the form of an extended metaphor or surprising analogy between seemingly dissimilar object. A _____ displays intellectual cleverness due to the unusual comparison being made.
conceit
John Donne's comparison of two souls with two bullets in "The Dissolution"
A question that is asked merely for effect and does not expect a reply. The answer is assumed.
rhetorical question
Is the Pope Catholic? Do bears live in the woods?
A direct or indirect reference to something that is presumably commonly known, such as an event, book, myth, place, or work of art.
allusion
"Blanche was moulded like a Diana."