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119 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
fascia
connective tissue under skin - covers all muscle
tendon
connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone
aponeuroses
connective tissue that attaches muscle to muscle
epimysium
connective tissue layer adheres closely to outside of muscle bringing in blood supply to entire muscle
perimysium
puts muscle into individual bundles
endomysium
connective tissue layer adheres (covers) each muscle fiber
fasicles
bundles of skeletal muscle fibers
sarcolemma
cell membrane surrounding the muscle
sarcoplasm
cytoplasm in a muscle fiber
myofibrils
threadlike structure running lengthwise and parallel - also responsible for contraction
myofilaments
protein molecules that make up the myofibrils
sarcoplasmic reticulum
membranous channels that surrounds each myofibril
transverse tubule
perpendicular to myofibrils and extend into sarcoplasm
cisternae
two enlarged portions of the sarcoplasmic reticulum that surround the transverse tubule
sarcomere
structural and functional unit of a myofibril
neuromuscular juncton
myoneural junction - where the axon and muscle fiber meet
motor neuron
nerve cell that sends impulse to muscle
motor end plate
specialized portion of a muscle fiber membrane at a neuromuscular junction
synaptic cleft
small gap that separates the membrane of the neuron and membrane of the muscle fiber
motor unit
motor neuron and the muscle fiber it controls
neurotransmitters
vesicles containing chemicals and secrete to stimulate a muscle fiber to contract
acetyhlcholine
(ACh) fiber of the neuron - when it synthesizes it stimulates the muscle fiber
cholinesterase
enzyme that destroys ACh immediately
troponin
changes shape and pulls on tropomysium
tropomysium
attached to troponin and lies in grooves of actin
dystrophin
coats inner lining of sarcolemma - keeps cells from rupturing
sliding filament theory
actin and myosin slide past each other thus shortening the skeletal muscle
muscle relaxation
Achesterase decomposes ACh immediately and the membrane is no longer stimulated
creatine phosphate
high energy phosphate that stores excess energy released from the mitochondria
oxygen
carried by blood by Hgb (hemoglobin)
myoglobin
pigment that is reddish brown color
oxygen debt
lactic acid accumulates
muscle fatigue
lose ability to contract pH lowers and prevents muscle fibers from responding to stimulation
heat production
skeletal muscle and liver produce more heat than any other organ - more heat than physical energy
myogram
a recording of a muscle contraction
threshold stimulus
minimal intensity that is needed to cause a contraction
twitch
single contraction plus relaxation
latent period
time between stimulus and response
refractory period
time following the contraction in which the muscle fiber remains unresponsive
all or none response
if you get a response you get a contraction - no response = no contraction
treppe (stair case effect)
if a muscle fiber is exposed to a series of stimuli the contraction may be greater than the previous
summation
muscle fiber exposed to a series of stimuli may be unable to relax completely before next contraction
tetanic contraction
(sustained contraction) the contraction lacks partial relaxation
recruitment
increase in the number of activated motor units
origin
part of the body that does not move
insertion
part of the body that moves
multiunit
fibers are seperate and work independently
single unit
(visceral) sheets and attached by gap junctions - impulses travel easily from one to another
peristalsis
alternate contractions that cause a wavelike motion and occurs in hollow organs
syncytium
whole structure contracts as a unit
neural tissue
nervous tissue
neuron
nerve cell
neuroglia
supporting cells - lkeeps neurons in place
nerve impulse
electrochemical changes - current of electricity
nerve fibers
tubular membranous with cytoplasm
synapse
space where one nerve almost joins onto a muscle (spaces between neurons)
CNS
central nervous system and includes brain and spinal cord
PNS
peripheal nervous system and includes all other body parts
sensory
receive information (receptor)
integrative
nerve impulses brought together creating sensations, adding to memory or helping produce thoughts
motor
carries impulses from CNS to responsive structures called effectors
afferent
toward center
efferent
away from center
cell body
(soma, perikaryon) contains cytoplasm, mitochondria, lysosomes, Golgi appartus and microtubules
neurofibrils
network of fine threads
Nissl bodies
rough ER scattered throughout the cytoplasm
inclusions
contain glycogen, lipids and melanin
axon
conducts nerve impluses away from cell body
dendrites
bring message into nerve cell - receptive surfaces
Schwann cells
wrap around a fiber forming the myelin and neurilemma
myelin
fatty material that forms a sheathlike covering around nerve fibers (lipoprotein)
neurilemma
sheath on the outside of some nerve fibers
Nodes of Ranvier
gaps in myelin sheath between Schwann cells
myelinated
(white fibers) axons that have myelin sheaths (medullated0
unmylinated
(gray fibers) axons that lack myelin sheaths (naked - nonmedullated)
bipolar
two processes - one axon and one dendrite (sensory)
unipolar
one process - one axon (sensory)
multipolar
many processes - one axon and the rest are dendrites
sensory (afferent)
carries impulse toward CNS
motor (efferent)
carries impulse out of CNS
interneurons
association forms links between neurons
astrocytes
star shaped providing structural support and metabolism of glucose
oligodendrocytes
shaped like astrocytes but smaller and form myelin in the brain and spinal cord
microglia
small structural support and phagocytes
ependyma
covers inside space within the brain called ventricles
irritable
to be responsive to stimuli
resting potential
work that a system can do
action potential
begins to do the work (nerve impulse)
neutral charge
body as a whole has a neutral charge
energy
ability to cause something to move and thus do work
charges
accumulation of electricity
battery
negative and postive charge
potential energy
the energy that a piece of matter has because of it's position or because of the arrangement of parts
voltage
how electricity is measured 1/1000 of a volt (milivolt)
potential difference
stored electrical energy
current
flow of an electrical charge
polarized
positivity and negativity on seperate ends
amplitude
beginning to end has the same strength
depolarized
+ and - back together
repolarized
bring back to previous
hyperpolarized
increase in negativity of resting potential
trigger zone
beginning of extension of a cell
axonal transport
transport of substances from neuron cell body to an axon terminal
monoamine oxidase
modified amino acids
synaptic knob
tiny enlargement at end of axon that secretes a neurotransmitter
saltatory conduction
nerve impulse conduction that jumps from one node to another
neuropeptide
peptide in the brain that functions as a neurotransmitter
enkephalins
relieves pain sensations
substance P
transmits pain
beta endorphin
natural pain reliever
euphoria
good feeling - feeling of well being
neuronal pools
group of neurons that make synaptic connections and work together to perform a common function
convergence
allows the nervous system to collect, process and respond to information
divergence
spreading apart
isotonic
muscle contracts and object moves
isometric
muscle contracts and object does not move
isokinetic
a muslce is helped (walking down stairs)
oxytocin
hormone that stimulates smooth muscles in the wall of the uterus to contract
collateral
branches of a nerve fiber (axon branches) frayed end of shoestring