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93 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another
The study of the function of the body.
Gross or Macroscopic Anatomy
The study of large body structures visible to the naked eye.
Divisions of gross anatomy
Regional - structures studied in a particular region
Systemic - body stucture is studied system by system.
Surface - study of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin surface.
Microscopic Anatomy
The study of anatomical structures too small to be seen with the naked eye.
Subdivisions of Microscopic Anatomy
study of the cells of the body.
The study of tissues.
Developmental Anatomy
Traces structure changes that occur in the body throughout the life span. eg. Embryology - concerns developmental changes that occur before birth.
Divisions of Anatomy
Gross, or macroscopic
Give some examples of physiology subdivisions
Renal physiology - concerns kidney funtion and urine production.
Neurophysiology - concerns the nervous system.
Cardiovascular Physiology - examines the operation of the heart and blood vessels.
Physiology often concerns events at what level?
Cellular or molecular
Principle of complementarity of structure and function is what?
What a structure can do depends on its specific form.
What are the levels of organization in the body from simplest to most complex?
Chemical > Cellular > Tissue > Organ > Organ System > Organism
The smallest units of living things
Groups of similar cells that have a common function.
What are the four basic tissue types in the human body?
Epithelium, muscle, connective, and nervous.
Covers the body surface and lines its cavities.
Muscle Tissue
provides movement
Connective Tissue
Supports and protects body organs.
Nervous Tissue
Provides a means of rapid internal communication by transmitting electrical impulses.
A discrete structure composed of at least two tissue types that performs a specific function in the body.
Organ System
Organs that work together to accomplish a common purpose.
Organismal Level
The sum total of all structure levels working together to promote life.
Name eight necessary life functions
Maintaining boundaries, movement, responsiveness (or irritability), digestion, metabolism, excretion, reproduction, growth
On the cellular level, the muscle cell's ability to move by shortening.
Responsiveness (or irritability)
The ability to sense changes (stimuli) in the envrionment and then respond to them.
Which system is most involved with responsiveness?
Nerve cells...although all body cells are irritable to some extent.
The breaking down of ingested foodstuffs to simple molecules that can be absorbed into the blood.
a broad term that includes all chemical reactions that occur within body cells. Literally means "a state of change"
breaking down substances into their simpler building blocks.
synthesizing more complex cellular structures from simpler substances.
Metabolism depends on which three systems?
digestive and respiratory to make nutrients and oxygen available to the blood, and on the cardiovascular system to distribute these substances throughout the body.
What largely regulates metabolism?
Hormones secreted by the endocrine glands.
Name the components of the integumentary system and state its function
Hair, skin, nails.
forms external body covering, protects deeper tissues, sythesizes vitamin D, site of cutaneous receptors, sweat and oil glands.
Name the components of the skeletal system and state its functions
Potects and supports body organs, provides a framework the muscles use to cause movement, blood cells are formed within bones, stores minerals.
Name the components of the Muscular system and state its functions
Allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, facial expressions, maintains posture, produces heat
Name the components of the nervous system and state its functions
Brain, sensory receptors, nerves, spinal cord
Fast acting control center of the body, responds to internal and external changes by activating the appropriate muscles and glands.
Name the components of the endocrine system and state its functions
Pineal gland, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, thymus, adrenal gland, pancreas, ovary, testis
glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use (metabolism) by the body cells.
Name the components of the cardiovascular system and state its functions
blood vessels, heart
blood vessels transport blood which carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, etc. The heart pumps blood.
Name the components of the lymphatic/immunity system and state its functions
Red bone marrow, thymus, lymphatic vessels, thoracic duct, spleen, lymph nodes.
picks up fluid leaked from the blood, disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream, houses white blood cells
Name the components of the respiratory system and state its functions
nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, lung, bronchus
keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide. the gaseous exchanges occur through the walls of the air sacs of the lungs
Name the components of the digestive system and state its functions
oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, liver, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus.
breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to body cells, indigestible foodstuffs are eliminated as feces.
Name the components of the urinary system and state its functions
kidney, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra
eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body, regulates water, electrolyte and acid-base balance of the blood.
Name the components of the male reproductive system and state its functions
prostate gland, penis, testis, scrotum, ductus deferens
produce sperm and male sex hormone, ducts and glands aid in delivery of sperm.
Name the components of the female reproductive system and state its functions
mammary glands, ovary, uterine tube, uterus, vagina.
produce eggs and female sex hormones. sites of fertilization and development of fetus.
the process of removing excreta, or wastes, from the body.
an increase in the size of a body part or the organism
What needs to happen for true growth to occur?
constructive activities must occur at a faster rate than destructive ones.
What factors, or survival needs, must be present to maintain life?
appropriate temperature
appropriate atmospheric pressure
the ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even though the outside world changes continuously.
What are the three interdependent components of homeostatic control mechanisms
recepter, control center, effector.
a sensor that monitors the environment and responds to changes (stimuli) by sending information (input) to the control center along an afferent pathway.
Control Center
determines the set point, analyzes the input it receives and determines the appropriate response.
receives the control center's response (output) via the efferent pathway and then feeds back to influence the simulus.
Negative feedback mechanism
the output shuts off the original stimulus or reduces its intensity.
Positive feedback mechanism
A response that enhances the original stimulus so that the activity (output) is accelerated.
Where is the body's thermostat?
What is the purpose of negative feedback mechanisms?
preventing sudden severe changes in the body.
axial region
the parts that make up the main axis of the body. Includes the head, neck and trunk
appendicular region
consists of the appendages, or limbs
sagittal plane
a vertical plane dividing the body or parts thereof into right and left sections
median or midsagittal plane
a vertical plane that lies exactly in the midline.
parasagittal plane
vertical planes offset from the midline but separating the body into right and left parts.
Frontal or coronal plane
a vertical plane separating the body into anterior and posterior parts.
transverse plane
a plane that runs horizontally from right to left, dividing the body into superior and inferior parts. Also called a cross section
name the two major body cavitites
Dorsal, ventral
What are the subdivisions of the dorsal cavity?
Cranial and vertebral (or spinal)
What are the two major subdivisions of the ventral cavity?
thoracic and abdominopelvic
The ventral body cavity houses internal organs collectively called what?
the viscera, or visceral organs
What are the subdivisions of the thoracic cavity?
lateral pleural cavities and the mediastinum
What cavity does the mediastinum contain?
What separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity?
the diaphragm
What are the two parts of the admominopelvic cavity?
The abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity
What organs are the most vulnerable to physical trauma?
the ones in the abdominopelvic cavities
What is the serosa or serous membrane?
The thin double-layered membrane that covers the walls of the ventral cavity and the outer surfaces of the organs contained within.
parietal serosa
the part of the serosa lining the wall of the ventral body cavity
visceral serosa
the part of the serosa that coveres the organs in the ventral body cavity
What separates the parietal serosa from the visceral serosa?
serous fluid.
What is the function of the serous fluid?
to allow organs to slide without friction across the cavity walls and one another.
parietal pericardium
the serous membrane lining the paricardial cavity
visceral pericardium
the serous membrane covering the heart.
parietal pleura
the serous membrane lining the plerual cavity
visceral pleura
the serous membrane covering the lungs
parietal peritoneum
the serous membrane covering the walls of the abdonimopelvic cavity
visceral peritoneum
the serous membrane covers most of the organs in the abdominopelvic cavity
umbilical region
centermost region deep to and surrounding the umbilicus
epigastric region
located superior to the umbilical region
hypogastric region
located inferior to the umbilical region
right/left iliac, or inguinal region
located lateral to the hypogastric region
right/left lumbar regions
lateral to the umbilical region
right/left hypochondriac regions
lateral to the epigastric region
synovial cavities
joint cavities enclosed within fibrous caspules that surround freely moving joints. They secrete lubricating fluid.