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78 Cards in this Set

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3 Types of cells of the Olfactory Epithelium
Olfactory Receptors, Supporting Cells, and Basal Stem cells.
The first order neurons of the Olfactory Pathway, Bipolar neuron.
Olfactory Receptor
Cilia that project from the dendrite, and the sites of olfactory transduction
Olfactory Hairs
Columnar epthelial cells of the mucous membrane lining the nose. They provide physical support, nourishment, and electrical insulation for the olfactory receptors.
Supporting Cells
Lie between the bases of the supporting cells and continually undergo cell division to produce new olfactory receptors, which live for only a month of so before getting replaced.
Basal stem cell
Produce mucous that is carried to the surface of the epithelium by ducts.
Olfactory (Bowman's) Gland
Physiology of Olfaction
1. Production of cAMP
2. Opening of Na ion channel
3. Inflow of Na
4. Depolarizing generator potential
5. Nerve impulses arise and propagate along axon of olfactory receptor.
DEcreasing sensativeity, about 50% in the first second of stimulatin of olfaction
Adaptation
Reduced ability to smell, affects half of those over 65 and 75% over 80.
Hyposmia
40 bundeles of axons collectively form the right and left olfactory nerves
Cranial nerve I
Primary tastes
Sour, Sweet, Bitter, Salty, and Umami
Location of taste buds
Tounge, soft palate, pharynx, and Epiglottis.
3 Types of Epithelial cells of the taste bud.
Supporting Cells, Gustatory Receptor Cells, and Basal Cells
Found at the periphery of the tase bud near the connective tissue layer, produce supporting cells.
Basal Cell
Developed from supporting cells with a lifespan of about 10 days. Synapse with dendrites of the First-order neurons that form the first part of the gustatory pathway
Gustatory Receptor Cells
Provide a rough texture, and the location of the taste buds.
Papillae
Types of Papillae
Vallate Papillae, Fungiform Papillae, Foliate Papillae.
Chemicals that stimulate gustatory receptor cells.
Tastants
The three cranial nerves that include axons of first order neurons from taste buds.
Facial Nerve (VII), Glossoparyngeal nerve (IX), and Vagus Nerve (X).
The 3 structures of the wall of the eyeball.
Fibrous Tunic, Cascular Tunic, and Retina.
Superficial avascular coat of the eyeball, consists of the anterior cornea and posterior sclera.
Fibrous Tunic
Transparent coat that covers the colored Iris.
Cornea
The 3 layers of the Cornea
Outer: nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium.
Middle: collagen fibers and fibroblasts.
Inner: simple squamous epithelium.
The white of the eye, a layer of dense connectie tissue made up of collagen fibers and fibroblast. Gives the eye shape.
Sclera
The junction of the sclera and cornea, secretes a fluid called aqueous humor into the sinus.
Scleral venous sinus (Canal of Schlemm)
3 parts of the vascular tunic.
Charoid, Ciliary body, and Iris
Highly vascularized posterior portion of the vascular tunic, lines most of the internal surface of the sclera. It provides nutrients to the posterior surface of the retina.
Charoid
The anterior portion of the vascular tunic
Ciliary Body
Protrusions or folds on the internal surface of the ciliary body. They contain blood capilaries that secrete aqueous humor.
Ciliary Processes
Extend from the ciliary process and attach to the lens.
Zonular Fibers (Suspensory Ligaments)
Circular band of smooth muscle that alters the shape of the lens, adapting it for near or far vision.
Ciliary Muscle
Regulates the amount of light entering the vitreous chamber fo the eyeball through the pupil.
Iris
When bright light stimulates the eye, parasympathetic neurons stimulate this muscle of the iris to contract, causing the pupil to constrict.
Circular Muscles (Sphincter Pupillae)
Muscles that cause the Iris to recede, and the pupil to dialate.
Radial Muscles (Dilator Pupillae)
Third and inner coat of the eyeball
Retina
Site where the optic nerve exits the eyeball.
Optic Disc
Layers of the optic part of the Retina.
Pigmented Layer and Neural Layer
Sheet of melanin containing epithelial cells located between the charoid and the neural part of the retina.
Pigmented Layer
Absorbs stray light rays, which prevents reflection and scattering of light within the eyeball.
Melanin in the charoid and in the Pigmented layer.
Multilayered outgrowth of the brain that extensively processes visual data before sending nerve impulses into axons that from the optic nerve.
Neural Layer
3 Layers or retinal neurons
Photoreceptor layer, bipolar layer, and Ganglion Cell Layer.
These cells form lateraly directed neural circuits that modify the signals being ransmitted along the pathway from photoreceptors to bipolar cells to ganglion cells.
Horizontal Cells and Amacrine Cells.
Low light threshold, allowing us to see in dim light, such as moonlight.
Rods
Stimulated by brighter light, and has a higher threshold and produce color vision.
Cones
Exact center of the posterior portion of the retina, at the visualaxis of the eye.
Macula Lutea
Area of highes visual acuity or resolution. Small depression near the center of the macula lutea, contains only cones.
Central Fovea
The optic disc contains no rods or cones, so it is also known as
Blind Spot
Helps focus images on teh retina to facilitate clear vison. Made up of protiens called crystallins, perfectly transparent and lacks blood vessels.
Lens
The lens divides the interior of the eyeball into two cavities.
Anterior Cavity and Vitreous Chamber
A watery fluid that nourishes the lens and cornea.
Aqueous Humor
Pressure in the eye, produced mainly by the aqueous humor and partly by vitrous body. Maintains the shape of the eyeball and prevents the eyeball from collapsing.
Intraocular Pressure
Degenerative disorder of the retina and pigmented layer in persons 50 years of age and older.
Age-related macular disease (AMD)
Increase in curvature of the lens of the lens for near vision.
Accomodation
Where 75% of the total refraction of light occurs.
Cornea
Provides the remaining 25% of focusing power and also changes the focus to view near or distant objects.
Lens
Light rays any closer than this distance are divergent rather than parallel, so they must be refracted more if they are to be focused on the retina.
6m or 20ft
With aging, the lens loses elasticity and thus its ability to accomodate.
Presbyopia
A normal eye is known as
Emetropic
The eyeball is too long relative to the focussing power of the cornea adn lens, Nearsightedness.
Myopia
The eyeball length is short relative to the focusing power of the cornea and lens, Farsightedness
Hypermetropia/Hypermyopia
Both eyes focus on only one set of objects. Allows perception of depth andan appreciaton of the 3D nature of objects.
Binocular Vision
Binocular vision occurs when
Light rays from an dobject strike corresponding points on the two retinas.
Medial movement of both eyeballs so that both are directed toward the object being viewed.
Convergence
In rods and cones, transduction of light energy occurs in the
Outer Segment
The first step in visual transduction is absorption of light by a
Photopigent
Light absorption initiates the events that lead to the production of a
Receptor Potential
The photopigments in rods
Rhodopsin
2 Parts of photopigments associated with vision
the glycoprotein Opsin and the vitamin A dirivative retinal
The light absorbing part of all visual photopigments
Retinal
Photopigments respond to light in the following cyclical process
1. Isomerization
2. Bleaching
3. Retinal Isomerase
4. Regeneration
The frequency of a sound vibration is the
Pitch
The louder the sound is the higher the
Intensity
The production of receptor potentials in the ear is caused by a bending of the
Stereocilia
to close transduction channels, allow repolarization or even hyperpolarization to occur, and reduce neurotransmitter release from the hair cells.
Bending of the stereocilia in the opposite direction
Inaudible sound produced by the cochlea
Otoacoustic Emissions
Receptor organs for equilibrium
Saccule, Utricle, and Semicircular ducts
Receptors for static equilibrium, also detect acceleration and deceleration in dynamic equilibrium
Maculae
Two types of cells of Maculae
Supporting cells (Sensory receptors) and hair bundles