Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/58

Click to flip

58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Lactase
Secreted by the digestive cells in the small intestine to absorb sugars from milk.
Enzyme
A protein which speeds up a specific chemical reaction.
Organic compounds
Carbon-based molecules
Hydrocarbons
Composed of only carbon and hydrogen
Isomer
Compound with the same molecular formula as another compound, but a different structure. Ex: butane and isobutane
Functional groups
The groups of atoms that usually participate in chemical reactions in organic chemistry
Characteristic of functional groups
All are polar, which tends to make compounds containing them hydrophilic (water-loving)and souble in water.
Hydroxyl
-OH in alcohols
Carbonyl
>C=O
Called a ketone in the middle of a carbon chain, and an aldehyde at the end.
Carboxyl
-COOH
Acts as an acid by donating H+ to make carboxylic acids
Amino
N<
Make amines. Picks up H+ from solution: base.
Phosphate
-OPO3 with a -2 charge. Make organic phosphates. Involved in energy transfers
Macromolecules
Large biological molecules, include carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids. Can have 1000+ atoms.
Monomer
Building blocks of polymers
Polymer
Large molecule with many identical or similar molecular units strung together
Dehydration reaction
Removes a molecule of H2O and joins two polymers (or monomer and polymer) one donating OH- and one donating H+ to the reaction.
Hydrolysis
Opposite of dehydration reaction. Breaks apart polymers by adding H2O to them.
Monosaccharides
Carbohydrate monomers. Molecular formulas are a multiple of CH2O.
Sugar
A number of hydroxyl groups and a carbonyl group.
Disaccharides
Formed by linking two monosaccharides with a dehydration reaction
Sucrose
Glucose + fructose
Maltose
Glucose and glucose
Lactose
Glucose + galactose
Polysaccharides
Long chains of sugar units
Starch
In roots an dother tissues of plants (only glucose monomers). Serve as sugar stockpiles. Humans use starch by hydrolyzing it in digestive systems.
Glycogen
Where animals store excess sugar. More highly branched than starch. Most stores in liver and muscle cells, which hydrolyze the glycogen to use glucose when needed.
Cellulose
Most abundant organic compound on Earth. Polymer of glucose. Monomers form an unbranched rod, not coil. Joined by H- bonds.
Insoluble Fiber
Cows and termites have cellulose-hydrolyzing microorganisms inside them.
Lipids
C and H atoms linked by NONPOLAR covalent bonds. Hydrophobic.
Fat
Large lipid mde from glycerol and fatty acids
Glycerol
Fatty acid. Main function of fat is energy storage.
Triglyceride
3 fatty acids and 1 glycerol linked by a dehydration reaction.
Unsaturated
Less than max hydrogens.
Saturated
Only single bonds. Max number of hydrogens.
Phospholipids
Like fats, but contain phosphorus and 2 fatty acids.
Wax
One fatty acid and an alchohol. More hydrophobic than fats.
Steroids
Lipids wth a carbon skeleton bent to form four fused rings. Always 3 six-sided rings and one five sided ring
Anabolic steroids
Synthetic variant of testosterone. Use can alter mood, liver function, high blood pressure, infertility, cardiovascular probs.
Anabolism
Building of substances by the body
Proteins
Polymers consisting of amino acid monomers
Proteins in the body
Muscles contain contractile proteins, antibodies, hemoglobin (transport protein for O2), ovalbumin (storage source of amino acids for embryos)
How are proteins made?
Proteins are made from amino acids linked by peptide bonds
Shape of enzymes
Globular. like lysozyme in tears and white blood cells
Shape of structural proteins
in hair and tendons. Long and thing (fibrous)
High temperatures and proteins
Can denature proteins (change shape). This is why high fevers can be dangerous.
Primary protein structure
Unique sequence of amino acids. Slight change can affect its ability to function
Secondary protein structure
Parts of the polypeptide folded or coiled, alpha helix, or pleated sheet.
Tertiary protein structure
3D shape of polypeptide. Globular or fibrous. Restults from interactions among the R groups of the amino acids. May be reinforced further by covalent bonds (disulfide bridges)
Quaternary protein structure
Results from the polypeptide chains (subunits). Collagen has 3 pp. chains in a triple helix.
Linus Pauling
Found out how hemoglobin carries O2 and how abnormal hemoglobin causes sickle-cell disease. Alpha helix & pleated sheet, also.
Nucleic acids
Polymers which are blueprint for proteins
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid. Double helix shape. A pairs with T, and G with C.
Interaction btwn. DNA and RNA
Dna's info is transcribes into RNA, which is translated into primary structure of proteins.
Genes
Specific parts of DNA molecule that program amino acid sequences (primary structure)
Nucleotides
Monomers in nucleic acids (p.47). 5 carbon sugar (ribose or deoxyribose) + phosphate group + nitrogenous base.
List the nitrogenous bases found in DNA
A- adenine pairs with T- Thymine.
C- Cytosine pairs with G-Guanine.
List the nitrogenous bases found in RNA
Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, Uracil (uracil pairs with adenine when it bonds with DNA).
RNA's shape
single polynucleotide strand.