Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/6

Click to flip

6 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Hydroxyl

Functional Properties:
-Is polar as a result of the electronegative oxygen atom drawing electrons toward itself.
-Attracts water molecule, helping dissolve organic compounds such as sugars.
Structure:In a hydroxyl group (-OH but may be written HO-), a hydrogen atom is bonded to an oxygen atom, which in turn is bonded to the carbon skeleton of the organic molecule. (Do not confuse this functional group with the hydroxide ion, OH-)

Name of Compounds: Alcohols (their specific names usually end in -ol)

Example: Ethanol, the alcohol present in alcoholic beverages
Carbonyl

Functional Properties:
-A ketone and an aldehyde may be structural isomers with different properties, as is the case for acetone and propanal.
Structure: The carbonyl Group ( CO) consists of a carbon atom joined to an oxygen atom by a double bond.

Name of Compounds:
-Ketones if the carbonyl group is within a carbon skeleton
- Aldehydes if the carbonyl group is at the end of the carbon skeelton

Example:
-Acetone, the simplest ketone
-Propanal, an aldehyde
Carboxyl

Functional Properties:
-Has acidic properties because it is a source of hydrogen ions.
-The covalent bond between oxygen and hydrogen is so polar that hydrogen ions (H+) tend to dissociate reversibly
-In cells, found in the ionic form, which is called a carboxylate group.
When an oxygen atom is double bonded to a carbon atom that is also bonded to a hydroxyl group, the entire assembly of atoms is called carboxyl groups (-COOH).

Name of Compounds: Carboxylic acids, or organic acids

Example: Acetic Acid, which gives vinegar its sour taste
Amino

Functional Properties:
-Acts as a base; can pick up a proton from the surrounding solution
- Ionized, with a charge of 1+, under cellular conditions
The amino group (NH2) consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms and to the carbon skeleton.

Name of compounds: Amines

Example: Glycine because it also has carboxyl group, glycine is both an amine and a carboxylic acid; compounds with both groups are called amino acids
Sulfhydryl

Functional Properties: Two sulfhydryl groups can interact to help stabilize protein structure.
The sulfhydryl group consists of a sulfur atom bonded to an atom of hydrogen; resembles a hydroxyl group in shape

Name of Compounds: Thiols

Example: ethanethiol
Phosphate

Functional Properties:
-Makes the molecule of which it is a part an anion (negatively charged ion)
-Can transfer energy between organic molecules
In a phosphate group, a phosphorus atom is bonded to four oxygen atoms; on oxygen is bonded to the carbon skeleton; two oxygens carry negative charges; abbreviated P. The phosphate group (-OPO3^2-) is an ionized form of a phosphoric acid group (-OPO3H2; note the two hydrogens).

Name of Compounds: Organic Phosphates

Example: Glycerol phosphate