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104 Cards in this Set

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Hydrophobic
Does not dissolve in water
Hydrophilic
Dissolves in water
Solvent
Something that dissolves a solute
Heat Capacity
How much a substance changes temperature in response to a gain or loss of heat. Water has a very low heat capacity, and therefore is difficult to raise in temperature.
Properties of Water
Excellent Solvent, High Heat Capacity, Ice Floats, Strong Cohesion and Surface Tension, Strong adhesion to other molecules
Surface Tension
The strength of the surface of a liquid
Capillary Action
The rising up of narrow tubing, such as inside a plant's stem, by water through adhesion to the sides of the tube.
Organic Molecules
Molecules that contain carbon atoms
Macromolecules
Large organic molecules that consist of hundreds or thousands of atoms
Polymer
A macromolecule that is made up of a single monomer repeated many times
Monosaccharide
The simplest type of carbohydrate, made up of a single sugar molecule (e.g. fructose or glucose)
Disaccharide
A carbohydrate made up of two sugar molecules joined by a glycosidic linkage
Glycosidic Linkage
The bond that connects monosaccharides
Dehyration Reaction
The reaction in which monosaccharides are bonded, resulting in the loss of a single water molecule.
Starch
A polymer of alpha glucose molecules; the principal energy storage molecule in plant cells.
Glycogen
A polymer of alpha-glucose, stores energy in animal cells.
Cellulose
A polymer of beta-glucose molecules. A structural molecule in plant cell walls and wood.
Chitin
A polymer of beta glucose; serves as a structural molecule in the walls of fungus cells and in the exoskeletons of insects, other arthropods, and mollusks.
Lipids
Polymers that are insoluble in water, but soluble in nonpolar substances. Includes triglycerides, phospholipds, and steroids
Triglycerides
Lipids that include fats, oils, and waxes. Made up of three fatty acids attached to a glycerol molecule.
Fatty Acids
Hydrocarbons that make up part of triglycerides and phospholipids. Saturated fatty acids have no double bonds, while unsaturated ones do.
Phospholipids
A lipid similar to a trioglyceride except with a phosphate group replacing one of the fatty acids. The fatty acid tails are hydrophobic and the phosphate head is hydrophilic.
Amphipath
A molecule with both a polar and nonpolar region.
Steroids
Lipids with a backbone of four linked carbon rings. Examples include cholesterol , testosterone, and estrogen
Amino Acids
The building blocks of proteins
Peptide Bonds
The chemical bonds that hold amino acids together in proteins
Primary Structure of a Protein
The order of amino acids.
Secondary Structure of a Protein
The 3-D shape of a protein, resulting from hydrogen bonding between adjacent amino acids.
Tertiary Structure of a Protein
Additional 3D structure of a protein due to hydrogen bonding between R groups of amino acids, ionic bonding between R groups, disulfide bonds between csteine, and the hydrophobic effects, which causes R groups to move toward the center of the protein and away from the water.
Quaternary Structure of a Protein
The structure of a protein made up of two or more peptide chains.
Deoxyribose
A five carbon sugar that makes up part of a nucleotide
Catalyst
Something that accelerates the rate of a reaction.
Metabolism
Chemical reactiosn that take place in biological systems
Catabolism
The breaking down of substances
Anabolism
The formation of new products, or the transfer of energy from one substance to another
Induced-Fit Model
The enzyme model that describes that on every enzyme there is an active site where a particular reactant can interact.
Denatured
When a protein loses its 3D shape as a result of a change in pH or temperature
Cofactors
Nonprotein molecules that assist enzyme reactions
Coenzymes
Organic cofactors
ATP
Adenosine Triphosphate, a common source of activation energy for chemical reactions. It supplies energy for reactions by breakign off the third phosphate group and releasing energy.
Phosphorylation
The process of creating ATP through the combination of ADP with a phosphate group.
Allosteric Enzymes
Enzymes with two binding sites, one active site, and one for an inhibitor
Allosteric Effector
A substance that binds to an allosteric enzyme's allosteric site. Activators induce the enzyme's active form, while inhibitors do the opposite.
Feedback Inhibition
When the end product of a series of reactions acts as an allosteric inhibitor for the enzyme facilitating the reactions.
Competitive Inhibition
A substance that mimics the substrate and binds to the active site of an enzyme, thus preventing it from catalyzing the actual substrate
Noncompetitive Inhibitor
A substance that binds to an enzyme somewhere besdies the active or allosteric site, thus changing its shape and preventing catalyzation.
Cooperativeity
When the enzyme becomes more receptive to substrates after one of the active sites has been filled, such as in enzyme proteins with quarternary structure.
Centromere
The thing that connects the identical halves of sister chromatids
Diploid Cells
Cells that have two copies of each chromosome
Haploid Cells
Cells with a single copy of each chromosome
Cytokinesis
The second half of cell division, in which the cytoplasm divides.
Microtubule Organizing Centers (MTOCs)
Also known as centrosomes, the microtubules develop from them during cellular division.
Interphase
The nondividing period of the cell cycle, during which the nucleolus is visible, the MTOCs are next to each other, and the chromatin is inside the nuclear envelope.
Prophase
The first phase of mitosis, during prophase

1. The nucleoli disappear and the chromatin condenses into chromosomes
2. The nuclear envelope breaks down
3. The mitotic spindle is assembled as the MTOCs move apart
Kinetochore
The section in the centromere where microtubules attach.
Metaphase Plate
The plane that lies between the two poles of the mitotic spindle
Metaphase
The second phase of mitosis. During metaphase sister chromatids are pulled apart. Each sister chromatid still has a centromere and kinetochore
Anaphase
The third phase of mitosis. During anaphase, microtubules attached to the separated chromosomes shorten, pulling them to the poles.
Cleavage Furrow
The indentation between dividing cells in telophase
Telophase
The final phase of mitosis. A nuclear envelope forms around each pole, forming two distinct nuclei. The chromosomes turn into chromotin and the nucleoli reappear. Cytokinesis occurs during this time.
Cytosol
The fluid matrix which makes up the cytoplasm, along with the organelles.
Peripheral Proteins
Proteins that attach to the outside of the phospholipid membrane.
Integral Proteins
Proteins that extrend into the membrane of a cell.
Transmembrane Proteins
Proteins that extend out of both sides of a cell membrane.
Selectively Permeable
Only small, uncharged, polar, or hydrophobic molecules can pass through the cell membrane.
Channel Proteins
Allow for hydrophilic (polar or charged) molecules to pass through the cell membrane.
Transport Proteins
Proteins that use ATP to actively transport substances across the cell membrane.
Glycoproteins
Also known as recognition proteins, they identify neighboring cells. They have oligosaccharide chains that extend outside the membrane.
Adhesion Proteins
Attach cells to neighboring cells
Receptor Proteins
Provide sites for hormones or other similar molecules to attach.
Glycocalyx
A carbohydrate covering of the outer face of the plasma membrane, made up of various oligosaccharides. It provides for cell to cell recognition.
Nucleosomes
Bundles of DNA coiled around histones.
Rough ER
The endoplasmic reticulum that contains ribosomes, it produced glycoproteins.
Smooth ER
The endoplasmic reticulum without ribosomes, it breaks down toxins and synthesizes lipids and hormones.
Dailysis
The process of separating different substances in a solution by their different rates of diffusion.
Turgor Pressure
Pressure exerted on the cell wall by the contents of a plant cell.
Testape
Used to test for the presence of glucose.
Lugol's Solution
Tests for the presence of starch.
Golgi Body
Modifies and packages proteins and lipids into vesicles.
Vesicles
Small, spherically shaped sacs from the surface of the Golgi apparatus, which release their contents to the outside of the cell by merging with the plasma membrane.
Lysosomes
Vesicles from the Golgi apparatus which contain digestive enzymes. They break down food, celular debris, and foreign invaders. They only exist in animal cells.
Peroxisomes
Organelles that break down toxic substances, most notably hydrogen peroxide. They are most abundant in liver and kidney cells.
Microtubules
Made up of tubulin, provide support and motility for cellular activities. Make up flagella and cilia.
Intermediate Filaments
Provide support for maintaining the cell shape.
Microfilaments
Made of actin, they are primarily used for cell motility.
Basal Bodies
Structures that exist at the base of cilia and flagella and organize their development.
Cell Junctions
Structures that anchor cells to one another or provide passageways for cellular exchange.
Desmosomes
Protein attachments between adjacent animal cells. They hold the cells together.
Tight Junctions
Tight seams between animal cells, which prevent the movement of material between cells.
Gap Junctions
Protein tunnels between animal cells which prevent the cytoplasm from mixing but allow the passage of ions and other small molecules.
Plasmodesmata
Narrow channels between plant cells.
Differences between plant/animal cells
Animal cells have lysosomes, centrioles, desmosomes, and tight and gap junctions.

Plant cells have cell walls, chloroplasts, a central vacuole, and plasmodesmata.
Differences between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
Prokaryotes only have a plasma membrane, one DNA molecule, ribosomes, cytoplasm, and sometimes a cell wall. They also lack a nucleus, are smaller, and their flagella aren't made up of microtubules.
Hypertonic
Higher solution of solutes.
Hypotonic
Lower concentration of solutes
Isotonic
Equal concentration of solutes
Bulk Flow
The collective movement of substances in the same direction in response to a force or pressure.
Facilitated Diffusion
The diffusion of solutes through channel proteins in the plasma membrane.
Countercurrent Exchange
The diffusion of substances between regions in which substances are moving by bulk flow in opposite directions.
Exocytosis
The process of vesicles fusing with the plasma membrane to release their contents outside the cell.
Endocytosis
The process of the plasma membrane engulfing a substance outside of a cell.
There are three types, phagocytosis, pinocytosis, and receptor-mediated endocytosis.
Phagocytosis
When undissolved material enters the cell. The membrane engulfs the solid material, forming a phagocytic vesicle. The process of white blood cells attacking bacteria is one example.
Pinocytosis
When dissolved substances enter the cell. The membrane folds inward to form a channel that allows liquid to enter the cell.
Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis
When specific molecules in the fluid outside the cell bind to corresponding receptors in the plasma membrane. The molecules are called ligands.