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21 Cards in this Set

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Characteristics of Monera (6)

examples
-single celled prokaryotes w/no internal membranes
-no nucleus, chloroplasts, mitochondra
-both anaerobes and aerobes
-virus in here for lack of better place
-archea is sometimes included
-one circular chromosome

ex: blue-green algae, bacteria
Characteristics of Protista (5)

three examples
-widest diversity but all eukaryotes
-single celled or primitive multicelled
-either anaerobes or aerobes
-both heterotrophs and autotrophs
-organisms that dont fit in plant or fungi (seaweed, slime molds)
-classified by movement

ex: euglena, paramecium, amoeba
Euglena
protist

-chlorophyll for photosynthesis,
-red eye spot,
-primarily autotrophic
-move by flagella
Amoeba, Paramecium
protists
heterotrophs
amoeba=moves by pseudopods
paramecium=flagellum
Characteristics of Fungi (4)

examples
-eukaryotic heterotrophs
-secrete hydrolytic enzymes outside the organism for extracellular digestion and then absorbs small nutrients
-decomposers
-cell walls of chitin

ex: mushrooms, yeast, mold, athlete's foot fungus
Characteristics of Plants (2)

examples
-all are autotrophic eukaryotes
-vascular=tracheophytes; no vascular=bryophytes
ex: mosses, ferns, cone-bearing and flowering plants
Characteristics of Animals (6)
-all multicellular heterotrophic EUks
-9 main phyla: proifera, cnidaria, platyhelminthes, nematoda, annelida, mollusca, arthropoda, echinodermata, chordata
-sexually reproduce with dominant diploid stage
-usually smaller flagellated sperm fertilizes larger, nonmotile egg
-monophyletic (one common ancestor)
-classified based on: homologous structures and embryonic development
two diploblastic animal phyla
porifera, cnidarians
animal acoelomates
porifera
cnidaria
platyhelminthes
animal pseudocoelomate
nematodes (acts as hydrostatic skeleton)
Porifera
SPONGES

no symmetry
sessile; no nerves or muscles
central cavity=spongoceol
diploblastic
three types of cells in place of tissues:
-choanocytes, spicules, amoebocytes
-evolved from colonial organisms
-asexual and sexual reproduction (HERMAPHRODITES)
Cnidarians
HYDRA AND JELLYFISH

-radial symmetry
-body shape: polyp (vase) or medusa (upside down bowl)
-gastrovascular cavity where extracellular digestion occurs
-also intracellular digestion in lysosomes of cells
-life cycle: sometimes larva, then asexual polyp then sexual medusa
-CNIDOCYTES: stinging cells
Platyhelminthes
FLATWORMS: TAPEWORMS

-simplest animal that is triploblastic, bilaterally symetrical, and an anterior end aka a head
-one ended digestive cavity: digestion cannot occur continuously
-true tissues, organs
-are acoelmates and have a solid body so no room for respiration, circulation of food, etc
-adaptions: flat body= cells in direct contact with environment; digestive cavity=branched so the whole body can get food
Nematodal
ROUNDWORMS

-unsegmented, bilateral symmetry, little sensory development
-pseudocoelomate transports nutrients but has no room for circulatory system
-protostome coelomates (blastopore forms mouth, not anaus)
-Trichinella=trichinosis from uncooked pork
-Caenorhabditis elegans=model for studying link between genes and development
Annelida
SEGMENTED WORMS: EARTHWORMS, LEECHES

-protostome coelomates with little sensory development
-digestive tract: tube within a tube: crop, gizzard, intestine
-closed circulatory system (5 pairs of aortic arches)
-blood has hemoglobin and oxygen
-diffusion of respiratory gases through moist skin
-hermaphrodites, but don't self fertilize
Mollusca
SQUIDS OCTUPUSES SLUGS CLAM SNAILS

-protostome coelomates
-RADULA: tooth-bearing structure that acts like a tongue
-open circulatory system: hemocoels=blood filled spaces
-most have gills, nephridia
-soft body often with hard calcium shell
-body zones:
HEADFOOT-sensory, motor
VISCERAL MASS: organs of digestion, excretion, reproduction
MANTLE: surrounds visceral, secretes shell
Arthropoda
INSECTS (grasshoppers) CRUSTACEANS (shrimps, crbas) and ARACHNIDS

-protostome coelomates
-jointed appendages
-head, thorax, abdomen segmented
-open circulatory: tubular heart, hemocoels
-trachea air ducts brings respiratory gases into hemocoel
-excretion through malphigian tubules (uric acid)
-more sensory movement than annelids=more speed and freedom of movement
-chitinous exoskeletons
-some have book lungs, book gills
Echinodermata
SEA STARS and SEA URCHINS
-deuterostomes
-intially bilateral but becomes radial as adult because of sessile lifestyle
-water vascular system=hydrostatic support especially in locomotive tube feet
-external fertalization (sex reproduction)
-also by fragmentation and regeneration
-sea stars=calcium plated exoskeleton
Chordata
FISHES, AMPHIBIANS, REPTILES, BIRDS, MAMMALS

-deuterostome coelomates
-NOTOCHORD: flexible rod that extends length of the body
-dorsal, hollow nerve cord
-tail (movement and balance--coccyx bone in humans)
-birds, mammals=homeotherms--constant body temp
-everyone else=pokilotherms (cold blooded); some reptiles are endotherms
Characteristics of Mammals (4)
-mothers nourish with milk
-hair or fur of keratin
-homeotherms
-either placental, marsupial, or monotreme
Characteristics of Primates
-dextrous hands with opposable thumbs
-nails
-eyes face front; close together
-long period of nurturing young