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114 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
two systems
root system and shoot system
two types of roots
fibrous roots - made of a mat of thin roots spread just below soils surface
taproot - one thick vertical root with many lateral roots that come out from it
what are stems made up of
nodes - point at which leaves are attaches
internodes - parts of stems btwn notes
axillary buds
located in the V formed btwn node and stems, have potential to form a branch
terminal bud
located at top end of stem
where growth usually occurs
in apical dominance
terminal bud prohibits growth of axillary buds
what do leaves consist of
blade and petiole that joins leaf to node
three tissue types of all plant organs
1. dermal tissue
2. vascular tissue
3. ground tissue
dermal tissue
single layer of closely packed cells that covers the entire plant and protects it
vascular tissue
continuous through plant
responsible for transporting material btwn roots and shoots
xylem
transports water and minerals up from roots
phloem
transport food from leaves to other parts of plant
tracheids and vessel elements
components of xylem, dead cells that form a conduit through which water passes
sieve tube members
in phloem tubes formed by chains of cells
ground tissue
anything that is not dermal or vascular, divided into pith (inside the ring of the ground tissue) and cortex (outside the ring)
plants have three types of cells
1 parenchyma cells - perform most of metabolism, including photosynthesis, present throughout plant
2 collenchyma cells - grouped in cylinders, help support growing parts of plant
3. sclerenchyma - exists in parts of cell no longer growing, have a tough cell wall, two types specialized just for support - fibers and sclerids
annuals
life span occurs over one year
bienials
life occurs over course of two years
perennials
lives occur over many years
meristems
embryonic growths that exist in a plants growing regions
apical meristems
located at tips of roots and buds of shoots, sites of cell division
primary growth
occurs when plant grows at apical meristems
secondary growth
woody plants, when shoots and roots of a plant thicken, product of lateral meristems
root cap
covers tip of root in a plant, contains three types of cells in various stages of growth, in the following zones
zones of cell primary growth
1. zone of cell division - includes apical and primary meristems where cells divide rapidly, and the quiescent center, where cells divide slowly,
three concentric cylinders of cells that continue to divide (above apical meristem newly divided cells form these
-zone of cell division-
1. protoderm
2. procambrium
3. groundmeristem

eventually produce the three main tissues
zone of elongation
above cell division, in which cells elongate significantly
zone of maturation
three systems of primary growth complete their differentiation and become functionally mature
stele
in roots procambium gives rise to this central cylinder of vascular tissue in which xylem and phloem both develop
pericycle
outer most layer of stele
endodermis
a ring one cell thick that separates the cortex from the stele
guard cell
flank stomata and open and close it
where is ground tissue in leaves
sandwiched between the upper and lower epidermis in the mesophyll
parenchyma cells
sites of photosynthesis in mesophyll
two lateral meristems that take part in plant growth
1. vascular cambium produces secondary xylem (wood)
2. cork cambium - produces a tough covering that replaces epidermis
what happens early in secondary growth?
the epidermis dries up and is replaced by cork cambium which produces cork cells
periderm
cork + cork cambium
lenticels
opening, or splits in the cork cambiam, that enable the cells withing the trunk to exchange gases with the outside and continue cell respiration
bark
all the tissue outside the the vascular cambium
how does growth in plants occur
by cell elongation, expansion, and division
three kinds of transport in plants
1. uptake and loss of water and minerals from individual cells, for instance in a root cell or leaf cell
2. transport of substances short distance from cell to cell
3. transport of sap within the xylem and phloem throughout the entire plant
how is the uptake of water across cell membranes achieved in plants
osmosis
water potential
combined effects of solute concentration and the pressure that the cell wall contributes
turgor pressure
pressure exerted against cell wall when it is filled with water
aquaporins
channels in the plant cell walls specifically designed for the passage of water.
tonoplasts
surrounds vacuoles + regulates molecules going into and out of vacuole
symplast
is a continuum of cytoplasm that is connected by plasmodesmata btwn cells
apoplast
nonliving continuum that is formed by extracellular pathway, formed by the continuous matrix of cell walls

water flows through both the apo and sym plast
bulk flow
movement of water through the plant by pressure
root hairs
where most water absorption occurs near the tip in roots
mycorrhizae
roots associated with symbiotic fungi, absorb water and certain minerals
what must water and minerals in root cortex in order to enter rest of plant
endodermis
casparian strip
contained in endodermis, prevents substances from going around the cells
transpiration
loss of water vapor from leaves and other parts of plant in contact with air
two ways in which water is pulled up the plant
1. root pressure- water flowing from root cortex generates positive pressure that forces fluid up through xylem
2. transpiration-cohesion-tension-meachanism - water is lost through the leaves of the plant creates a negative pressure which draws water up through the plant
chemistry of TCTN
cohesion of water due to hydrogen bonding enables it to form a column which is drawn up through xylem with the help of cohesion
guard cell
control the size of the opening in the stomata and therefore regulates the plant water intake
three factors influencing the opening and closing of stomata
light, depletion of CO2 in the airspaces of the leaf, and the internal clock of guard cells
what caries food from sugar source
sieve tubes
sugar sink
an organ that consumes sugar
bulk flow
major part of transpiration in phloem, loading of sugar into cells creates a high solute concentration at the source end of the sieve tube, this lowers the water potential and causes water to flow in the tube
macronutrients
9 nutrients required by plant in great amounts, carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorous, pottasium, calcium, magnesium
micronutrients
8 needed in small amounts,
essential nutrients
those the plants need to complete the life cycle
topsoil
mixture of particulus from rock, living organisms, and humus (partialy decayed organic material)
what must happen for plants to absorb N2
must be converted into NH4 + or NO3-
main source of nitrogen for plants
decomposition of humus by microbes
nitrogen-fixing-bacteria
convert N2 to NH3 in the process of nitrogen fixation
nodules
swelling of plant roots, specifically legume roots that are composed of plant cells containing nitrogen fixing bacteria
parasitic plants
misltoe, relies on other plants for nutrition, not photosynthetic
epiphytes
not parasitic, just grow on surface of other plants
carnivorous plants
are photosynthetic but get some nitrogen and other minerals by digesting small animals
Angiosperm reproduction terms
sepals - protect the floral bud before it opens
petals - attract insects and other polinators
staments- male reproductive organs-contain anther and filament (stem)
carpals- female reproductive organs - ovary, ovule, style (stem) stigma (polinated)
monoecious
species have staminate and carpalet flowers located on the same plant
dioecious
species have staminate flowers and carpalate flowers on different plants
microsporocytes
diploid cells in the sporangia of anther, undergo meioses to produce four haploid microspores, become haploid male gametophytes
ovules
each contain a single sporangium containing a megasporocyte which undergoes meiosis to form four haploid megaspores. In many angiosperls, only one of the megaspores survives and produces the ovule
self incompatibility
mehod in which self-fertilization is prevented to promote genetic variety, in which plant can reject pollen of its self or closely related individual
pollen tube
pollen grain lands on stigma germinates and produces this, that extends toward ovary
what happens next
one sperm fertilizes the egg to form 2n embryo, other combines with two polar nuclei to form a triploid nucleus, eventually giving rise to the endosper, which nurishes plant embryo
double fertilization
process of forming an embryo and endosperms
what happens after double fertilization
ovule develops into a seed, ovary develops into a fruit which encloses the seed
dormancy
seed enter when mature, low metabolic rate and growth and development are suspended
Asexual reproduction
produces clones, also know as vegetative reproduction,
fragmentation occurs
pieces of parent plant break off forming new individuals who are exact replicas
many plants capable of both
hormones
chemical messengers that act to coordinate the different parts of an organism
produced by one part of the body and transported to another
tropism
growth response results in plant growing toward or away from stimulus
phototropism
growth of a shoot in a certain direction as a response to light

positive = towards light
negative= away from light
overview of plant hormones
ddd
auxin (IAA)
where plant grows, stimulates stem elongation, root growth, cell differentialation, and branching,
regulates development of fruit, enhanves apical dominance, functions in phototropism and gravitropism
cytokinins
in roots, affect root growth and differentiation stimulates cell division and growth, stimulates germination, delays senescence
gibberellins
where plant grows, promotes seed and bud germination, stem elongation and leaf growth, stimulates flowering and development of fruit, effects root growth and differentiation
abscisic acid
leaves, stems, roots, green fruit, inhibits growth, closes stomata during water stress, counteracts breaking of dormancy
ethylene
tissues of ripening fruit, nodes of stems, aging leaves and flowers, promotes fruit ripening, opposes some auxin effects, promotes or inhibits growth and development of everything depending on species
bassinosteroids
everywhere except roots, inhibits root growth; retards leaf abscission; promotes xylem differentiation
photomorphogenesis
the effects of light on plant morphology
three different pigments detecting blue light (blue light has the greatest effect on plant growth and movement)
cryptochromes, phototropin, zeaxanthin
phytochromes
pigments involved in many of plants response to light
circadian rythms
physiological cycles that have a frequency of about 24 hours, not paced by known environmental variable
photoperiodism
physiological response to a photoperiod, like flowering
short- day plants
require a period of light shorter than a certain critical length in order to flower
long day plants
flower in the late spring or early summer- they require the most daylight to flwer
day neutral plants
can flower in days of any length
gravitropism
plants response to gravity, roots show positive gravitropism, and stems show negative
thigmomorphogenesis
the change in form of a plant resulting from mechanical disturbance
thigmotropism
directional growth in plant in response to a touch
drought
guard cells lose turgor, causing stomata to close
young leaves stop growing and role into shape preventing transpiration from occuring as quickly
deep roots continue to grow while those near surface dont
flood
certain cells in root cortex die creating air tubes enabling plant cell to continue respiration
heat stress
plants produce heat-shock-proteins which perform an unknown function in the cell
cold
plants respond by altering composition of their cell membranes
predators
thorns, distasteful chemicals, poisonous compounds, airborne attractants that bring other animals to kill herbivores
viruses
epidermal layer, plant is able to recognize pathogens and deal with them in complex biochemical ways
C3 plant
A plant that uses the Calvin cycle for the initial steps that incorporate CO2 into organic material, forming a three-carbon compound as the first stable intermediate.
C4 plant
A plant that prefaces the Calvin cycle with reactions that incorporate CO2 into a four-carbon compound, the end product of which supplies CO2 for the Calvin cycle.
CAM plant
A plant that uses crassulacean acid metabolism, an adaptation for photosynthesis in arid conditions, first discovered in the family Crassulaceae. Carbon dioxide entering open stomata during the night is converted into organic acids, which release CO2 for the Calvin cycle during the day, when stomata are closed.