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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Necleus
Function
Origin
Regulates protein synthesis
Replication
Nucleolus
Function
Origin
Produces ribosomes
DNA
Ribosomes
Function
Origin
Protein synthesis
Nucleolus
Rough ER
Function
Origin
Protein synthesis & making transport vesicles
Build themselves
Smooth ER
Detoxification, lipid synthesis, Ca2+ storage
Build themselves
Golgi body
Function
Origin
Modification & storage, making transport vesicles
Rough ER
Lysomsomes
Function
Origin
Intracellular digestion; breakdown of old organelles
Golgi apparatus
Mitochondria
Function
Origin
Cellular respiration
They divide (mitosis)
Microbody
Function
Origin
Breakdown of H2O2
Golgi apparatus
Vaculole
Function
Origin
Storage, transport
Rough & smooth ER endocytosis
Cilia
Function
Origin
Movement of materials over cell surface
Rough ER
Flagellum
Function
Origin
Locomotion (sperm)
Rough ER
Centriole
Function
Origin
Anchoring for mitosis
Ribosomes
Micrfilaments
Function
Origin
Movement, anchoring
Ribosomes
Microtubles
Function
Origin
Movement, anchoring
Ribosomes
Intermediate
Function
Origin
Anchoring
Ribosomes filaments
What is Phagocytosis?
Type of endocytosis
Cell eating
What is Pinocytosis?
Cell drinkin
Only a small portion of the cell membrane is used
Type of endocytosis
Only a small amount of the extracellular fluid is engulfed (along w/any dissolved materials)
What is Diffusion?
Passive Transport
The movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
(Downhill)
What is Osmosis?
Passive Transport
Diffusion of H2O through a semipermeable membrane.
What is a solution?
A solution has 2 parts:
Solvent-which is the fluid doing the dissolving.
Solute-which is the substance the dissolves in the solvent
Isotonic (cell diffusion)
A solution w/the same concentration of a (normal body fluids) cells cytoplasm.
Hypotonic (cell diffusion)
A solution less solute than the inside of the cell.
The H2O would diffuse through the membrane from high to low (osmosis moves the H2O inside the cell)
Hypertonic (cell diffusion)
A solution more solute than the inside of the cell.
The H2O would diffuse through the membrane from high to low
(a hypertonic solution creates an osmotic pressure that moves H2O outside the cell)
Facilitated diffusion (cell diffusion)
Diffusion is helped along through open, tubular, protein channels in the the cell membrane.
What are active transport processes?
The transport of substances that are unable to pass by diffusion. (up-hill & up-stream) Energy is required.
Which cells in the body do not have a complete set of DNA?
Red blood cells
What is messanger RNA's (mRNA)job?
It copies the DNA's recipe for protein, and leaves the cell through pores in the nuclear envelope to go to the ribosomes & the recipe is used to make protein.
What does transferRNA (tRNA)do?
An mRNA codon matches w/a specific tRNA anticodon & the tRNA carries a spefic amino acid to the ribosomes.
What is Interphase?
Is the period of growth & replication. Is the longest part of the cell cycle.
(Interphase means the phase between separate episodes of mitosis)
What is Prophase?
1st part of mitosis
Uncoilded DNA molecules
(chromatin) are coiled up to form chromosomes & the nuclear envelope disintegrates. Centrioles migrate to the poles.
What is the purpose of coiling chromatin (uncoiled DNA molecules) ?
The coiling enables the chromosomes to separate cleanly, without any damage to the DNA.
What is metaphase?
2nd part of mitosis
The chromosomes line up along the middle (equator) of the cell. Spindle fibers are attached to a centromere at the equator and a centriole at the pole.
What is a centromere?
(the narrowing of the chromosome)
The central portion of each chromosome, also the point of attachment for the spindle fibers.
What are spindle fibers?
Long chains of microtubules that connect to centrioles at each pole of the cell during metaphase.
What is anaphase?
3rd part of mitosis.
The spindle fibers shorten & chromosomes are pulled apart. The (daughter) chromosomes are pulled toward the poles & the cell begins to elongate.
What is cytokenesis?
Splitting of the cytoplasm.
Usually begins during late anaphase & completes during telophase.
What is telophase?
The last part of mitosis.
The chromosomes at opposite ends of the cell uncoil to become chromatin again. The spindle breaks down & disappears, a nuclear envelope forms around each chromatin mass & nucleoi appear in each of the daughter nuclei. (A cleavage furrow (for cell division) begins to form.