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74 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Info on Skeletal muscle
-movement
-cylindrical
-striated
-multincleated
-voluntary
Info on Cardiac Muscle
-pump blood
-cyl, branched
-striated, discs
-one nucleus
-involuntary
Info on Smooth muscle
-peristalsis
-spindle shaped
-non-striated
-one nucleus
-involuntary
movement(skeletal muscle)
-muscle contraction pull on tendon and move bones
-flexion, extention, abd, add
maintain posture(skeletal)
keeping us in extended position
protection(skeletal)
support and protect visceral organs(digestive tract)
homeostasis(skeletal)
maintains temp-lose heat in contraction of muscles
Layers of Skeletal muscle
-Epimyseum
-perimyseum
-endomysium
-tendons
epimyseum
-surrounds entire skeletal muscle
-dense irregular CT
-separates muscle from surrounding tissues and organs
-aka Deep fascia
perimyseum
-divides muscle into compartments
-each compartment contains a bundle of muscle fibers
endomyseum
-surrounds individual muscle fibers within each fascicle
-muscle fiber=muscle cell
-binds muscle fibers together
tendons
-interwoven extention of CT from epi, peri, endomysium
-converge and attach to bone(sometimes skin or other muscle)
Nerve and blood vessels...
-penetrate 3 layers in supply muscle fibers (individual cells)
3 types of muscle fibers
fast, slow, and intermediate
Info on fast fibers
-contract quickly
-uses ATP quickly, ATP cannot keep up
-generates ATP by converting gylcogen to lactic acid
-lactic acids build up and interferes with muscle contraction=fatigues muscle quickly
info on slow fibers
-3x longer to contract after nerve simulation
-lots of ATP
-ATP not used as quickly
-No need for glycogen
-doesnt fatigue quickly(no lactic acid build up)
info in intermediate fibers
-inbetween slow and fast fibers
-during physical conditioning, change from fast to slow goes through intermediate muscle fiber stage.
agonist
muscle whose contraction is chiefly responsible for producing a particular motion
eg. Flexor digitorum longus
antagonist
muscle whose action opposes that of the agonist
eg. extensor digitorum longus
synergist
muscle that can assist the
agonist or antagonist
Where does skeletal muscle contract?
muscle fiber(sarcomere)level
each myofibril contains how many sarcomeres along its length?
10,000
Interaction of actin and myosin filaments within sarcomere are responsible for what?
muscle cell contraction
Sacromere:
-organized, repeating of actin(thin) and myosin(thick) filaments
sliding filament theory
interaction of actin and myosin filament.
thin filaments are where on the sarcomere
the ends
i-band
area of thin filaments only
z-line
thin filaments are linked together by proteins
zone of overlap
overlap of thin and thick filaments
a-band
area of thick filament, m line and zone of overlap
thick filaments are where on the sarcomere
middle
h-band
area of thick filament only
m-line
thick filaments linked together by proteins
actin filaments contain what for thick filament attachment
active sites
active sites are covered by what?
troponin molecules
tropomyosin molecule held in place over active site by?
troponin molecule
before thick filaments can attach to thin filament, troponin molecule must do what to expose active site
change shape/move tropomyosin molecule
what is thick filament composed of
myosin molecules
strands of myosin molecules contain a what that is orientated away from m-line
globbular head
myosin head does what
attaches to active site on thin filament
steps of sliding filament theory
attach, pivot, detach, and return
function of the nervous system
to regulate and integrat body functions via electrical impulses
2 anatomical subdivisions
-Central Nervous System(CNS)
-Periperal Nervous System(PNS)
Central Nervous System
deals with the brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System
all neural tissue outside of CNS
nerve cells
these cells transfer and process info from extracellular enviroment using electical stimuli
Spinal nerves do what?
-carry both sensory and motor nerves
-leave and enter spinal cord between vertebrae
Cranial nerves do what?
-carry both sensory and motor nerves
-leave and enter through the holes in the cranium.
2 types of cells in neural tissue
-neurons
-glial cells
neurons
transfer and processing of info in nervous system
glial cells
support and nourish neutrons-protects myelin sheath
dendrites
processes or branches that are specialized to respond to specific stimuli in extracellular enviroment
body/stoma
contains nucleus, mitochondria and other organelles typical in a cell
axon
long,slender process or branch that carries info to synaptic terminal
synaptic terminal(pre, cleft, post)
where electrical messages are transferred from neuron to another neuron
presynaptic terminal
-terminal branches of neuron(axon head)
-contains neurotransmitters
-neural stimulation releases neurotransmitter
synaptic cleft
-space between presynaptic terminal and post synaptic terminal
-neurotransmitter flows across this space.
post synaptic terminal
-branches on adjacent neuron (dendrite)
-neurotransmitter binds to receptor proteins on postsynaptic membrane and impulse is sent down next neuron
interneurons
spinal cord process and relay info from sensory neurons to
1) up ascending tract of spinal cord
2)coordinate motor neurons response to stimuli(reflex)
somatic
sensory neurons that transfer info from the outside conditions to the brain or the spinal cord
visceral sensory neurons
transfer info from internal conditions to brain or spinal cord
somatic motor neurons
modifies the activity of skeletal muscle fiber
visceral motor neuron
innervates all other tissue other than skeletal muscles
(ANS)
Acetylcholine
when released at neuromuscular junction results in muscular contraction
botulism
blocks release of Ach
Norepinephrine
when released triggers hunger, thirst, sex drive
black widow venom
uncontrolled release of Ach
membrane potential
the difference in ionic charge between inside a nerve cell and outside
resting membrane potential
the difference in ionic charge inside a nerve cell and outside a nerve cell when a neuron is resting(not sending an impulse)
what is the resting membrane potential
-70millivolts
inside cell contains...
K+, PO4-, SO4-
outside of cell
Na+
Depolarization
if the membrane becomes more positive(less negative)than the resting potential
action potential
an action potential is when there is enough depolarization to send electical impulse down axon