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102 Cards in this Set

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What are the 6 essential activities of the Digestive System?
Fx:
1. Ingestion
2. Propulsion
3. Mechanical Digestion - No chemical change
4. Chemical Digestion
5. Absorption
6. Defecation
Ingestion
Ingestion - taking food into the digestive tract
Propulsion
Prppulsion - swallowing and peristalis
Mechanical Digestion
Mechanical digestion - chewing, mixing, and churning of food
Chemical Digestion
Chemical digestion - catabolic breakdown of food
Absorption
Absorption - movement of nutrients from the GI tract to the blood or lymph
Defecation
Defecation - elimnation of indigestible solid wastes
Histology of the Alimentary Canal
1. Mucosa: villi
2. Sub Mucosa
3. Muscularis
4. Serosa
Mouth
Mucosa is Stratified Squamous Epithileal
Muscularis is voluntary
Tongue
Muscle covered by Modified Stratified Squamous
salivary glands
Secrete a quart daily
Functions of the Saliva
Cleansing, Moistening, Dissolving, Chemical digestion
What are the 3 pairs of large glands and functions?
Parotid, Submandibular, Sublingual.
Produce mucous and enzymes
Saliva secretion is stimulated by?
Taste, Feel, Smell, Sight, Sound, Thought of food.
Teeth Dentitions - Deciduous (milk) teeth
Incisors (6-8 mos)
Lateral (8-10 mos)
Canine (eye tooth) (16-20 mos)
Molars -1st molar (10-15 mos)
2nd Molar - (about 2 yr)
Teeth Dentitions - Permanent Teeth
Incisors Central (7 yr)
Lateral (8 yr)
Canine (eyetooth) (11 yr)
Pre Molars (bicuspids) 1st premolar
Molars - 1st molar (6-7 yr)
2nd molar (12-13 yr)
Third molar (wisdom teeth) 17-25 yr)
Tooth Structure - Crown
Crown - Enamal, Dentin, Dentinal tubules, Pulp cavity (contains blood vessels and nerves)
Tooth Structure - Neck
Space between the Crown and the Root
Tooth Structure - Root
Gingiva (gum), Cementum, Root Canal, Periodontal ligament, Apical Foramen, Bone
Histology of the Esophagus
1. Mucosa (contains a stratified squamous epithelium)2. Submucosa (areolar connective tisuue)
3. Lumen
4. Muscularis externa : circular layer; longitudianl layer
5. Adventitia (fibrous connective tissue)
Deglutition - Swallowing
Esophagus - Stratified Squamous Epithelium
Superior muscle of the esophagus is
Skeletal
Inferior muscle of the esophagus is
Smooth
Hiatal Hernia
Mentioned in class will edit
Stomach
Volume - about 1 gal, average food time 4 hours (fat longer), has a n extra muscle layer (oblique) for mixing
Pyloric Sphincter
stronger than cardiac valve
Mucosa :
Coll. Epithelieum with gastric glands
4 cells of the Mucosa
fig. 23-15
Chief - Pepsigen
Parietal - HCL and Intrinsic factor
Mucous - Mucus
Enteroendocrine - Gastrin, Secretin, CCK
Stomach - Protected by?
1. Mucus
2. Inactive Enzyme
3. Tight Junctions
4. Rapid cell trunover
Stomach - functions
1. Storage
2. Mechanical Digestion
3. Destruction of Bacteria
4. Chemical digestion of proteins
5. Absorption (aspirin, water, sugar and alcohol)
6. Production of Intrinsic factor (vital)
What are the 3 phases of gastric control?
1.Cephalic
2.Gastric
3. Intestinal - endogastric reflex and enterogasterone
Small Intestine
most digestion and most absorption of food occurs here
What are the 3 parts of the small intestine?
1. Duodenum
2. Jejunum
3. ILeum
Gallbladder
1. Mucosa with folds
2. Right and left hepatic ducts of the liver
3. Common hepatic duct
4. Bile duct and sphincter
5. Cystic duct
Pancreas
1. Accessory pancreatic duct
2. Main pancreatic duct and sphincter
3. Hepatopancreatic ampulla and sphincter
4. Major duodenal papilla
Mucosa:
Coll. Epi with goblet cells
mucosas 3 modifications for absorption
1. Plicae circulares
2. Villi
3. Microvilli
some enzymes are produced by
Microvilli, others by Crypts of Lieberkuhn between the villi
Where are Peyer's Patches found?
ileum
most digested food enters through?
Capillaries of Villi
Most larger fatty acids enter through?
Lymph via Villi Lacteals
Liver
largest of the intestinal organs (2 lbs)
liver has many functions
the liver has 200 functions including storage, metabolism, detoxification. digestive role is relatively minor
what does the liver secrete for fat emulsification
bile
What are the 4 lobes of the liver?
Right, Left, Quadrate and Caudate
Microscopy anatomy of the liver
Glycogenesis, glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis
Gall Bladder
for concentration and storage of bile
Gall bladder is stimulated by?
Cholecystokinin
Pancreas:
remember (insulin and glucagon)
Pancreas HCO3
stimulated by secretin
Pancreas Enzymes
stimulated by pancreozymin
Pancreas secretion
secreting cells are the cells of acini
Large intestine (colon)
5ft x 2 inches
Large intestine mucosa is
plain columnar with no villi
(anal canal is stratified squamous)
Large intestine longitudinal muscle is in
3 bands, teniae coli ( forms Haustra)
large intestine has no secretion of?
enzymes, however there is a lot of mucus.
Large intestine main function?
for water and vitamin absorption
bacteria make Vitamins k, B12, etc.
Movements of the Large intestine?
Haustral Churning, Mass movements (about 3 times daily), move feces into rectum and accompanied by defacatory desire.
Anal Canal has 2 sphincters?
Internal - involuntary
External - voluntary
defecation occurs as a result of?
open anal sphincters and abdominal pressure. Close epiglotis (Valsava)
feces primarily consists of?
Water, Cellulose, Mucus and Bacteria
Chemical digestion
Pasta, grains etc. 40-80% of diet primarily for energy excess glygogen 4cal/gm
STRIVE FOR FIVE
Chemical Digestion
2 amino acids/ 8 essential structural and functional proteins.
Most animal proteins are complete?
which means they have all the essential Amino acids
most plant proteins are incomplete?
corn lacks Lysine and isoleucine.
(corn and beans) together they are ok
most plant proteins are incomplete?
beans lack tryptophan and methionine (corn and beans) together they are ok
most plant proteins are incomplete?
Pure vegetarians need to be careful in planning their diet
most plant proteins are incomplete?
excess protein is deaminated and used for energy
most plant proteins are incomplete?
15% protein is enough or 0.8 gm/kg body weight
Chemical Digestion
30% or less of diet energy and functional Sat vs Unsat
Chemical Digestion
Cholesterol 300mg or less/day - not a dietary essential
Stages of Metabolism?
Stage 1 - digestion in GI tract lumen
Stages of Metabolism?
Stage 2 - Anabolism and formation of catabolic intermediates within tissues cells
Stages of Metabolism?
Stage 3 - Oxidative breakdown in mitochondriaof tissue cells
Krebs Cycle:
NADH=3 ATP/FADH=2 ATP
A WELL-BALANCED DIET SHOULD
FURNISH PLENTY OF ALL VITAMINS & MINERALS
WOMEN WHO
MENUSTRATE, ARE PREGNANT, OR WHO ARE LACTATING NEED SPECIAL CONSIDERATION
VITAMINS A, C, & E
ARE SIGNIFICANT ANTIOXIDANTS, THUS ANTICANCER
DIETS RICH IN
CABBAGE, BROCCOLI, & BRUSSELS SPROUTS ARE RECOMMENDED
VITAMIN: A
EYES,EPITHELIUM,ANTIOXIDANT USUALLY YELLOW
VITAMIN: D
STEROID,MADE IN SKIN,Ca & P USAGE
VITAMIN: E
ANTIOXIDANT
VITAMIN: K
BLOOD CLOTTING
VITAMIN: C
MOST EASILY DESTROYED,CITRUS, ETC. COLLAGEN, PRODUCTION, HEALING, ANTIOXIDANT
VITAMIN: B1
KREBS' CYCLE, 3C TO 2C
VITAMIN: B2
KREBS' CYCLE, FAD
VITAMIN: Niacin
KREBS' CYCLE, INHIBITS CHOLESTEROL
VITAMIN: B6
AMINO ACID METABOLISM
VITAMIN: PANTOTHENTIC ACID
KREBS' CYCLE, PART OF CoE A
VITAMIN: BIOTIN
KREBS' CYCLE, DEAMINATION
VITAMINS: B12
DNA SYNTHESIS,PERNICIOUS ANEMIA,I.F. FOR ABSORPTION, STORED IN LIVER
VITAMINS: FOLIC ACID
DNA SYNTHESIS
MINERALS FACTS: Ca
2% BODY WEIGHT,1/2 TOTAL, CLOTTING, BONES/TEETH, N & M ACTIONS, DEFICIENCES, MILK
MINERALS FACTS: P
1/4 TOTAL, NUCLEOTIDES, BONES/TEETH, INTRACELLULAR ANION
MINERALS FACTS: K
INTRACELLULAR CATION,OSMOSIS,N & M ACTIONS
MINERALS FACTS: S
PROTEINS
MINERALS FACTS: Na
EXTRACELLULAR CATION, OSMOSIS, EDEMA, HYPERTENSION
MINERALS FACTS: C1
EXTRACELLULAR ANION,HCl
MINERALS FACTS: Fe
HEMOGLOBIN,DEFICIENCES (ANEMIA)
MINERALS FACTS: I
THYROID,IODIZED SALT
Mineral Facts: Zn
ENZYMES, WOUND HEALING, ALSO FOR ENZYME ACTIVATION, ETC
Mineral Facts: NEED SMALL AMOUNTS OF--
Mg, Mn, Cu, Co, F, & OTHERS