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55 Cards in this Set

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What are the Four Fields of Anthropology and describe each
Socio-cultural– study of human society & culture
Archaeological - interprets past human behavior and cultural patterns through material culture
Bio - study of humans as bio orgs incl. their evolution and variation (primatology, paleoanthropology, and contemp human bio variation)
Linguistic- devoted to study of communication in its social and cultural context across space and time
Describe the History of Anthropology
Began w/Classical Greek philosophy with the expansion of empires and exposure to others. During englightenment bible was truth so no antho. Then scientific method - bio and social evolution, human societies: savages ->barb->civilized
What are the Four Themes in Anthropology?
Adaptation (environment and landscape shape humanity; how orgs cope w/environmental forces)
Culture (learning that is transferred from generation about shared beliefs and behaviors)
Unity and Diversity (humanity is one species yet cultures differn enhancing adaptations to different environments)
Humanity as dynamic (humanity has changed bio and culturally)
Paleoanthropology
(bio anthro) the study of human evolution on the basis of the fossil record.
Primatology
(bio anthro) the study of non-human primates
Applied Anthro
(cultural)Academic/theoretical and applied.Application of anthropological data, perspectives, theory, and methods to identify, assess and solve contemporary social problems
Forensic Anthro
Branch of physical dealing with identification of skeletonized remains that could be human. no investigative powers
Ethnocentrism
tendency to view one's own culture as superior.
Cultural Relativity
the idea that behavior in one culture should not be judged by standards of another
Ethics in Anthropology
Archaeologists should include host country colleagues in research, establish collaborative relationships with host people and institutions, include host colleagues in dissemination of research results, and make sure something is given back. informed consent, storage of material, NAGRPA
Culture
society's shared and socially transmitted ideas, values and perception which are used to make sense of experience and generate behavior; and which are reflected in behavior
Enculturation
Refers to how culture is passed down through generations by learning. Socialization
Patterns of Culture
Universality, Generality, and Particularity
Subcultures/microcultures
include economic class, gender, age, institutions, race, and ethnicity.
Local culture/Macroculture
Local-distinct patterns of learned and shared behavior and ideas found in localized regions and among particular groups
Macro-learned and shared ways of behaving and thinking that cross local boundaries such as sense of national culture that some gov seeks to promote to enhance unity
Ways to View Culture
Idealism (thinking)
Behaviorism (behaving)
Holism (both)
The Other
other ppl or other beings, major animating force of early anthropological thinking was an awareness of the other
Sara Baartman
Hottentot Venus
Types of Data when Studying the Past
Fossils, artifacts (made/modified/transported by humans), features (non-portable artifacts), sites, documents, genetic and molecular materials and the present
Excavation
Step 1 - mapping
step 2 - surface collection
step 3 - excavation
recovering materials: screening, flotation, charcoal samples
Stratigraphy
the study and description of a vertical series of sediment or rock layers that have accumulated over time
Law of Superposition
in an undisturbed sequence of strata, older layer = bottom
Preservation Bias
some things preserve better than otehrs
Relative/Absolute Dating
Relative - establishes a time frame in relation to other layers or materials based on stratigraphy and law of superposition (Fl dating)
Absolute- dendrochronology, radiometric and C14 dating
Creationism
ALl life forms created one time all is immutable
Transformation/evolution
species arose from other species through descent w/modification, all life forms are ultimately related and the number of life forms is not immutable
Darwin
uniformitarianism - past events best explained by observing events of present and generalizing backwards. evolution, natural selection
Natural Selection
survival of the fittest
Genetics
explains how variation in population happens and how certain features are passed onto offspring
Mendel's Law of segregation
alleles are discrete
Mendel's Law of INdependent Assortment
traits are inherited independently of each other to create variety
PHenotype
Genotype
Physical
Genetic makeup
Mechanisms for changes in gene frequencey
Natural selection
Mutations
Gene Flow
Genetic Drift
Speciation
emergence of new species requires physical isolation. macro evolutionary change in which new species produced by splitting of an existing species into two new or by transformation of existing into different descendent
alternative explanations for humanity
recombination and intelligent design
homologies/analogies
homo-similarities that orgs share b/c of common ancestry
ana-similarities b/w species result of adapting to similar environment
Common primate morphology and behaviors
morphology-nonprojecting faces, forward facing eyes, stereoscopic vision, five digits, flexible hands and feet; opposable thumbs, larger brain in relation to body size
Behaviors: aboreal, quadrupedal, diurnal, sight as primary sense, sociality
Anthropoids
primate suborder that includes monkeys, apes and humans. forward-facing eyes, larger brains and flatter faces.
Hominoids
primate subfamily of apes that includes humans, differ from monkeys since no tail, large brain, and brachiation. lesser and great apes
Frugivores
Folivores
Insectivores
Gumnivores
Omnivores
fruit
leaves
insects and invertebrates
tree sap
nonspecialist
primate social behavior
sociality increases fitness, matrilocal. all chimps, some orangs, some capuchins used tools. macaque monkeys may have had culture
multi-male/multi-female
female core. fisison fusion- rare sub variety occurs when large group regularly breaks up into smaller subgroups for foraging and travel found in chimps and bonobos
one-male/multi-female
gorillas
Matrilocality
females stay with birth group
primate communication
includes call system, facial expressions, olfactory and tactile systems
Call Systems v. Human Language
call systems- limbic systems that are closed while human language invovles cerebral cortex and are open
Nonhuman primate tool use and culture
all chimps, some orangs, some capuchin monkeys. chimps have ability to make/use tools since 5-8mya. culture is learned and shared, macaque monkeys and potatoes
General Trend in Hominid evolution
upright posture, bipedalism, larger brain, smaller faces, smaller canines, larger molars
Possible Early Hominins
Sahelanthropus tchadensis- oldest possible hominin around 6-7 mya (combines chimp and human features first found in C.America, probable primitive hominin Miller)
Orrororin tugenensis- NKenya, 6mya, bipedal, chimplike teeth, Miller:possible prim hominin
Ardipithecus kadabba and ramidus-kadabba-Ethiopia 5.7-5.2mya possible hominin. rabidus: ethiopia 4.5mya more umanlike teeth, probable hominin
Oldwan, Achuelian, Mousterian, microlithic
O-food procession
A-hand axe
M-flake tools
m-blade sharpened by chipping formed of small stones
Origin Theories for AMH
multiregional (modern humans evolved in different parts of the world from local archaic homo populations)
african replacement (AMH evolved in Africa around 200,000BP and began to spread 1-200,000bp and replaced local populations)
Diffusion Wave- AMH originated in Africa around 200,000BP and in spreading interacted/interbred w/local pops
Lower,Middle,Upper Paleolithic
lower- 2mya-300,000BP: Homo habilis and Homo erectus
middle- 300,000-30,000BP: H. neandertalensis
upper- 30,000-12,000BP: H.sapiens
Cultural Features of Upper Paleolithic (LSA)
30,000-12,000BP, microlith technology, varied environment and diet, modern foragers as analogy for late stone age culture?
H. sapiens migrations
left hurriedly around 100,000BP and coexisted w/and predated Neanderthals under diff eco zones. 40,000BP (SE Asia/Australia/SP), 185000BP in Java, 35000BP over water, 40,000BP Sahul. coexisted with Euro for 10,000yrs. CAsia/Siberia 42000BP, NE10,000 yrs later. adapt cold
Holocene/mesolithic
characterized by increasing importance and variety of microlithic stone and bone tools, a broad spectrum diet, and a semi-sedentary partially settled life. beg about 12,000 years ago. transition b/w paleo and neo there was a climate change and increase in pop density