Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/71

Click to flip

71 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
neolithic:
"the new stone age"
beginning of domestication
neolithic revolution:
plant and animal domestication. shift from foraging to food production. initiates the emergence of large-scale/complex societies. suite of cultural developments.
domestication:
evolutionary processes whereby humans modify the genetic makeup of a population of plants or animals over multiple generation
unconcscious selection:
unintentional preservation of valued variants and the destrustion of less valued ones
artifical selection:
selection carried out by humans to adapt organisms to their own needs
neotony:
retention of juvenile characteristics
mexican trinity:
corn, beans, squash
where are the independent centers of domestications?
near eastern, chinese, sub-sharan africa, mesoameria, southpcentral andes, eastern united states and new guinea
near eastern:
barley, emmer, einkorn wheat
sheep, goat, cow, pig
china:
rice, millet farming
pig, water buffalo, chickens
subsharan africa:
sorghum, african rice, pearl millet
donkey, cat
mesoamerica:
cors, beans, squash
dog, turkey
south central andes:
potatoes, quinoa, beans
llama, alpaea, guinea pigq
eastern united states:
sunflower, chenopod, maygrass, little barley, knotweed, squash
dog
new guinea:
banana, taro, sugarcane
civilization:
large[scale, complexly organized society
stratification:
sharp social divisions based on unequal access to wealth and power
hydraulic theory:
an explanation of state formation.
witt fogel
mesopotamia:
region between teh tigris and ruphrates rivers.
earlies city states emerged
cuneiform:
a form of writing
ziggurats:
public architecture
hieroglyphics:
form of writing
quipu:
used for record keeping (in andean civilization)
old world civiliations:
mesopotamia, ancient eqypt, indus valley, ancient chinese, early african
new world civilization:
teotihuacan, classic maya, aztec emmpire, andean civilizations, north american
polymorphic:
species with alternative forms of particular genes
polytypic:
expression of genetic variants in different frequencies in different population of a species
cline:
gradual shifts in gene frequencies over space
adaptation:
beneficial adjustments to the environment
acclimatization:
process of an organism adjusting to changes in its environment
beregmanns rule:
large bodies tend to be found in cold areas and small bodies in warm ones
allens rule:
relative size of protruding body parts tends to increase in warmedr climates
discrordance hypothesis:
modern humans are biologically adapted to paleolithic lifestyles
genetic adaptations:
tuberculosis resistance, sickle cell anemia/malaria resistance, lactase deficiency, hypertension
phenotypic/physical adaptations:
responses to climate, nutrient imbalance, disease, etc.
behavioral/cultural adaptations:
clothing, heated dwelling, technology, food ppreparation techniques
culture:
shared set of learned behaviors and ideas characteristic of a particular society or social group
enculturation:
process by which a society's culture is transmitted form one generation to the next
subculture:
distinctive set of standards and behavior patterns by which a group within a larger society operates
pluralistic society:
two or more ethnic groups politically organized into one territorial state while maintaining cultural differences
superstructure:
societys shared sense of identity and worldview
infrastructure:
economic foundation of a society
social structure:
rule-goverened relationships among society memebers
ethnocentrism:
tendency to look at the world primarily from the perspective of ones own culture
cultural relativism:
prinicple that an individual humans beliefs and activities should be interpreted in terms of his or her own culture
agency:
actions of individuals in forming and transforming culture
ethnographic fieldwork:
participant observation
universality:
exists in every culture
generality:
exists in some, but not all, societies
particularity:
distincitive or unique culture trait
characteristics of culture:
learned, shared, symbolic, integrated, adaptive, dynamic
language:
system of communication using sound and/or gestures that are put together in meaningful ways according to a set of rules
symbols:
signs, emmblems and other things that represent something else in a meaningful, but arbitrary, way
signals:
have natural or self-evident meaning (ex. coughing, screaming, crying)
phonology:
the study of language sounds
phonemes:
the smallest class of sounds that make a difference in meaning (diNe and diMe)
morphology:
the study of the patterns or rules of words
moorphemes:
smallest units of sound that carry meaning
paralanguage:
extralinguistic noisess that accompany language and convey meaning
vocalization:
identifiable paralinguistic noises
vocal charactereizers:
giggling, sighing, yawning, etc.
vocal qualifiers:
volume, pitch, tempo, pauses
vocal segregates:
"oh-oh" or "uh-uh"
linguistic divergence:
development of different languages from a single ancestral language
sapir-whorf hypothesis:
different languagaes produce different ways of thinking and behaving
code-switching:
changing from one language or dialect to another
enculturation:
process by which an established culture teaches an individual by repetititon its expected norms and values
dependence training:
fosters compliance and dependence on the domestic group (no talking back, strict, behvae, etc.)
independence training:
promotes independence, self reliance and personal achievement
4 theories attempmting to examine the gender divisions of labor:
strength theory, compatibility with childcare theory, exonomy of the efforet theory, and expendability thehory
ethnic psychoses:
mental disorders specific to particular groups