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148 Cards in this Set

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why we eat what we do:
socio cultural differences, family traditions, individual preferences, habit, availabililty, economic patterns, taboo, nutritional value
food taboos:
cultural prohibitions on consuming certain foods
subsistence strategy:
ways by which people obtain the minimal mean of survival
foraging:
hunting, fishing and gathering wild foods.
characterized by mobility, extensive land use, low population density, egalitarianism
horticulture:
cultivation of crops with simple hand tools.
characteristics: low population densities, extensive land use, prodution for subsistence, no animal traction
swidden farming:
form or horticulture in which natural vegetation is cut,teh slah is subsequently burned, and crops are planted among the ashes
agriculture:
technologically more complex than horticulture.
characteristics: intensive land use, increasaed inputes, surplus production, higher population densities, sedentism.
pastoralism:
breeding and managing herds of domisticated animals.
characteristics: rigid sexual division of labor, settled transhuman or normadic, extensive land use, links to agricultural groups
industrialism
economic system involving mass manufacture.
charactistics: capitalism, prodution of nonessential goods, mechanization, small segments of the population involved in food preparation.
economic systems:
systems of production, distibution and consumption of goods.
technology:
tools and other material equipment, and the knowledge of how to make and use them
labor:
key resource in any economic system.
ususally involves sexxual division of labor and/or age based division of labor
reciprocity:
exchange of goods and servides of approximately equal value between two parties
generalized reciprocity:
value of gift and time of payment not specified
balanced reciprocity:
equal value exchange epected. value of goods and times of delivery specified
negative recipprocity:
giver tries to get teh better of the exchange. may involve cheating or deceit.
"silent trade"
redistribution:
goods flow into a central place and are subsequently reallocated.
taxes
potlatch:
ceremonial event involving the redistribution of stockpiled food and other goods that signify wealth.
market exchange:
buying and selling of goods and services with prices set by rules of supply and demand.
leveling mechanism:
social obligation to distribute goods so that no one accumulates more wealth than anyone else.
conspicuous consumption:
display of wealth for social prestige.
prestige economy:
acuumulation of surplus goods to display wealth and giving it away to gain prestige.
marriage:
culturally sanctioned union between 2 or more people.
incest taboo:
prohibition of sexual relations or marriage between closely related individuals
monogamy:
marriage in which both partners have one spouse
serial monogamy:
marriage to a series of partners in succession
polygamy:
pural marriage
polygyny:
one man married to 2 or more women
polyandry:
one woman married to 2 or more men.
sororal polygny:
one man married to sisters
fraternal polyandry:
one woman married to brothers
levirate:
widow marries a brother of her dead husband
sororate:
widow marries a sister of his dead wife.
cross cousins:
children of siblings of the opposite sex.
fathers sisters children -or- mothers brothers childrern
parallel cousins
children of siblings of the same sex.
father brothers children -or- mothers sisters children.
bride wealth:
compensation paid by the groomand/or his family to the brides family
bride service:
period of time during which the groom works for the brides family
dowry:
payment by the wifes family to her husband
family:
two or more people related by blood, marriage or adoption
family of orientation:
family born into/grow up in
family of procreation:
family formed when become married/produce offspring
nuclear family:
one or more parent and their offspring(s)
extended family:
several closely related individuals. clusters of nuclear families. generations
conjugal kin:
spousal relationship
consangunial kin:
biological relatives
affinal kin:
relatives by marriage
genitor:
biological father
mater:
socially recognized mother
pater:
socially recongized father
patrilocal:
lives with husbands fathers relatives
matrilocal:
lives with wifes parents
ambilocal:
lives iwth either matri-patrilocal
neolocal:
establishes their own household
avunculocal:
lives iwth husbands mothers brother (uncle)
kinship:
network of relatives in which individuals possess certain mutaual rights and obligations
descent group:
permanent social unit whose memebers claim common ancestry
unilineal dscent:
descent that establishes group memeberhsip exclusively throught the male or female line.
matrilineal
patrilineal
double descent:
descent trace matrilineally ofr some purposees and patrilineally for others
ambilineal descent:
affiliate with either the mother of fathers group
lineage:
trace descent from a comon ancestor through known links
clan:
assume descent from a common ancestor without actually knowning the geneaogical link
phratry:
unilineal descent group composed of two or more clans that assume a common acestry
molety:
each group that results from a division of a society into two halves on teh basis of descent.
bilateral kinship:
kinship teis are calculated equally through both sexes
kindred:
close realtives on teh maternal and paternal sides
kinship calculation:
system by which people in a society reckon kin relationships
eskimo kinship:
emphasizes teh nuclear family (w/ seperate and distince terms). other relatives lumped into a few categories. generational distinctions.
hawaiian kinship:
geneartional system. relatives of teh same generation and gender called the same term.
iroquois kinship:
same term used for mother and mothers sister. same term for father and fathers brother. vrothers, sisters, and parallel cousins of teh same sex are referred to by the same term.
crow kinship:
similar to the iroquois, but with a few modification. ignores some generational distinctions. groups relatives differently ont eh mothers and fathers side.
fictive kin:
godparents, "aunts" and "uncles", blood brothers/sisters, fraternity/sorority brother/sisters
social groups:
two or more regularly interacting individuals interconnected by their roles with the group
age grade:
organized category of people based on age
age set:
group of people born during a certain time span who move through the series of age grades together.
social class:
category of individual with the same level of prestige.
social mobility:
ability to change ones class position
caste:
closed social class
political anthropology:
examines human behavior related to power
power:
ability to exercies one's will over others
legitimacy:
the right of political leladers to govern
authority:
socially approved use of power
political organization:
the way power is distriubuted and embedded in society.
uncentralized political organization:
lacks concentration of power in a formal government
bands:
small kin based groupo.
characteristics: foraging, egalitarian, situational leadership, informal conflict resolution, consensus building
uncentralized government
tribes:
kin-ordered group that is largerr than a band (100+)
characteristics: live in villages, horticultural/pastoral, group cooperation/consensus, raltively informal leadership.
"big man"
uncentralized government
centralized political organization:
concentraion of power in a formal government
chiefdoms:
regional polity in which two or more local groups are organized under a single chief in a randked hierarch.
characteristics: kin based, larger groups (1000+), permanent political stratification, fixed settlement pattern,food production, redistribution.
states:
autonomous political unit with social classes and a formal centralized government based on law.
characteristics: larger populations (10000+), settlement hierarchy, levels of bureaucracy, social stratificaion, populationcontrol, judiciary and law enforcemtn, fiscal controrl
power of the state:
defifne citienship, law and order, standing armies and police , census sytems, taxation, controrl of information
cults of personality:
mass media and creation of larger-than-life public images
social control:
process by which orderly social life is maintained.
internalized social control:
based on belliefs and values. dows not involve coercion. embedded in our consciousness.
externalized social control:
sanctions: encourage ocnformity through coercion and enforcement
positive (incentives)
negative (threats/punishments)
formal
informal
laws:
formal negative sanctions. define what is permissible and what is not. authority to enforce.
deispute resolution:
negotiaion
mediation
adjudication
religion:
organized systemof ideas about eh supernatural and its associated beliefs and ceremonial practices.
spirituality:
concern for sacred rather than material matters
worldview:
a cultures collective ideas concerningthe shape and substance of their reality
function of religion:
explaing the cosmo
community belongingness
reducing anxiety/uncertanity
social control
legitimize political power
monotheism:
belief in one supreme god or godess
polytheism:
suite of gods of goddess
mana:
precursor to formal religion
the stuff in whcih magic is formed
ancestor worship:
belief in ancestral spirits. belief that nature in enlivened by spirits
animism:
belief that nature is animated by personalized sprits
animatism:
belief in impersonal supernatural forces
priests/priestesses:
full time religious specialist. guide the religious practeices of others
shamans:
part time medical-religious specialists
enter into altered states of consciousness
supernatural "go between"
rituals:
patterned behaviors having to do with the supernatural realm
rites of passage:
rituals that mark important stages int eh life of an individual.
stages of rites of passage:
sepeartion
transtition
reintegration
rites of intensification:
ritual that takes place during a crisis in the life of the group
magic:
belief that the supernatural can be compelled to act in cetain ways given specified formulas
contagious magic:
magic preformed on objects can affect the person
divination:
ascetaining information form supernatural sources
witch craft:
belief that certain individuals possess innate supernatural powers
myth:
sacred narratives about supernatural forces or beings
doctrine:
written and formal statements about religious beliefs
totemism:
sacred emblems symbolizing common identity
what is art?
expressive culture
functions of art:
aesthetic plasure
kinship ties, social identity and status
social control and legitimization of leaderhsip roles
social commentary,politial advocacy and resistance
religious or spirtual identity
ethnomusicology:
cross-cultural study of music
folklore:
orally preserved traditions
folkloristic:
study of folklore
body art:
aesthetics, cultural or religious identity, group membership, social position and rank
primary innovation:
creation, invention, discovery
secondary innovation:
new and deliberate application modification of an existing idea, method or device
diffusion:
spread of ideas, customs, or practices form one culture to another
acculturation:
cultural change resulting from contact between two groups when one of teh groups is more powerful
colonialism:
domination of a territory and its people bya foreign power for an extended time
modernization:
developing societies acquire some of the cultural characteristics of western industrial societies
globalization:
massive flow of goods, people, information and capital around the world
stuctural power:
power taht organizes and orchestrates the systemic interactions wihin and among societies
hard power:
coercive power taht is backed up by economic and military force
soft power
power that presses other to change
syncretism:
blending of indigenous and foreign traits in a new system
multiculturalism:
public policy for managing cultural diveristy in a multiethnic socity, which stresses mutual respect and tolerance
ethnic resurgence:
indigenous resistance to culture change and loss
revoltution:
radical change in a society or culture. violent replacement of government
rebellion:
organized resistance against an establisehd authority
antimodernism:
rejection of teh modern way of life in favor of a way of life tha tis percived to be more pure
fundamentalism:
religious antimodernism
structural violence:
physical and/or psychological harm caused by exploitative and unust social, political and economic systems
famine:
episodes of severe starvation and death
ethnocide:
forcible extermination of a groups culture
genocide:
extermination of one group by antohter
political ecology
interrelationhsips between politics and the human environmetn relationships
developmetn anthropology:
studies the cultural dimenstions of economic development
medical anthropolgy:
cross cultural studies of human health and diseases
ethnomedicine;
health-related beliefs, knowledge andpracteices of a culture.