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25 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Understanding variation is critical for
predisposition to disease
normal variation
evolution
Phenotype
any measurable property of an organism
Discrete
phenotype comes in categories
ex. green or yellow peas
Continuous
varies withour natural increments
ex. height
Law of Independent Assortment
Segregation of one chromosome does not affect segregation of other chromosomes
If true loci are independent
Law of Segregation
Gametes contain only one copy of either allele from a parent
Alleles segregate
Dominant
Only one copy needs to be present for a particular phenotype to be expressed
Recessive
Two copies must be present for particular phenotype to be expressed
Random
Outcomes follow no deterministic pattern, instead conform to a probability distribution
Probability that independent events A and B will occur together
Prob (A) x Prob (B)
Probablitiy of two mutually exclusive events A and B will occur is
Prob (A) + Prob (B)
Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium
random mating, no evolution
Alleles A and a at a single locus
Condtitions Hold:
p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1
Discrete Traits
present or absent
Meristic Traits
Counts
Ex. # hairs
Continuous Traits
Continuum of possible outcomes
Additive Model
Phenotypic effect of each genotype @ each locus
+1=++ +0=+- -1=--
Additive Genetic Variance
quantity that allows us to explain why relatives of differenft degrees of relatedness resemble one another for genetic reasons
Heritability narrow
proportion of phenotypic variance made up by additive genetic variance
h^2=Va/Vp

How quickly trait will respond to selection or other evolutionary force
Heritability broad
proportion of phenotypic variance made up by all kinds of genetic effects
h^2=Vg/Vp
Heritability can tell
Worth looking for genes that contribute to variation in a trait
How trait will respond to forces of selection, migration, drift
Heritability can't tell
how much of trait is due to genetics
Trait is fixed, can't be modified
NO ONE TRUE MEASURE
Maternal effects
15-20% of variance results from interuterine effects
Flynn Effect
Restandardization of cognitive tests show an improvement of people's scores over time
IQs increase 1-4 points/decade, due to environtment
Jensen's Fallacy
Just because differences within groups are partially genetic based, does not mean differences between groups are genetically based
Heritability does not tell group differences
Linkage analysis
Check for variation within genome and correlate with phenotypic ourcomes