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84 Cards in this Set

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Full title and Host of the lemur movie
In the Wild, Lemurs by John Cleese
Title and Hosts of Macaque movie
Be the Creature and Kratt Brothers
what environments do the macaques live in?
snowy mountains and coastal regions
how do they differentiate biologically and culturally?
Mountain - hot tub
Coastal - food washing
thicker coat vs. thinner
Prosimians....where they fit in chart
*Suborder level with anthropoidea
*above lemur,loris,tars
Prosimians...general characteristics
*similar to early mammals
*long muzzle
*Rhinarium (hairless nose)
*Dental formula 2133/2133
Lemuriformes.....where they fit in chart and common creatures
*under prosimians
*level w/loris,tars
*all lemurs
Lemuriformes....general characteristics
*madagascar
*herbivores & insectivores
*mostly Diurnal
*mostly arboreal (live in trees)
Lorisiformes....where they fit in chart and common creatures
*under prosimians
*level w/lemurs/tars
*lorises and galagos
Lorisiformes...general characteristics
*India, Asia, Africa
*Herbivores & insectivores
*Nocturnal
*quadruped
Tarsiriformes....where they fit in chart and common creatures
*under prosimians
*level w/lemurs/loris
*tarsiers
Tarsiriformes....general characteristics
*SE Asia Islands
*Nocturnal
*no Tapetum Lucidum (reflection of light in eye)
*lack Rhinarium
*no dental comb
*carnivorous
Anthropoids...chart and creatures
*level with prosimians
*monkeys, apes, humans
Platyrrines....chart and creature
*under Anthropoidea
*level w/ catyrrhines
*New world monkeys
Anthropoids...general characteristics
*larger body and brain
*no rhinarium
*more complex social systems
*longer period of gestation and maturation
Platyrrines...general characteristics
*south and central america
*dentitian 2133/22133
*broad widely flairing noses with outward facing nostrils
Callitrichids...chart and creatures
*family order of Platyrrines
*level w/ atelids, cebids
*marmosets and tamarins
Callitrichids...general characteristics
*smallest of 3 Platyrrines families
*claws on all digits except big toe
*insectivores
*quadrupedal
*diurnal
Atelids....chart and creatures
*Level w/callitrichids, cebids
*under Platyrrhines
*howlers, spider monkeys
Atelids...general characteristics
*Largest new world monkeys
*leaves and fruit
*prehensile tail with friction ridges
*Thumb reduced or absent
*nocturnal
*no tapetum lucidum
Cebids...chart and creatures
*level w/atelids, callitrichids
*under Platyrrines
*ssqsuirrel monkeys, capuchins, owl monkeys
Cebids...general characteristics
*short prehensile tails
*omnivores
*arboreal
*quadrepeds
Catyrrhines....chart and creatures
*level w/Platyrrines
*under anthropoidea
*Old world monkeys, apes, humans
Catyrrhines...characteristics
*dental pattern 2123/2123
*ishcial callosites (cushion on butt)
Cercopithicoids....chart and creatures
*under catyrrhines
*level w/hominoidea
*all old world monkeys
Cercopiths...chart and creatures
*under cercopithicoids
*level w/colobines
*baboons, macaques
Cercopiths....characteristics
*generalized diet, eat anything
*cheek pouches for storing food
*narrow interorbital region
*broad incisors
*shallow jaw
*africa, asia, india, and japan
*quadrupedal
*sexually dimorphic
*arboreal and terrestial
Colobines...chart and creatures
*under cercopithicoids
*level w/cercopiths
*colobus, langurs
Colobines...characteristics
*leaf eating monkeys
*broad interorbital region
*deep jaw
*high cusps
*africa, asia, tropical forests
*arboreal
Hominoids...chart and creatures
*under catyrrhines
*level w/ cercopiticoids
*apes and humans
Hominoids...characteristics
*no tails
*larger body size
*wide thorax
*shortened trunk
*complex behavior with hands and feet
Hylobatidae...chart and creatures
*under hominoids
*level w/pongidae, hominidae
*gibbons and siamangs
Hylobatidae...characteristics
*SE Asia
*smallest apes
*specialized limbs
*arboreal
*frugivorus
*monogomous
*true brachiators
Pongidae...chart and creatures
*under hominoid
*level w/hylobatidae, hominidae
Pongopygmaeus...chart and creatures
*under Pongidae
*level w/Gorilla, Pan, Homo
*orangutans
Pongopymaeus...characteristics
*man of forest
*SE Asia
*Upland forest
*sexually dimorphic
*frugivorous
*male solitary
*quadrupedal
Gorilla....chart and creatures
*under Pongidae
*level w/Pan,Pongo, Homo
*gorillas
Gorilla....characteristics
*Mountains of east africa
*lowlands of west africa
*sexually dimorphic
*terrestial
*folivores
*Alpha male - silverback
Pantroglodytes...chart and creatures
*under pongidae
*level w/gorilla,pongo, homo
*chimpanzees
Pantroglodytes...characteristics
*equatorial africa
*share 98.5% of DNA w/Humans
*sexual dimorphic
*omnivorous
*tool use
*arboreal
*terrestial
Panpaniscus...chart and creatures
*under Pongidae
*level w/pongo,gorilla, homo
*bonobos
Panpaniscus...characteristics
*last ape species idenified
*Democratic Republic of Congo
*most bipedal
*slender/muscle definitions
*small heads
Solitary
*ORANGATANS
*individual female & offspring
*individual males have ranges that overlap several adult female groups
Monogamous
*GIBBONS
*one adult female & one adult male offspring
*territories
*Intersexual competition
*little or no sexual dimorphism
Polyandrous
*TAMARINS
*one female and several sexually active males & offspring
*communual breeding and infant care
One male groups
*COLOBINES
*"harem"
*1 adult male, several females and offspring
*female bonded groups
*infanticide
Multi male/Multi female
*BABOONS
*many males and females and offspring
Age grade male group
*GORILLA
*1 dominant adult male, many female and offspring
*dominant male is silverback
*juvenile males is blackback
Fisson/fusion
*CHIMPS
*size and composition is fluid
*male band together
*female and offspring have own subgroup
Disadvantages of living in groups
*more visible to predators
*only certain males mate w/females
Advantages of living in groups
*protection from predators
*improved access to food
*assistance in protecting & raising offspring
*learning
Influential dominant factors
*sex, age
*level of agression
*time spent in group
*intelligence
*motivation
*sometimes mothers social positon
autonomic communication
hair raising
deliberate communication
displays, branch shaking, hugging, fear grin
altruism
behaviors that benefit another while posing risk oneself
Consortship
temporary relationship between male and female for mating
Grooming
*reinforces social bonds
*used in reconciliantion
Estrus
*initiated period of sexual receptivit in female nonhuman mammals related to ovulation
*cyclical changes of the external genitalia
*swelling and redness
Bonobos differiate reproduction
mate with females even when not in estrus...not typical
what is a hominid
Members of the family Hominidae that occured after the split from african great apes
Protohominid
earliest members of the hominid lineage, barely represented in fossil record
Locomotion first evolution
Ape
Bipedal Ape
Intelligent Bipedal Ape
Human
brains first evolution
Ape
Intelligent Ape
Bipedal Intelligent Ape
Human
The Piltdown Hoax...when,where,who,what effect
1950's, British Museum, Professor Oakley, set back paleoanthropology 40 years
Bipedal Macaque
Natasha, 5 yrs old
almost died of severe stomach flu and started walking bipedal
Habitual Bipedalism
form of locomotion practiced by hominids
Foramen magnum
position is centered (anterior) vs. toward back (posterior)
Spine in bipedal hominids
2 distinctive curves in spine that represents bipedalism
Pelvis in bipedal hominids
short, broad, basin or "bowl" shaped pelvis;'
Lower limb features
enlarge head of femur
knee angled inwards
short toes
arched feet
6 theories of the origin of bipedalism
freeing hands
running after the game
looking over tall grass
keeping cool
ability to make tools
sexual display
Sahelanthropus tchadensis
Protohominid
Chad, Africa
6-7 mya
discovered in 2001
Ardipithecus ramidus
Discovered in 1992
Middle Awash (Ethiopia)
4.4 mya
evidence of bipedalism
teeth common w/later hominids instead of great apes
Australopithecus africanus
protohominid
south africa
1924
famous...Taung...juvenile
gracile
famous...Mrs. Ples...adult
Paranthropus robustus
1950 by Robert Broom
Swartkrans
bipedal
large molars and premolars
Australopithecus anamensis
east africa
forested environment
1994
u shaped tooth row
thick molar enamel
bipedalism
Kenyanthropus platyops
1999
meave leakey
3.2-3.5 mya
NEW GENIUS
small teeth
Australopithecus afarensis
1974
donald johanson
mature adult, 40% complete
"Lucy", Laetoli footprints
sexual dimorphism
paranthropus Boisei
Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania
Mary Leakey
1959
massive cheeck teeth and small anterior teeth
2.3-1.3 mya
Paranthropus aethiopicus
"black skull"
1985...walker and leakey
W. Turkana (kenya)
2.3-2.7 mya
australopithecus garhi
Asfaw, White and colleagues
1999
2.5 mya
Ethiopia
link between austral and homo
apes and hominids split
5-6 mya
Robust
huge molars
big jaws
big zygomatic arches
sagittal crest
forest, woodland, rainforest, nuts, bark, leaf
Gracile
No sagittal crest
less prognathic face
smaller dentition
grasslands, savannah, hunted, meat