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78 Cards in this Set

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Primatology
study of nonhuman primates including fossils and living apes, monkeys and prosimians, and their behavior and social life
Primate groups
monkeys, prosimians, monkeys, apes, and their ancestors
Why study primates?
Because non-human primates are our closest living "kin"- common ancestry deep in evolutionary past
arboreal adaptation
made living in trees possible and tactical
primate conservation depends on...
knowledge of habitats and needs, and on human resource decisions
Primates defined by evolutionary trends:
1. vertical posture
2. grasping: tactile perception
3. sight over smell (stereoscopic vision); good depth perception
4. longevity and high parental investment
5. brain complexity
Primates defined by anatomical trends:
1. short snouts and generalized dentition which means they can process a variety of foods: incisors, molars, canines, premolars, molars
2. forward facing eyes with good depth perception; tend to have colored vision
3. structure of the shoulder and clavicle that have flexibility and range of motion which allows them to do brachiation (hand over hand)
4. Structure of hands, feet, and toes (grasping hands and feet with dexterous fingers); fingernails rather than claws
Primates defined by behavioral trends:
1. social life in groups
Primate sub-divisions
1. Prosimians: lemurs, tarsiers, bush babies, lorises
2. Anthropoids: monkeys, apes, humans
Prosimians
-most primitive characteristics of all primates
-often but not always nocturnal; tapeturn: layer of tissue in the eye that reflects light and makes night vision better
-variety of diets (insectivory and frugivory) and environments
-locomotion: vertical clingers and leapers
Lemurs
-found in Madagascar
ex: ring-tail lemur, mouse lemur, aye aye, sifaka
-very social
Tarsiers
nocturnal
-prosimians
bush babies
primarily nocturnal
-prosimians
Monkeys
Platyrrhines: flat nosed, new world, reproductive isolation, prehensile (grasping) tail
Catarrhines: sharp nosed, old world, ischial callosities (bare of hair spots on butts), non-prehensile tail
New World Monkeys
-arboreal quadrupeds
-spider monkey, squirrel monkey, capuchin monkey, tamarin, howler monkey, marmoset
Old World Monkeys
-Baboon-sexual dimorphism (marked differences between male and female biology; height, weight, coloring)
-drill, mandrill: most colorful monkey
-macaque: show monkey, a lot smaller
-langurs: arboreal and terrestrial
-proboscis: named after their big nose
Apes
-Old World
-Great Apes: larger, mostly terrestrial (orangutans, chimpanzees, gorillas)
-Lesser Apes: smaller, arboreal, loud call systems (gibbons, siamangs)
How apes and humans differ from monkeys and prosimians
1. larger body
2. longer life span
3. longer juvenile period
4. longer birth spacing
5. upright posture
6. no tails
Orangutans
-"Great" Ape
-endangered
-large males
-least studied of the great apes
-found in Indonesia
Gorillas
-"Great" Ape
-sleep in trees but are terrestrial
-vegetarian
-live in groups lead by a silver back
Chimpanzee
-"Great" Ape
Common Chimp
-knuckle walk, sleep in trees, smaller than gorillas, eat much more fruit than any other food, sexual dimorphism

Baboons
-sexual dimorphism, more slender, found in the Democratic Republic of Congo, endangered, females dominate the group, use sex to diffuse the tension (even when fighting)
zoology
branch of biology that relates to the animal kingdom
taxonomy
arranging things into categories
phylogeny
relationship on the basis of common ancestry
-morphology (form)
-genetics
human taxonomy
Kingdom: animalia
phylum: chordata
class: mamalia
order: primates
Family: hominidae
Genus: homo
species: sapiens (produce offspring)
subspecies: sapiens
phylogenetic inference
instead of a linear progression, humans came from branching relationships of other species (common ancestors)
-figure out which traits are derived or ancestral
Examples of ancestral traits
knuckle walking, omnivory
Example of derived trait
bipedalism, very large brain
genetic inference
how genetically similar or different two species are
How can we learn about the activity patterns of primates?
Large eyes means they are nocturnal
How can we learn about what primates eat/ate?
Variety of Teeth
-incisors slice
-canines puncture and tear
-premolars and molars grind
Diet
-insectivores have long incisors
-frugivors have long, flat incisors
-folivore (leaves) have wide, flat molars
-carnivores have long, sharp canines
-omnivores have generalized dentition
Hominid
humans, living african apes and their immediate ancestor species (no gibbons)
Hominin
species that are a part of the human lineage; all human species that have ever existed
-gracile teeth (smaller, more dainty)
-flat teeth (no bulge in the lower face)
-bipedal
-large brain
Evolution
change over time
Micro-
change in gene (allele) frequencies in a population over time
Macro-
change in species over time "speciation"
-due to natural selection, gene flow, random genetic drift, and mutation
Natural selection
differential fertility of mortality
-nonrandom process by which allele frequencies in a population change
-result of different rates of productive success among members of a population
-acts on basic phenotypes
population
a group of organisms that interbreed and share a gene pool
gene pool
all of the genetic material within a population
-alleles, genes, chromosomes, genotype, phenotype (expresses physical characteristics)
genotype+environment=phenotype
variation can be attributed to...
genetic variation, environmental influence, and interaction between genes and the environment
frequency
number of times a gene shows up in a population
Darwin's 3 postulates + what Darwin didn't learn
1. variation exists
2. variation is heritable
3. there is a struggle for existence

-How are traits inherited? where does new variation come from?
Variation comes from mutation
-random with respect to need
-changes in DNA
-may be positive, negative, or neutral
-ONLY source of new variation
Genetic Drift
random, events cause change to frequency and loss of phenotypes
Gene Flow
mixing of gene pools by migration or admixture
typology
-classification based on a fixed set of characteristics
-organisms compared to a "type specimen"
Problem: what about significant variations within a species?
ex: happy face spiders all look phenotypically different but they all interbreed
morphometry
-specific characteristics
-no "type specimen"
-seeks similarities in form among all members of a species
Problems: some animals look similar to each other but are not related and some look very different from each other but they interbreed
ex: the southern african hedgehog and the common tenrec look similar but live in different places
**some species may be classified wrong
reproductive isolation
able/likely to interbreed with viable offspring
Problems: hybrids? ligers? mules? (usually sterile) asexual reproduction? continuous geographic ranges?
ex: ring species-connected series of neighboring populations; closely related ones breed and pass genes to the next species; the two "end" species may not breed with each other but they might end up being genetically similar
genomic analysis
phylogenetic inference based on fossils
Problems: asexual organisms have a phenotypic flux, genomic analysis isn't perfect, the fossil record isn't complete
stabilizing selection
extremes have the lowest fitness
directional selection
extremes have the highest fitness when you eliminate or add predators
-can not happen with gene flow
Gene Flow
-if something happens to block the channel between two breeding poles (reproductive isolation), two different species emerge
-phenotypes can be replaced if a predator is added
-when there is gene flow, it stops directional selection
-if there is gene flow, ,mutations can be spread from one population to the next
-phenotypes that were lost to random genetic drift can be replaced if there is gene flow
Allopatric speciation
-mutation might occur that makes that species not resemble each other anymore
-reproductive isolation and weak directional selection
Sympatric speciation
-gene flow and strong directional selection. Favors two different extremes at the same time
-mutation and more selection: can cause reproductive isolation because certain mutations cant breed with each other
Studying macroevolution with the fossil record
-the fossil record is incomplete
-fossils are stones not bones so some are damaged
-fossilization is a rare event
-always more "missing links" than known links
-hard to tell if a fossil resembles a different species
Studying macroevolution by comparing/contrasting modern forms to extinct forms (phylogenetic inference)
-over time there is an emergence of new species and directional selection
-we can figure out which fossils are our ancestors by looking at ancestral traits vs. derived traits (using a living species in the present)
Hominoids
all apes and their ancestors
Diversity of apes in the Miocene era
-23 MYA to 5MYA
-ramapithecus and sivapithecus: found in India
-dryopithecus
-gigantopithecus: knuckle walkers, vegentarian
-Hogopans: common ancestor between humans, chimps and apes
-orrorin tugenensis: possible biped
-sanelanthropus tchadensis: possible biped (you can tell by the way the backbone lines up with the skull)
Diversity in the Early Pliocene
-5MYA to 2.5MYA
(3 potential hominin genera)
1.Australopithecus (gracile)
2. Ardipithecus (structure of the knee)
3. Kenyanthropus (flat face, skull/spine)
Australopithecus
Early Pliocene
-Taung baby found by Raymond Dart (A. Africanus)
-Lucy found by Don Johansson (A. Aferensis)
-both were bipedal, Lucy's pelvis was fan shaped, Taung baby's spine/skull was vertical
-Laetoli footprints (Tanzania)
How can you tell if a primate is a quadruped?
blade shaped pelvis, length of the arms and legs (arms are longer than legs), extensor and flexor muscle attachment
How can you tell if a primate is a knuckle walker?
long arms, big knuckles, blade shaped pelvis
How can you tell if a primate uses brachiation?
VERY long arms, blade shaped pelvis
How can you tell if a primate is bipedal?
fan-shaped pelvis, extensor and flexor attachment (big butt), knock-kneed (femurs angle toward the center and fall below the center of gravity), acute angle between the trochanter and iliac crest (where the femur connects to the pelvis), long femoral neck, angle of foramen magnum (spinal hole in the skull)
Bipedal blues
1. chronic back aches (organs are being carried by the pelvis and lower back)
2. complicated birth (big head)
Old Ideas about bipedalism
1. adaptation to dry savanna: predator avoidance because you can see above the grass
PROBLEM: meerkats can see above the grass
2. Temperature regulation and U.V radiation reduction: only the top of your head is exposed to the sun
PROBLEM: the sun comes from all angles, not straight down
3. Frees hands: suggests that something would need to happen in order for hominids to pick things up but thats not how natural selection works
PROBLEM: chimpas and baboons can pick things up
4. Aquatic adaptation: we lived in water and the boyancy of woman's breasts and butt kept babies a float
PROBLEM: there is no evidence that this period ever happened
New Thoughts about bipedalism
1. Generalized locomotion for mosaic environment
-arms=arboreal
-legs=terrestrial
-prolonged running for hunting, to tire out predators that might be chasing you
Evolution of Intelligence in the Late Pliocene
-2.5MYA to 1.8MYA
-Australopithecus (robust): huge molars, heavy skull bones, big brow, jaw, and cheek bones, sagittal crest, nuchal crest, folivores, evolutionary dead end
-homo habilis: flatter face, bigger brain, generalized teeth (fruit, veggies, meat), scavengers, Oldawan tools (choppers found at Oldawai Gorge)
Oldawai Gorge (Tanzania)
littered with remains, tools dating back to the early part of the Late Pliocene--thought to be the earliest tools ever modified by humans (back then)
Evolution of intelligence in Early Pleistocene (1.8MYA to 300,000 YA)
-Homo erectus: nariokotome boy, java man, peking man
-Homo heidelbergensis?: smaller brain, facial differences
-Homo georgicus: early member of a distinct species, looks a lot/behaved like habilis, small brain size, but how did habilis get from africa to georgia?
Homo erectus
-large brain (lower end of modern normal)
-Acheulian hand ax (more sophisticated)
-Fire: to keep warm and social
-Had the brain capacity to use language but we aren't sure if they did
-large game hunting
-out of Africa; used boats or some structure like it to get to islands
Terra Amata Site, France (300 KYA)
shows signs of homo erectus; temporary housing made out of wood in the sand.
Thoughts about intelligence
-intelligence is a matter of kind and amount
-is a large brain necessary to be smart because other species made tools?
developmental acclimatization
parts of the body that adapt to the environment and develop in a certain way
Why do mothers and allomothers take care of the young?
1. Mothers are preprogrammed to love their babies (oxytocin-forms social bonds)
2. Kin selection (shared genes): helping raise a proportion of her genes
3. reciprocal altruism: doing something nice for someone who helped you
**contributes to social intelligence
Men as cooperative providers
-man is a specialized human and provides food (foliage, fruit, insects, nuts, roots, honey, small game, large game)
-these foods are nutrient dense and difficult to harvest which lessens the competition from other species
-men do the hunting and woman have the babies
**contributes to ecological intelligence
Human diversity in the late Pleistocene
(300,000YA-10,000YA)
-Homo Sapiens: refined tools, elaborate painting and carving, ex: Cro Magnon (35,000YA)
-Homo Neandertalensis
Neandertalensis
-Europe, Middle East, North Africa
-robust skeletons, teeth, huge nasal passages
-cold adapted
-occipital bun, large teeth, Mousterian tools, levallois technique, Burial? (Shanidar cave)