Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

16 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the new stone age; prehistoric period beginning about 10,000 years ago in which peoples possessed stone-based technologies and depended on domesticated crops and/or animals
the middle stone age of Europe, Asia, and Africa beginning about 12,000 years ago
archaic cultures
term used to refer to Mesolithic cultures in the Americas
a small blade of flint or similar stone, several of which were hafted together in wooden handles to make tools; widespread in the Mesolithic.
natufian culture
a mesolithic culture living in the lands that are now Israel, Lebanon, and western Syria, between about 12,500 and 10,200 years ago.
an evolutionary process whereby humans modify, either intentionally or unintentionally, the genetic makeup of a population of plants or animals, sometimes to the extent that members of the population are unable to survive and/ore reproduce without human assistance.
the cultivation of domesticated root crops, such as yams and taro.
the region encompassing southern Mexico and northern Central America
cultivation of crops carried out with simple hand tools such as digging sticks or hoes
intensive crop cultivation, employing plows, fertilizers, and/or irrigation
breeding and managing migratory herds of domesticated grazing animals, such as goats, sheep, cattle, llamas, or camels
in anthropology a type of society marked by the presence of cities, social classes, and the state.
bronze age
in the old world, the period marked by the production of tools and ornaments of bronze; began about 5,000 years ago in China and Southwest Asia and about 500 years earlier in Southeast Asia
grave goods
items such as utensils, figurines, and personal possessions, symbolically placed in the grave for the deceased person's use in the afterlife.
hydraulic theory
the theory that explains civilization's emergence as the result of the construction of elaborate irrigation systems, the functioning of which required full-time managers whose control blossomed into the first governing body and elite social class
action theory
the theory that self-serving actions by forceful leaders play a role in civilization's emergence.